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Full text of "Aristophanes Clouds"

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GREEK SERIES FOR COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS 

EDITED 
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF 

HERBERT WEIR SMYTH, Pii.I). 

ELIOT PROFESSOR OF GREEK LITERATURE IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



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ARISTOPHANES 

pA 3 6 7 5- 

CLOUDS ,:f,- 



EDITED 
WITH INTRODUCnON AND NOTES BV 

LEWIS LEAMING FORMAN, Ph.D. 

KUkMEkl.V OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY 



oJ*tc 



AMICRICAN I'.OOK COMTANN' 

XKW vol: Is CINCINNAII ( IIKACO 



Copyright, 1Q15, by 
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 

ALL IIIGHTS RESEKVED 

FOKMAN. CLOUDS. 
W. P. I 



ISABEL 

L. L. F. 



432101 



PREFACE 

The purpose of the two sets of notes will be plain at a 
glance. The first set aims to aid the reader to an under- 
standing of the play in hand, and not distract him unneces- 
sarily with notes on grammar, antiquities, and comparative 
literature. It is the Clouds he is reading and not the 
MahabJiarata or Herrick or Dante. The second set is for 
the maturer student who is studying the Greek language, 
Greek comedy as a whole, Greek philosophy", and Greek 
history. Hence no apology is offered for referring therein 
to such German works as Kiihner's Grammar, to foreign 
philological journals, to Meyer's and Busolt's histories. 
Advanced study of Greek and Latin presupposes knowl- 
edge of German, French, and Italian. The present edi- 
tion of the Clouds will have served its best purpose, if it 
thus introduces the student to these indispensable works 
of large horizons. 

In defence of the modern musical notation herein em- 
ployed to present ancient Greek rhythms, I offer the follow- 
ing considerations: That we cannot teach Greek rhythms 
with certitude is no reason why we should not teach them 
at all. If we teach them at all, we should transcribe 
them by the best system of notation known to us. To 
choose the wholly inadequate notation by _'s and w's, 
when musical notation lies at hand and is universally 

8 



PREFACE 9 

understood, is as if one should prefer to write Greek in 
Cretan pictographs or the Cypriote syllabary. If it be 
urged that we do not know to a certainty, for example, 
whether the Greek ^a dactyl was rhythmized at •'•'3 # or 
J * *, or whether certain cadences were * | * • | ^ | or 
•' I J I J, I ask in reply what difference this mere detail 
makes ? Whether this way or that, the Greek chorus cer- 
tainly all kept together. And so must any modern class 
in Greek drama who will beat off a fine rhythm in unison, 
and in so doing come at least one step nearer to realizing 
that the ancient poets were also musicians, even though 
we have lost their melodies. If then, in a given case, the 
Greeks sang J •* J and we take it as # # *, the error is 
slight ; for both ways are rhythmical, and that is the chief 
feeling to be established in Greek poetry. To refuse to 
rhythmize at all or only vaguely (with _'s and w's) 
because of this doubt in details is as over-cautious as if we 
refused to pronounce Greek aloud because of the uncer- 
tainty attaching to the delivery of Greek accents. This is 
well on the road to Pyrrhonism. 

As for the Weil-Blass-Schroder treatment of Greek 
rhythm, I find that Goodell's Chapters on Greek Metric 
express well (and often) what I had felt cjuile independ- 
ently. See, for example, Goodell, p. 222. To measure a 
ver.se, let us say, as_v-^v^_|v>' — w — l is for me much 
the same as saying that a vessel contains three inches and 
two jiints of water. Metric counts syllables, rhythmic 
counts "times" i^povoi), and not syllables, lioth units of 
measure and both systems may be useful for different 
purposes, but cannot be used together. While the above 



lo ARISTOPHANES 

measuring may be rhythmically delivered, it is true, by a 
trained musician, yet it seems to me not simple enough to 
be ascribed to ancient Greek comedy nor in agreement 
with the ancient accounts of the ^6o<i of rhythms. And 
this I say, though not unacquainted with the rhythms of 
Hungarian and Oriental music. Frankly, I cannot con- 
ceive how Schroder's reading or chanting of the Aris- 
tophanic Cantica would sound. To help the beginner to 
practical delivery, I have marked the lengths of some 
troublesome vowels and syllables in the first six hundred 
lines. 

On the subject once so much debated — the probable 
structure and contents of the Clouds as played in 423 B.C. 
— I have said all I care to say in Ihe final note on 
Hypothesis /3'. One may safely postpone the question, 
along with the origin of language and the squaring of the 
circle, till his wits are too grey to be interested in anything 
but things without end. 

Scholars will find that the text follows closely the 
Ravennas and Vcnctns, inclining to prefer the latter where 
they differ. Those who have not access to the facsimile 
editions of these Mss. should be warned that their read- 
ings are not yet correctly reported ; Blaydes and even 
van Leeuwen still err at times. Only one emendation 
of my own have I ventured to admit, and that a mere 
transposition of verse-ends at 332-333. 



CONTENTS 





PAGE 


List of Illustrations 


12 


Introduction : 




Life of Aristophanes 


• 13 


Aristoplianes the Poet ...... 


. 16 


Contemporary Athens ...... 


17 


Aristophanes the Man ...... 


• 33 


in respect of PoHtics ..... 


. . 36 


Reh^ion ..... 


. 42 


Tlie New Learning . 


. . 48 


Freedom of tlie Comic Spirit .... 


5- 


Conclusions ........ 


• 54 


Remarks on Riivthm 


. . 56 


Argument of the Clouds 


• 75 


Text and Notes ....... 


• 79 


Ai^pendix : 




Abbreviations 


. 221 


Notes on the Introduction ..... 


. 224 


Notes on the Text for Advanced Students . 


. 260 


Creek Inukx . . 


• 343 


English Index 


• 349 



II 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



1 . Frontispiece. Initiation into the Elensinian Mysteries. On 

the right the initiate brings a sacrificial pig and cakes to a 
priest. The latter, holding a plate of poppies in one hand, 
pours, with the other, lustral water from a vase upon the 
pig. Next scene : Kddapai<;, or Purification of the initiate. 
He is seated on a 0p6vo<;, veiled and holding in his left hand 
a torch. Over him, from behind, a priestess holds a win- 
nowing-basket, symbolizing separation of the sinner from 
his sins. Last scene on the left : the mystes is now admitted 
to the cTTOTTTeta or actual vision of Demeter herself. Beside 
her stands Persephone. — From the Bullettino delta Com- 
missione archaeologica comunale di RotJia, Vol. VII (1879), 
Plate 2. See J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of 
Greek Religion'^, 547 f. ; L. R Farnell, Ctdts of the Greek 
States, 3. 238; A. Fairbanks, Greek Religion, 133, and notes 
infra on vv. 250, 254, 260, 267, 322, 436, 462, 466, 635, 729. 

2. /V^aJ7/i-, with a Koppa ; a coin of Corinth. From P Gardner, 

Types of Greek Coins, Plate 3, 26. See v. 23 . . . 85 

3. Knights in Panathenaic Procession ; a bit of the Parthenon 

frieze. From A. Boetticher, Die Akropolis von Athen, 157. 

See V. 69 . . . . . . . . . -91 

4. Poseidon Hippios, with trident ; a coin of Potidaea. From 

P. Gardner, op. cit., Plate 3. 3. See v. 83 . . . . 93 

5. Greek Mirror (KaToirTpov) From Decennial Piiblicatiotis of 

the Univ. of Chicago, First Series, Vol. VI, Plate i. See 

V. 752 .......... 161 

6. Pyrrhic Dance. From E. Beule, V Acropole d''Athenes, Vol. II, 

Plate 4. See v. 988 179 

ABBREVIATIONS 

S., HA., G., and GMT. stand for the Smyth, Hadley-Allen, and 
Goodwin Grammars and Goodwin's Moods and Tenses respectively, and 
references are made to their paragraphs, not to their pages. 

12 



INTRODUCTION 



LIFE OF ARISTOPHANES 

1. Our knowledge of the life of Aristophanes is derived from a 
few short and rather discrepant Greek notices (dignified by the 
name of Vitae) of uncertain date and authority, together with 
some random statements in the scholia to his plays, a few refer- 
ences in Plato, and a few passages in certain of his own comedies, 
some of which, however, are taken by many scholars as relating, 
not to Aristophanes, but to the poet or actor in whose name those 
comedies were produced. 

2. Hence it is that all statements concerning his life must be 
qualified with 2l perhaps, and our highest certitude is reached when 
we write it is probable. The purpose of his several plays, their 
number, the complexion of his politics and religion, even his 
Athenian citizenship are, and for centuries have been, matters of 
contention. 

Thus warned, and allowing ourselves moderate faith in ancient 
veracity and normal probability, we may perhaps believe of Aris- 
tophanes as follows. 

3. Aristophanes, an Athenian of the deme Kydathenaion of the 
tribe Pandionis, was born to his father Philip about 446 h.c. 
From references in his plays to the simple joys of country-life, it 
is pleasant to imagine that his boyhood was passed outside the 
city walls ; but there is no record of such residence, and the in- 
ference is not a necessary one. It has been gathered from a pas- 
sage in Acliarnians that for a time at least he lived, or held land 
by inheritance or allotment (K\r}povxta), in the island of Act^ina. 
But in the opinion of many Aristophanes' words nj)ply to the |)oct 

»3 



14 ARISTOPHANES 

(or actor) Callistratus, in whose name the play was admitted to 
competition, rather than to himself. 

4. His first comedy, the Banqueters (AaiTaAf/?), was brought 
out in the year 427 b.c. and won the secontl prize. Probably 
because of his youth and inexperience he did not himself superin- 
tend its production, as was then the custom of dramatic poets, 
but intrusted it to the above-mentioned Callistratus. 

5. His second play, the Babylonians, was also presented 
"through Callistratus" in 426 at the festival of the City Dionysia, 
an occasion on which annually many ambassadors and visitors 
from the allied cities flocked to Athens on business or pleasure. 
In this comedy, with a young poet's hot hatred of injustice and 
disregard of propriety, he set forth so strongly in the presence of 
these strangers the iniquity of Athens' imperial treatment of her 
allies (as if her Babylonian slaves), that Cleon, the demagogue of 
the day, had "the poet" impeached before the Senate for u'^pi? 
toward people and Senate — but whether the real poet or Callis- 
tratus the nominal poet is still matter of dispute. The outcome 
is unknown. But as democratic Athens prided herself on freedom 
of speech (^TrappTja-Ca) , and granted special latitude at the festival 
seasons of Dionysus, it is probable that the defendant, whichever 
he was, either obtained acquittal or got off with a light fine and a 
friendly warning. At all events, in the next year Aristophanes 
again brings out a play, the Acharnians, and through this same 
Callistratus. 

6. Tradition has it that about this time Aristophanes was 
prosecuted by Cleon on the charge of usurping citizens' rights, 
though in fact an alien. This is rejected by some scholars, ad- 
mitted. by others as probable, and firmly held by van Leeuwen, 
who maintains further that Aristophanes was indeed shown to be 
an alien, and that for this reason he never produced a play in his 
own name after the Knights in 424 — the occasion of the prose- 
cution. The question is hardly capable of final settlement. 

7. To the end of his life, as at first, it is matter of record in 
the hypotheses of several plays that he sometimes intrusted them 



INTRODUCTION 15 

to other poets (or actors) for production. His reasons for this 
are unknown ; they may have been various. 

8. Forty-four plays in all were ascribed to him, though the' 
authorship of four of these was questioned in anticjuity. His 
activity as a composer of comedies extended over the long period 
of forty years. After the production of Pltitus in 388 — the last 
one of those extant — he is said to have composed two more for his 
son Araros, wishing thus to introduce him as a poet to the Athe- 
nian people. His death may be set at about 385 h.c. 

9. He had three sons : Philip (named in accord with Greek 
custom after the grandfather), Araros, and a third whose name is 
uncertain. Of his personal appearance nothing is known save 
that he was bald. Of his ancestors, rank, education, marriage, 
property, personal habits, debts, diary, and love-letters not a syllable 
has come down to us. The ancients cared less for the carbon- 
points of genius than for its light. I'he dross was allowed oblivion. 

For his tomb Plato wrote this epitaph : 

^TjTUiifTal ^V-^lfV rji'fJOl' AfJUTTUffiULVOVi. 

ID. Eleven of his comedies still exist. These, together with the 
first two, are here named in tlie order of their production : 

AuiT(xA.^s (Banqueters) 427 b.c. 

iiafiv\(!)i>Loi ( Piabylonians) . at the Dionysia .... 42C 

'Axtifjvri<: (Acharnians) .... Lenaea .... 425 

'lirnrii (Kquites, Knights) . . . Penaea .... 424 

N£</)€A<xi (Nubes, Clouds) . . . Dionysia .... 423 

!if/)r]«:f? (Vespae, Wasjjs) . . . . Dionysia .... 422 

Ki/jz/i't; ( Pax, Peace) Dionysia .... 421 

'OfjviOe<: (Aves, Hirds) Dionysia \\ \ 

AixriTT^jaTT/ ( Pysistrata) .... Lenaea . . . |m 

("Jc«r//o</)«pia^oiifrui Dionysia . . . pi 

MtiTfjuxoi (kaii.u-, l''rogs; . . . . Penaea .... 405 

'KKKAr^irtri^dirrut 389 or 392 

IlAovTos- (I'liitu-,) 388 



i6 ARISTOPHANES 



ARISTOPHANES THE POET 



11. To say that Aristophanes as poet of comedy measured up 
to his city and his time is as superlative praise as <;an be uttered. 
For he Hved in Athens and at her prime, when more human gen- 
ius seems to have been " released " — as we say of the explosive 
power of dynamite — than at any other period in the world's 
history. 

12. In this judgment of Aristophanes the poet all happily 
agree. From minute students of rhythm, diction, and poetic form 
we hear of his sensitiveness, variety, and mastery; from dra- 
matic critics, of his invention and of the flexibility in his hands of 
the traditional moulds of comedy (parodos, agon, parabasis). 
Lovers of nature and poetic fancy can compare him only with 
Shelley and Shakespeare. His wit has been measured in all the 
semitones of its gamut from sheer buffoonery to lightest innuendo. 
His humour is found to be, not of one vein like that of Rabelais or 
of Mark Twain, but imiversal as Shakespeare's. Pathos he had 
rare occasion to display in comedy ; but whenever touched, it is 
genuine. 

13. His plays and characters alike are as clear-cut in their out- 
lines, leave as distinct an impression on the mind, as Gibraltar or 
an eclipse. Once read, they cannot possibly all fall together or 
fade out into monochrome, as arguments and characters mostly 
do in Plautine comedy. Aristophanes retains too much of the 
flesh and blood of his Athenian originals for that. They are 
Cleon, Socrates, Euripides, that we see before us — a trifle lurid 
indeed in the curious coloured atmosphere of Old Comedy, and 
fantastic as the figures of a puppet-show, yet still quite real and 
breathing. 

14. At the same time, despite their reality, we feel that Aris- 
tophanes is no realist. Behind those caricatures of the demagogue 
Cleon, the philosopher Socrates, the poet Euripides, we see peer- 
ing out the universal Demagogue, the staridardized Charlatan- 
Philosopher (our modern professional " Educator ") and the 



INTRODUCTION 17 

ever recurring Poet of they?;/ de siecle. Aristophanes is, there- 
fore, an idealist and his function high. We are led to prefer the 
good because of the disgust which his satire has inspired within 
us for the bad. Tragedy's office is high in presenting us Heroes ; 
but Comedy's Humbugs offer useful supplementary warning to 
those who would lead a sober and wary life. 

15. We may, then, by common consent set down Aristophanes 
as one of the great poets of the world ; but what are we to think 
of him as a man? Before attempting an answer it will be 
necessary to recall briefly the world and the times in which he 
lived. 

CONTEMPORARY ATHENS 

16. "The one century of Athenian greatness from the expul- 
sion of the Tyrants [the Pisistratids in 508 B.C.] to the defeat of 
Aegospotamos [405 b.c.J is worth millenniums of the life of Egypt 
or Assyria."* In that century Athens essayed the experiment, 
brief but incomparably brilliant, of imperial self-government. 
Aristophanes was born at the climax of her democracy's success, 
reached young manhood at its ticklish turning-point on the death 
of Pericles (429 b.c), and survived by twenty years its huge and 
mournful proved failure, when Lysander levelled the walls of 
Athens to the ground and set up the rule of " the Thirty " 

(403 B.C.). 

1 7. But the character of the tiny Democratic Experiment organ- 
ized by Cieisthenes in Attica 508 n.c. had suffered much change 
before the birth of Aristophanes. To the men of that small dis- 
trict, less than Rhode Island or Cornwall, had fallen tlie chief 
glory of the victory over Persian perils. Under Athens' leader- 
ship the chief Creek cities of the eastern Mediterranean had 
leagued themselves to drive back and keep back that same I'rr 
sian host. The superiority of her fleet was such that most cities 
of this Delian l<'ederation preferred to jxay to Atht-ns a sti|)ulate(l 
sum for performing this duty rather than furnish their own (juota 

* E. A. I'rceiTian, Hist, of l-tdital (j'm'n iini, iif in (,'reeie'', p. 40. 
AKISIOI'IIANKS — 2 



1 8 ARISTOPHANES 

to a federal fleet. These contributions (<f}6poi) poured into Athens' 
coflers more than sufficed for the needs of the League. The sur- 
plus went to the adornment of the city, which the ambition of 
Pericles had determined should be in splendour of soul and body 
the capital city of all Greek peoples anil the ideal of the world 
forevermore. Her own resources from the silver mines of Laurium 
and the gold mines of Mount Pangaeus were enormous. With her 
navy supreme she controlled commerce and forced the payment 
of laggard contributions from the allied cities, which in time fell 
to the status of Athenian subjects. 

i8. And now the sovereign people and their "Olympian" 
leader Pericles became tlrunk with power. They dreamed of 
world-wide empire. To the east lay the Euxine, Caria, Cyprus, 
Egypt ; to the west, Sicily, Etruria, Sardinia, Carthage, and in the 
farthest distance, the Pillars of Hercules. Why not subdue it all 
— the great Midland Sea — and gather tribute for Athens, goddess 
of wisdom and war? Thus content gave place to craving, and 
power begot insolence. Those who had been known as Liberators 
now became Tyrants. — In the midst of this change from the demo- 
cratic to the imperial spirit Aristophanes was born. 

19. But this change of temper and behaviour in Athens wrought 
a change of feeling toward her in the League. Because of her 
oppression, arrogance, and terrible efficiency, most of her friends 
and allies became her jealous and sullen or her active enemies. 
In 431 B.C. came the crisis — the Peloponnesian war, which for 
twenty-seven years wasted the bodies and corrupted the souls of a 
whole generation of Greeks, fighting no longer for freedom and 
civilization against barbarians, but (under the lead of Athens and 
Sparta, the embodied principles of democracy and oligarchy) 
struggling for headship among themselves. A pitiful fall, indeed, 
from the highest plane of battle to the lowest, due to the unmeas- 
ured ambition of one man — the Napoleon of antiquity — to make 
for himself an everlasting name. 

20. But the jjfinciples of democracy and oligarchy divided not 
merely all Greece into two hostile camps ; they divided each city 



INTRODUCTION 19 

against itself. Especially within the walls of Athens were the Few 
" learning by suffering " the violence and weakness, the ignorance 
and arrogance of the Many. With "sycophants " ever hounding 
them, the state ever ready to confiscate their property and judi- 
cially exile or murder them, it is no wonder that the rich and 
oligarchic would have welcomed the overthrow of the Democracy 
and at various times secretly conspired with the enemy, nor on 
the other hand that the dread of this latent treason was never 
absent from the masses. Too often had city gates been opened 
from within to the foe without. — .And this was the salubrious air, 
poisoned with suspicion and sedition, that the poet Aristophanes, 
lover of frank open-heartedness, must breathe during all his life. 

21. And after the war began, there was another split inside 
loyal Democracy itself, not on the constitution, but on the war- 
poHcy. Athens, while easily mistress of the sea, was weak on 
land, hence for many years saw or expected to see, each spring, 
an invasion of her territory by the enemy. The farmers .of Attica 
were thus forced to abandon fields and homes, and live like 
" squatters " within the city, occupying the commons, the sacred 
enclosures, stifling hovels, earthen wine-jars, crannies, or shelving 
suspended from the walls. .Athens the city became a fortress. 
To add to the misery of this quarter-million of crowded humanity, 
the plague came, heaping the streets with corpses and setting loose 
all the demon passions of desperate men. 

Naturally, therefore, the people found themselves split into two 
fierce chief factions — the one for war, the other for peace, the 
w.ir- party urging that the existence of democracy itself no less 
than of its empire was at stake, the peace-party spelling nothing 
but ruin in the continuance of the struggle, and willing to share 
with .Si)arta the headship of the Greek world, as Cimon had 
advised so long ago. — From the midst of this grim huddle of 
plague-stricken vehement debaters the poet Aristophanes, lover of 
the country, must look abroad over desolate fields and felled olive- 
groves, and make merry comedies. 

22. Such were the greater fissures showing themselves most 



20 ARISTOPHANES 

visibly in the solidarity of Hellas at large and Athens in particular 
regarding constitutions and policies. But there were others that 
threatened the integrity of the Athenian state and its ideals even 
more seriously. For these others split up and broke down the 
very character of the citizens themselves. 

23. The ancient city-state (ttoAis) of Greece resembles a 
glacier. Originating in some high and isolated glen, compact and 
homogeneous, its progress for long years imperceptibly slow, the 
greatest dimension and strength of a glacier are seen just as it 
emerges in some suddenly broadening valley. But here opportu- 
nity without and strain within shatter it with rift and crevice later- 
ally and perpendicularly, till it lies in ruins on the plain, though 
alas ! in these latter stages only are its grandeur and iridescent 
beauty at their acme. — And so in Athens the rifts of change 
opening in the seventh and sixth centuries had grown wider after 
the Persian wars, and now, in the time of Aristophanes, were loud- 
cracking chasms. The time for the rainbow colours of its dissolu- 
tion was at hand. 

What these disintegrating changes were must be considered at 
least in part, if we are to understand the Athens of Aristophanes. 

24. First, the solidarity of the old Attic stock was gone. Liter- 
ally, the blood of the folk itself was gradually changing. While 
thousands of citizens were slain in foreign wars, thousands of 
foreigners, on the other hand, were coming to reside in Athens 
and the Piraeus, attracted thither by opportunities of business and 
pleasure alike, as well as by the exceptional ease of obtaining, if 
not citizenship, at least all other privileges. 

There had been, further, a large mixture of foreign blood by 
concubinage with foreign women and slaves. Add to this a large 
slave population of exceptional intelligence and treated with ex- 
ceptional leniency and privilege. This high proportion of foreign 
poplilation to native would have inevitably altered the tone and 
temper of society, even had the blood remained pure and citizen- 
ship been strictly guarded, which was not the case. 

25. Also the spirit of the people was transformed by their 



INTRODUCTION 21 

acquisition of empire, a? has been already noted. Restlessness 
marked all their activities, and during the Peloponnesian war 
cruelty replaced their habitual mildness. 

26. Changed also for the worse was the very ideal and goal of 
their democracy. Pericles, its tyrant, had found it composed of 
self-respecting, self-ruling freemen ; he left it a body of self-seek- 
ing pensioners. For in his ambition to be the chief man of the 
state, he forgot his noble birth and its obligations ; he forgot the 
higher possibilities of his natural eloquence and the lofty philoso- 
phy he learned from Anaxagoras — or rather he made use of these 
advantages to obtain his end. Falling in with the natural trend 
of every democracy, " he gave loose rein to the people and shaped 
his policy to their pleasure " (Plutarch). With Ephialtes he forced 
the ancient court of the Areopagus to yield its chief functions to 
jury-courts. With the pleasing doctrine that a patriot's services 
to his country should be remunerated, he instituted the payment 
of jurymen. With eloquence equally effective he held that the 
people's money must be returned to them — lience free theatre- 
tickets, festivals, and feasts, hence public baths, public i)hysicians, 
public buildings — though it happened that "the people's money" 
was in good part tlie tribute paid in by the subject cities for a 
definite and quite different i)urpose. 

27. It is true that on winning undisputed headship after the 
ostracism of Thucydides the son of Milesias, Pericles himself suf- 
fered a change, and would have restrained the populace from ex- 
cesses had he been able. liut it was too late. Tiie old iilea of 
democracy and of the very function of government in general was 
lost. After Pericles' death it was a question whether the leaders 
led the mob or the mob its leaders. 

28. P>om intercourse with foreign lan<ls innovation was creep- 
ing also into the language of the Athenians, as into their mtxle of 
hfe and dress. 'I'heir fashion in these things became, we are told, 
acomfjositc, gathered impartially from Creeks and barbarians alike. 
Dialect was mixed with diale< t, and nuuli "broken" Athenian 
must have been heard from the lips, not alone of lort-ign nieti<s 



22 ARISTOPHANES 

and slaves, but of citizens returned from wars and residence 
abroad. 

29. In dress, the long linen chiton of Ionia, worn not long 
since by dignified Athenian gentlemen, had given place at last to 
the shorter, business-like chiton of the Dorians ; and democracy 
demanded that all should dress alike — metic, master, and slave. 
So, too, the hair was cut short, and proud topknots fastened with 
golden " grasshoppers " must come down. 

30. At the same time, however, the importation of foreign nov- 
elties and luxuries had set in — cloaks and slippers from Persia, 
salves, fruits, peacocks, ivory, and rascally slaves. And boys went 
to school " bundled up in cloaks," no longer facing the weather 
yvfxvoL, as in the days of Marathon. Simplicity was yielding to dis- 
play, liardy endurance to effeminacy. Life's ideal in Athens was 
perpetual holiday — until the war came. 

31. Perhaps it was also from evil communications that the 
manners of Athens became corrupted ; at least, the older standards 
were passing away. Orators like Cleon could forget dignity of 
bearing and tuck up himation to gesticulate and bawl, yet with no 
loss of prestige in the eyes of Democracy. Outlanders might not 
know how to don the cloak, yet Democracy " did not care." 
Children could snatch at table, "talk back" to their parents, call 
their father " Methuselah," and forget to yield their seats to their 
elders ; yet this was all part of the imperial programme. 

32. In Music too a notable change is going on. It can now 
boast its own hall, the Odeum {'QiSe^ov), built by Pericles. It 
breaks away from its bondage to the words of the ode, and develops 
a florid type both instrumental and vocal, which is beyond the un- 
practised i\ev6epo^ and iSiojtt;?, and requires the professional musi- 
cian or even the virtuoso. Phrynis has " introduced a certain spe- 
cial twist " (iSiov crrpo/SiXov ififiakwv riva), and within a quarter- 
century his pupil Timotheus — after the invention of sinuous vocal 
runs that recall the minute activities of busy ants — will boast of 
leaving Phrynis behind, playing a lyre of eleven strings as against 
the ten of his predecessors. 



INTRODUCTION 23 

33. Thus the whole concern of the art is to tickle the ear and 
nothing more. It has lost its hold upon social life. To sing 
merry songs at a banquet is thought antiquated. If young men 
sing at all, it is not the old songs of Stesichorus, Alcman, or Si- 
monides, but some scandalous thing from Euripides, or a loose ser- 
enade or love song by the popular Gnesippus. Music and morals 
are divorced, to the infinite loss of each. 

34. As for Poetry — the Epic has long since ceased to be a 
living form of expression; the various types of Lyric (hymn, 
threnody, paean, dithyramb) being all fallen together have lost 
character and gone up in floating windy bombast ; the Drama, in 
the hands of Euripides, " bard of legal lingo," has sunk to the 
prose level of daily life in thought and action as well as diction. 

35. The light spongy vacuity of the lyrics of Aristophanes' 
time, it was formerly thought, had been much exaggerated in his 
parodies of them. But in the year 1902 there was discovered in 
Egypt a fragment of a tiome, the Persae, composed by Timotheus, 
the famous contemporary of Aristophanes, which makes it probable 
that the comedian's "parodies" are actual quotations, and his 
"exaggeration" rather an understatement of the incredible insi- 
pidity to which lyric poetry had come. 

36. Tragedy, having the heroic taken out of it, and being 
"humanized " with modern men who argue in Athenian and dress 
in rags, nuist be also made sprightly in movement. Hence the 
dialogue of Euripides' plays is no longer timed to the slow iambic 
trimeter of .\eschylus, with normally twelve syllables to the verse, 
but is hastened to fifteen or eighteen syllables. 

37. Nor does the interest centre longer in the ancient ofttold 
myths now disbelieved, but in the complications of the plot, in the 
psychology of Love, in overcharged scenes of pathos. In fact, 
tragedy, while retaining its outward form, has within been utterly 
transformed, if not de-formed. Whereas it had once excluded 
what of life was not fit for its ideal aim, " the bettering of men," 
it now a Imits the ugly, base, and little along with the rest, as 
all alike belonging to the world of things as they are. It has thus 



24 ARISTOPHANES 

ceased to be religious and has become secular. For the rising 
generation Aeschylus, the "noisy incoherent mouther of big 
phrases," has been dethroned, and Euripides is king. 

38. In brief, poetry had had its day. Song had descended 
from her chariot to walk as prose {we^rj). ( Poetry is an expression 
of feeling poured out at such temperature as to take rhythmic 
form and exercise the selective power of a crystal or other organ- 
ism upon the material presented to it for self-creation. But 
reason, science, intellectualism, knows no such spontaneous 
process. It is analytic, not creative. It lowers temperature below 
poetic heat. If art exists at all after reason ascends the throne, it 
is "Art for art's sake," not for the Heart's sake.) 

39. Also the old Education cracks asunder. Not long ago its 
whole content had been so simple : for the head — reading, writ- 
ing, and counting; for the heart — music and poetry; for the 
body — gymnastic and athletic games; and all these for all alike. 
But now the contestants in athletic games are professional and 
brutalized gymnasts trained by specialized exercises and on special 
diet. The gymnasia are left empty or have become lounging 
places for gossip. The sport of rich young fashionables, such as 
Alcibiades, is horse-racing. As for head and heart, the older train- 
ing is now merely preparatory to the higher " college education " 
imparted by the Sophists, professors of learning, who for high fees 
teach rhetoric, grammar, history, civics, a modicum of science, 
and general excellence (dper?/). 

40. This training will fit young men for public life, forensic 
leadership, imperial statesmanship. They are taught to question, 
reason, debate, subtilize (AeTTToAoyeiv), and make much of nuance ; 
they are taught invention of argument (eupco-i?) ; they must have 
wit to ferret out motives, to argue from probabilities, to strike off 
maxims in alliteration, antithesis, parechesis, to compose moving 
appeals for pity, perorations, proems, and the rest. They hear how 
it is all done in the law courts, the assembly, the market-place, 
even in the tragedies of Euripides, who is master of the art and 
idol of the youthful generation. In a word, there is a brilliant 



INTRODUCTION 25 

first nascence of the intellect, which, repeated in later times in 
Italy, we call the Re-naissance. 

41. Imperial Intellectualism divorced from republican morality 
and simplicity — that is the mark of the age. The exercise of the 
reason becomes the highest function of man. The watchwords 
are Aoyur/xds. aK^ipfi, criVeo-ts (calculation, speculation, comprehen- 
sion). The new ambition is to be esteemed clever (Sctros, a-otfio^, 
Scalds), and witty or elegant (KOfjnf/6<;). The new activity is to 
challenge all statements with a pert tl Aeyet? (what's that?). 
Pericles will spend a whole day debating with Protagoras the cause 
of the death of Epitimus in an athletic contest — was it the javelin 
accidentally hurled, or the thrower of the javelin, or the stewards of 
the game whose carelessness had made the accident possible ? 
The young Alcibiades will argue with his guardian Pericles on the 
definition of Law, and will prove to him that law is but the com- 
pulsion of the stronger i)ut upon the weaker, whether naiucd 
democracy or tyranny. 

42. But all this was for the fewer rich, not for the many poor 
and stupid. Hence came now the great cleft between educated 
and ignorant, which, whenever appearing, isolates near neighbours 
and somewhat de-humanizes society — suspicion (mingled with 
envy and a slight fear) on the one hantl, contempt on the other. 

43. Morals, also, must pass through this fiery furnace of inquis- 
itorial dialectic to come out dc-natured, i.e. de-moralized, or, at 
least, changed. Morals (ra r'lOiKd) are the traditional habits or 
mares of a people which are jtractised unthinkingly by all, taken 
unchallenged, as a matter of course, like air and food. Only when 
confronted with differing habits of other people or with altered 
conditions at home are they suddenly called upon to give the 
countersign. 

44. Athens in Aristoi)hanes' day was demanding the counter- 
sign, the raison <VHre, of every mortal and immortal person and 
thing alike. Nothing was taken for granted. .Agreemenl or dis- 
agreement with tradition was no longer the standard of right and 
wrong. The individual must judge for himself, must follow liis 



26 ARISTOPHANES 

own reason. As in sense-perception, so in morals: "Man the 
measure of all things" ; "as things appear to me, so they are for 
me — as to you, so for you." Euripides' metrical version of this, 
applied to morals, was received in the theatre, we hear, with 
acclamation : 

ri 8 m.(jyj)6v, f)v yu,^ tolctl ^pfu/xivoi'; SoKrj ; 
"What's filth, unless who does it thinks it so?" 

(Browning.) 

45. No, men must Hve, it was argued, according to Nature 
(<f)v<Tf.L), not Convention (Oea-eC). Self-interest was to be the basis 
of the new morality. The aged Cephalus down at Piraeus might 
have lived by the simple rule, " Pay your debts to gods and men 
and tell no lies" — a rule perhaps sufficient for his day. But life 
was more complex now. The existence of the gods was not so 
sure ; and then there were lies and lies — of different colours. As 
for Law — ^ who made it? But no matter, whether by the strong 
Few for the weak Many or the other way, its makers were all now 
dead, and it was made for an ancient world, unlike the present. 
Times had changed ; the Athenians must change with them. 

46. And so they did, here too following the lead of their 
"Olympian." For example, in the matter of divorce : Pericles, 
having taken to wife a divorced woman and " not finding his mar- 
ried life pleasant," as Plutarch tells us, put her away and took up 
with an emancipated woman of the time, Aspasia, famous courte- 
san of Miletus. Also in the wealthy Callias-Hipponicus family 
the morality of the Enlightenment, based on Reason and Nature, 
was found a convenient thing for either divorce or bigamy, as it 
" seemed good " to the individual. Nor was Emancipated Woman 
long in appearing on the stage. Euripides presented her about 
435 B.C. in the person of Phaedra ; but the public was not edu- 
cated to quite such public shamelessness in the sacred precinct of 
Dionysus, and the piece had to be revised. 

47. In embezzlement on the national scale Pericles was again 
leader. When Thucydides, son of Milesias, protested against 



INTRODUCTION 27 

the use of league- funds for Athens' private purposes, it was Peri- 
cles who argued that if Athens furnished the stipulated protection 
to the cities of the League with such economy that there was an 
annual surplus, then that surplus was hers to spend as she would, 
whether in the erection of temples and propylaea, or in providing 
shows and pensions and salaried offices for her citizens. Her 
citizens agreed with the cogent Pericles ; Thucydides was ostra- 
cized for criticizing imperial policy ; and embezzlement, if not 
committed as often as charged, became at least a plausible charge 
from that time on. 

48. Bribery is own sister to embezzlement. And once more 
Pericles is credited with a statesmanlike specimen of it in secretly 
" persuading" the invading Spartan king, Pleistoaiiax, to go else- 
where, rendering account later to the city with the famous phrase, 
"spent for necessary purposes." Certain it is that no charge is 
commoner against public officers than bribe-receiving (8o)/ao-8 klu). 
In 409 B.C. the bribery of a jury was achieved, when Anytus, later 
the chief accuser of Socrates, ])rocured thereby an acquittal for 
himself — the first instance of the kind, if we may trust Aristotle. 

49. In one other highest matter — her Religion — Athens haTl 
to suffer change. Her far-wandering sons had learned strange 
cults abroad, and metic foreigners and slaves had brought with 
them their several outlandish divinities. ".After tlie Persian inva- 
sion came an invasion of foreign gods "— Hyes, Sabazius, Kotytto, 
Bendis, Adonis, ef al. from Thrace, Phrygia, Cyprus, and else- 
where. .At first these unsavoury newcomers were worshipped in 
private circles {Q'uktoi). Their initiatory and other rites, accom- 
panie<l by drum, flute, tambourine, and other apparatus, wt-re. so 
far as is Known, orgiastic and lascivious, and always rt-maincd alii 11 
to the Creek spirit of moderation and order. Vet despite their 
character and the ridiriik- of the comic poets, they obtained some 
degree of i)ubli< re< ognition ami a ronsider:ii)if popularity among 
Athenians of the lower < lass and rich (iihaiulu's, such as .Mcibiades. 

50. Hut two dangrrs threatened the ( )lympian gfxis more -;rave 
than barbarian inroad : decay was laying hold u|)on them from 



28 ARISTOPHANES 

within, and philosophy was dissolving the very foundations upon 
which they stood. 

51. Decay indeed is incidental to all divine ideals formed by 
men. A " twilight of the gods " is ever taking place, that other 
suns may rise. As Cronus by the old myth had yielded to Zeus, so 
in Athens at least Zeus had long since yielded precedence to 
Athena and to the universally popular god of Thrace, Dionysus. 
The festival days of Zeus in the Attic calendar had become in 
Aristophanes' time few and unimportant. His Diasia, Pandia, and 
Diipolia were antiquated and ridiculous as compared with the bril- 
liant and almost secular Panathenaea and especially the dramatic 
festivals of Dionysus, whose blessings indeed could be celebrated 
at any season in private circles. 

52. Yet already the religion of Dionysus, being emotional and 
one of ecstasy, of abnormal frenzy, had gone the way that all such 
religions take — toward mysticism among choicer spirits, toward 
licentious superstition among the grosser. The particular form of 
the Dionysiac cult that ran to these excesses professed to be a 
revelation and claimed as its founder the mythical priestly 
musician of Thrace, Orpheus, who had descended to Hades to 
bring back his wife. (Who could better reveal the mystery of 
"the silent land " ?) Orphism made its appeal as an evangel to 
the individual, not to the tribe or city ; each must save himself. 
(What could be more timely in the days of democracy?) It at- 
tempted a higher re-interpretation of the rude rites freshly imparted 
or handed down (with Greek modification) from Thracian barbarity, 
i.e. they were to be understood symbolically — a well-meaning 
procedure, but full of insidious peril for old ritual. For example, 
it seems to have groped after an ideal of moral purity, symbolized 
by the ceremonial purification of an immersion in mud with sub- 
sequent off-scraping. In its wfjLO(f>uyLu (the eating of the raw flesh 
of the victim) it saw a service commemorative of the fate that 
befell their god Zagreus-Dionysus at the hands of the Titans and a 
symbolic means of becoming one with divinity. In its physical 
abstention from flesh food (originally some taboo of savagery) and 



INTRODUCTION 29 

from other things, as eggs, beans, and woollen shrouds, it probably 
imagined a spiritual abstinence, an ascetic means for gradual sepa- 
ration of the soul from this prison or tomb of the body. 

53. But while symbolism and mysticism for choicer and under- 
standing spirits is a religious aid, it but thickens the darkness for 
beclouded souls. A misunderstood mctaj^hor will reduce any 
matter to chaos. Nor, for beclouded souls, was symbolism the 
only or the most harmful part of Orphism. It aspired in un-Greek 
fashion to dogmatize and furnish a body of doctrine, a creed. Its 
cosmogony began with the creation of the world from Night, 
.whence an Egg, whence Eros, whence in due time all other gods 
and things. Its eschatology pictured a hereafter, wherein all who 
in this life had been initiated by mud bath and other hocus-pocus 
into its mysteries should enjoy an everlasting banquet, while those 
.who had refused such prophylactic means of grace were to lie in 
the darkness of Hades in everlasting mire. But redem])tion 
therefrom could be secured for the dead, if their living relatives 
underwent vicarious purifications. A further pleasant doctrine was 
that by certain magic formulas (KaraSca/xoi) one could enjoy ven- 
geance on his enemies without risk to himself. 

54. All these doctrines, initiations, blessed hereafters, redemp- 
tions, formulas, and also fortune- telling, could be had for small 
fees from any of the mendicant priests, who travelled about with 
their Orphic books from hovel to hall, terrorizing or wheedling the 
credulous with threats or hopes concerning the unknown. Thus 
for the ignorant had the religion of the Olympians suffered inner 
decay and was becoming darkened with rpiaking chtlionian super- 
stition. 

55. And now as to the foe without. In Ionia, a century and a 
half before, there had arisen that universal solvent of religious feel- 
ing (as also ultimately of religious rite), the free interrogatory 
spirit of knowing, i.e. Philosophy. Among the earlier and wiser 
few, even flown to the times of Herodotus and Sophocles, that 
spirit could remain, and did remain, with perhaps few exceptions, 
reverent towirl tr.uliiion.il bi-Iicf. P'or the theories of the first 



30 ARISTOF^HANES 

philosophers on the material of the universe, as water or air, still 
left room for the operation of the gods. The problem of exist- 
ence, it is true, confronted them as grimly and as sphinx-like as it 
did the younger generation. But their rationalism was sober ; 
they did not care for consistency's sake to push it to irrational 
lengths. They had faith that all was well beyond the horizon even 
though unseen. Hence Sophocles and Herodotus, reverent in 
their reasonings, met the sorrows of life and its final day, not with 
the proud scorn of later Stoicism nor with the shrill and rebellious 
outcry of Euripides against Fate, but with the quiet bearing and 
bravery of Leonidas and his gentlemen-heroes at Thermopylae, 
with the unshaken faith of their childhood in divine providence. 
56. But for men born after the Persian wars, when both democ- 
racy and philosophy were widening and meeting, this reverent 
attitude toward the gods was becoming more difficult. The 
theory of a democratic Nature [tiatiira, nascor = <^vcris, ^uw) by 
which all things merely happened or "grew" of themselves, like 
Topsy, was laying claim to ever wider fields of phenomena hitherto 
directly controlled by the regal gods. — For example, lightning, 
once the dread instrument of Zeus for punishing impious boasters 
such as Capaneus and Ajax Oileus, was now more rationally held 
to be due to a merely " natural cause " (whatever that phrase may 
mean), viz. the bursting of a cloud by the enclosed hot air. Again, 
physicians of Cos were now offering treatment of disease based on 
their observation of facts, yet only timidly and as ancillary to that 
of the god Asclepios, who was not so easily to be thrust aside. 
And Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine, born about 460 B.C., 
thought that by study of the rising and setting of the stars a physi- 
cian might know beforehand whether any season would be healthy 
or sickly, and hence strongly recommends the new science of 
jxtTtuypoXoyia. Yet what Athenian did not see that this was invad- 
ing the high domain of Zeus, was searching out his mind and 
dissolving him to nothing? Indeed so far as religion was concerned, 
he was reduced to nothing, not by implication but directly, when 
Diogenes of Apollonia proclaimed " the father of gods and men " 



INTRODUCTION 31 

to be but air or aether. — And these are but a few of the many 
scientific hypotheses on Zeus, the world, and its details, put for- 
ward during this springtime of the human intellect. 

57. Nor were such ideas longer esoteric. Democracy recog- 
nizes no privilege. Not only had Pericles fountl the philosojihy 
of Anaxagoras a valuable political asset, thereby being aided to 
obtain and retain for forty years his leadership of the democracy; 
but any one who wished could buy Anaxagoras' book in the market 
cheap — " for a drachma at the most " — and could read therein 
that'HAtos, to whom old-fashioned folk still said their prayers, was 
a fiery stone and not a god. And in the theatre all could hear in 
the tragedies of Euripides, the " scenic philosopher " and close 
friend of Socrates, an almost wearying repetition of the Diogenes- 
doctrine — the identity of aether and Zeus. And on payment of 
the loo-mina fee one might attend the lectures of the great public 
teacher Protagoras, who on the subject of religion would purse 
his lips to say : " As for the gods I cannot say whether they exist 
or not. The question is obscure, man's life is short." .'\nd Gor- 
gias, the greatest rhetorician of the day, went to the extreme of 
agnostic dogmatism in denying existence to anything; " or grant- 
ing existence, we cannot know it ; or granting knowledge, we 
cannot convey it." Critias indeed, one of the infamous " Thirty," 
professed to explain how belief in the gods had arisen : they had 
been invented by some clever man to frighten bad jjcoplc with, 
scarecrow-fashion. And so now in full chorus against the further 
sway of these bugbear-deities was heard the voice of I )iag()ras 
the atheist, the voice of I'^iripides from the masks of his players, 
the voice of the sophists from their " university " lecture- rooms, the 
voire of the |)hilosophers shielded by the patronage of Pericles. 

58. Thus we see that already the conflict between Religion, 
Superstition, and ])seudo-Science was begun. Orjiliisni Wduld 
sublimate oU\ rites and gods, Phil(;s()|)hy would rliiniiialc ihcm 
altogether. 

59. What, then, was the .Athenian of average intelligence to 
believe concerning these gods with their temples, altars, priests, 



32 ARISTOPHANES 

festivals, soothsayers, and oracles? Was it all delusion and fraud, 
as Diagoras saiti ? Could their divinities be so immoral as 
Xenophanes had bitterly sung? Was their ritual absurd enough 
even for parody, as Alcibiades was reputed to think? Did thunder, 
lightning, drought, and all sudden events come about by " natural 
causes" and not by fiat of Zeus, as the new philosophy taught? 
Should one therefore give it all up? — Or, on the other hand, 
should he join the Orphics in celebrating more ritual and not 
less, if he was to be saved from everlasting mire ? — Or, perhaps, 
the noble and religious- minded Sophocles was nearer the truth in 
vaguely descrying and humbly submitting to one Great Spirit 
rather than to the many gods of elder times. — Or, amid such 
doubts, would it be better after all to stick to their ancient Bov- 
(fiovLa and Aiaaia, even though one did not just know the meaning 
of the foolish rites therein performed? There was Herodotus, 
still a believer in soothsaying — though it must be admitted that 
he was now an old man and hardly abreast of the times. But 
then there was Nicias, so devout as to keep a soothsayer in his 
house — only Nicias was certainly a faint-heart, if not a downright 
coward. At all events, Pericles was modern enough, being patron 
and pupil of the New Learning ; and had not he intrusted an 
important part in the founding of Thurii to Lampon the exegete 
of oracles? Still, Pericles was ... a statesman. Whom coi^/d 
one trust? 

"60." Among all his ties with the past, whether his personal 
childhood-past or his ancestral. Religion is the tie that man 
breaks last. Free of speech as x'\thens was, hospitable as she 
was to foreign cults, rationalized as she had become in dress, diet, 
warfare, art, government, and morals, yet she could not see her 
gods melt into air without protest. Those ancient ideals of Hel- 
las, though entering twilight, were still too bright on the gleaming 
ridge of Olympus to be allowed to fade into utter nothingness. 

61. Hence it was that when Diopeithes the diviner proposed a 
law about 432 B.C. by which summary action could be taken 
against " those who denied the gods or taught theories concerning 



INTRODUCTION 33 

the heavenly bodies," the Athenian people passed it, and within 
the space of one generation, on the charge of impiety in one form 
or another, prosecuted and variously disposed of Phidias, Aspasia, 
Anaxagoras, Protagoras, Diagoras, and Socrates. And Alcibiades 
was recalled from the greatest expedition ever sent out by imperial 
Athens — and to its ruin, be it noted in passing — merely on the 
suspicion that he had been guilty of profiining the Eleusinian 
Mysteries. 

62. And yet in time Alcibiades was forgiven ; and in a lot-drawn 
jury it was only a small majority that condemned Socrates to 
death. — Evidendy in religion, as in all other matters, Athens was 
divided and splintered into fragments. Individualism had arrived. 
Already it had given birth to its " lion," Alcibiades, the noble cul- 
tured Egoist, the powerful, brilliant, de-moralized traitor — and 
Athens knew not what to do with Iiim. 'I'he battle of Lucifer, the 
Uebermensch, versus the State, had begun. Saiive qui pent. 

ARISTOPHANES THE MAN 

63. And now, to return to our earlier question, what of the 
man Aristophanes in this rushing torrent of change ? Does he go 
with it, or withstand it? The chief of all cjuestions concerning 
any man is just tliat — his attitude toward the outer world, his 
reaction u|)on it. Therein we liope to find his inner self. 

64. I?ut Aristojjhaiies' attitude is ])cculiarly difficult to ascer- 
tain. He seems the frankest of inorlals, yc-l in truth for us he is 
concealed behind many masks — that of Oblivion, of the Dio- 
nysiac festival, of ( )ld Comedy, of the characters in his own come- 
dies, th.it which he wore (as every one does) to screen the various 
selves within him from each other, and that finally of i)re-Christian 
paganism. i,et us briefly note these masks. 

65. Oblivion has swept away three fourths of Aristophanes and 
all the forty-one other poets of Old Comedy, save a handful of 
rpiotations and the titles of 275 of tluir plays — a fraction only 
of the whole number produced. j-'rom Ku k of material, there- 

AKIMOIMASKs — J 



34 ARISTOPHANES 

fore, it is impossible to form a competent judgment of the poet 
by comparison with others of his guild. 

66. During the Dionysiac festival, as in the Roman Saturnalia 
or on our own April Fool's day, he who took any word or deed 
seriously did so at his own risk. Drunkenness was the disorder 
of the day, even Plato allowing it in honour of the " god who gave 
wine." The comedians suspended for the moment the law of 
gravity, and all the world stood topsy-turvy. How then are we 
to get at the man Aristophanes for all the other days of the year, 
when all we have left of him are the frolic poet-words of carnival 
days? Appeal "from Philip drunk to Philip sober" is reason- 
able ; but Philip sober in this case is not on record. Hence we 
can only hope that on these days of special licence, when any one 
could insult anybody and pay off old scores with impunity, 
some true words were spoken in jest, and that Philip was not so 
daft as he feigned. 

67. Of the other comic poets fragments enough remain, scanty 
as they are, to show that they all ridiculed much the same things 
and people in much the same dramatic forms, costumes, metres, 
characters, and from quite the same angle of comic and dis- 
torting fancy. This means that the ample mask of Old Comedy 
had a set grimace, a professionalized squint, to which those jovial 
forty-two must have accommodated themselves, and behind which 
they were safely merged. How then we are to fix just Aristoph- 
anes' personal angle of observation through those wry eyes of 
the Comic Muse, is a question in mental triangulation not easy of 
solution. 

68. He enjoys further the concealment of every dramatist who 
speaks by ventriloquism through all his puppets and leaves his 
audience to divine through which puppet it is that he speaks for 
himself. — Probably, too, as a satirist of superlative wit, he re- 
joiced in a greater number of distinct selves than any of the 
versatile Athenians then living, and would have been puzzled him- 
self to introduce us to the true Aristophanes. 

69. But in one r>-'i;ard — the obscenity of his plays — he with 



IN'IRODUCTION 35 

all the world of his time is so effectually removed from us by the 
barrier of lustful paganism, that it is doubtful if any modern who is 
not decadent can fully penetrate to the old feeling, and judge 
without prejudice. 

70. If then this man is hidden behind a shield almost Itttu- 
(iouov, let us not hope to draw him forth at once, but advance 
cautiously, noting by the way what would seem to be the over- 
hasty conclusions of some who have preceded us. 

71. The prime question is the poet's sincerity ; are his words 
at any time the sincere expression of his own views? 

72. The historian Grote, staunch defender of democracy, who 
entertained the mistaken notion that Aristophanes was hostile to 
it, saw in the poet a mere professional jester presenting himself 
" to provoke the laugh, mirthful or spiteful, of the festival crowd 
— assembled for the gratification of these emotions, and not with 
any expectation of serious or reasonable impressions." Others 
again inform us with a knowing look that Aristophanes " was a 
dramatist competing for a prize." 

73. Certainly if we degrade the poet to such levels of motive 
as these, we may drop the search for his true self at once ; for the 
study of a clown's true self is hardly worth while. Rut we cannot 
so degrade him without ignoring history. His facts and judg- 
ments are too abundantly confirmed, barring comic exaggeration, 
by Thucydides, Xenophon, pseudo-Xenophon, Lysias, Plato, .Aris- 
totle, and others. Unless, therefore, we are ready to throw all 
these out of court as partisans or jesters, we must admit that there 
is some gravity even in the gayest farces of our poet. 

74. .Another atta<:k is made ujwn his i)olitical sincerity by 
Couat and Holm. He and his comic brethren, they say, were all 
in the pay of the oligar« hs. and took their "word of command" 
to satirize democracy. — Of all baseless views of Old Comeily, this 
is perhaps the one most obviously so. Old Comedy did indeed 
a.ssail the demagf)gues of democracy from Pericles to C'lcojihon, 
together with their policy of imperialism, war, and self-aggrandize- 
ment. It attacked also the faults U) which dcmo( racy and dc- 



36 ARISTOPHANES 

mocracy's institutions were prone, e.g. its procrastination, its 
fickleness, its litigiousness, the proneness of the ecclesia to follow 
the latest and loudest demagogue, to pass ill-considered decrees 
(il/r]<f>L(TfMTa), to elect to office mere youngsters, to elect as generals 
men of no military fitness, and the proneness of the courts to give 
ear to the "sycophants" and decide by passion. Once, also, 
Aristophanes exclaims at the decadence of polite manners due to 
democracy. But satire of the imperialistic ambition to govern 
others is not an assault upon democracy's ideal of governing itself. 
Advocacy of peace by relinquishing an unjustifiable position is 
not tantamount to the overthrow of the government. Nor is 
criticism of democracy's faults and democracy's demagogues dis- 
loyalty to its principles. A discriminating reader of Aristophanes 
will therefore agree with Whibley that " there is no trace of anti- 
democratic feeling in his works." — It should be further noted 
that the comic poets are impartial in their satire ; if they fleer at 
democracy incidentally, they flout the rich aristocrats and oli- 
garchs as well, both individually and collectively. The idea, 
therefore, that these latter gentlemen salaried two score merry 
jesters for the purpose of ridiculing the democrats only to be 
ridiculed themselves, shows pleasant wit but is hardly a probability. 

75. Admitting, then, with most scholars, that some of the views 
and arguments found in Aristophanes' comedies may have been 
sincerely held by the poet himself, let us next try to discover what 
these are ; and first regarding Government. 

POLITICS 

76. As is well known, his plays are full of praise for the good 
old days of the poised democracy that had won victory at Mara- 
thon, and full of blame and ridicule for the headlong democracy 
that succeeded. Is this Aristophanes' own attitude, and shall we 
then regard him as an old-fashioned conservative democrat? We 
cannot unhesitatingly affirm it; for, since all poets of Old Comedy 
seem to have taken the same position, it is possible that the true 



INTRODUCTION 37 

Aristophanes may be hidden behind the profession's mask. It 
would not do to offend a conservative democratic audience with 
either ohgarchic or radical democratic doctrine. 

77. But were the Athenians indeed conservatively democratic ' 
in the theatre, seeing that in the ecclesia they were radical? 
Croiset has made it fairly probable that they were so. — For the 
country-folk, always conservative, were sure to attend the festivals, 
even though neglecting their civic duties in the ecclesia. The 
townspeople and the rabble of Piraeus might, in the absence of 
the farmers, carry radical measures by heavy majorities on the 
Pnyx ; but in festival time only conservative doctrine could win 
applause. — While it is true, therefore, that Aristophanes, as a 
poet " competing for a prize," may have written to please a con- 
servative audience, though himself a radical ; yet it can hardly 
seem probable, when we reflect on the one hand that through his 
whole life his plays were always for peace and against war, always 
for mild treatment of the allies and against imperialism, always 
for reconciliation between Athenian factions as well as Greek 
states, and against acceptance of Persian gold or Persian alliance, 
and on the other hand that the country-folk were for many years 
of necessity present in the ecclesia (being shut up in Athens), that 
consequently the decrees of the ecclesia were not always those of 
a minority but the expressed will of an absolute majority, that fur- 
ther the policy of that majority was, on the whole, for war and not 
for peace, for imperialistic treatment of the allied cities and not 
for mild treatment, for Persian gold whenever it could be had and 
not for Panhellenism. His plays, therefore, must have often con- 
fronted a hostile audience — a deduction strongly confirmed when 
we observe with what caution, witli what ])reparatory or a<comi)a- 
nying jests, the i)oct delivers himself of some sentiment or argu- 
ment apt to be displeasing to iiis hearers. — If, then, we fmil tiie 
poet taking tlic risk of losing both laugh ;ind prize, we are justified 
in believing that he does so because he is expressing his personal 
convicti(jn and holds tiiat to be more important than tiie winning 
of a|)plause. 



38 ARISTOPHANES 

78. But it is often urged that Aristophanes could not have been 
a democrat at heart, because his whole tone is aristocratic, because 
he never tires of jeering the low fellows, "he base-born, the market- 
loafers, the ignorant, the ill-mannered. This fact, however, — and 
fact it is, — only shows that the poet's ideal of democracy was of 
those other Marathonian days, which did not confuse civil with 
social equality, when sailor-lads knew and obeyed their betters, 
when different social levels respected each other and themselves, 
when to prove himself a democrat a man needed not to forget 
that he was a gentleman. On the other hand, too, our poet is 
as ready to jeer your elegant popinjay as your low fellow ; so 
that he exhibits no partisanship in this respect, excess both ways 
being equally droll. 

79. But again it is urged that Aristophanes was no democrat, 
else would he have shown more bitterness than he does in the 
Ffogs toward the oligarchic conspiracy of 411 B.C., and never 
would he have hinted as he does in the same play (405 k.c.) at the 
advisability of recalling Alcibiades the potential tyrant. As to his 
lack of bitterness against the oligarchs we should observe that 
from Aristophanes, the ceaseless pleader for reconciliation, an 
attack on the oligarchic party, and especially at that time, would 
have been as inept as one upon democracy itself. He has 
his fling at the mis-leaders of both parties alike — Phrynichus, 
Pisander, and Theramenes, no less than Cleon, Hyperbolus, and 
others — in proportion to their known activities; but nowhere 
does he betray party hostility or party adherency. His sole plea is 
for amnesty, harmony, and the election of the best men to leader- 
ship. The famous parabasis of the Frogs, vv. 686-737, because 
of which the play had to be repeated, rises as high above party 
passion and mere jesting as Lincoln's speech at Gettysburg. If 
Aristophanes was insincere and j^artisan, so was Lincoln. 

80. And if in 405 e.g. he suggests the recall of Alcibiades, he is 
not thereby proved recreant to democracy. The crisis had at 
last come. Democracy, having just then insanely put to death its 
generals, was headless and helpless. The choice lay between an 



INTRODUCTION 39 

almost certain Spartan hegemony or a merely possible Athenian 
tyranny under Alcibiades, which latter couUl be sliaken off later 
as other tyrannies had been. Aristophanes intimates his prefer- 
ence for the lesser evil. His hint was not taken ; and shortly 
Athens enjoyed the rule, not of one tyrant, but of the "Thirty," 
under Spartan patronage. So far then from detecting disloyalty 
to democracy in this "jester's" advice, we should see rather a 
token not only of his fidelity but of his rare good sense. 

81. If now we agree to call the poet a conservative democrat, 
shall we go further and see in him a futile reactionary, a " retro- 
grade spirit," as Grote finds all poets of the Old Comedy to be? 
Rather, if we reflect that he stood steadfastly for Panhellenism — a 
federation of all Creek cities based on mutual amity — as against 
the imi)erial despotism of one city over all others, and that the 
only war he thought legitimate was that against Persia ; if we recall 
also that this same doctrine was the theme of later appeals by 
Gorgias and Lysias at Olympia and by Isocrates in his Panegyricus 
and Philippiis, and that later still it was the basis of the involuntary 
union of unfree (ireece under Alexander, we shall be inclined to 
regard the poet not so much a retrograde political spirit as one a 
century in advance of his time. True, the notion of such union 
within against foes without he got from the temporary and partial 
alliance of Salaminian days; but the idea of rounding out and 
perpetuating that alliance under the form of one universal Athenian 
citizenship anticipates the fundamental principle of the Roman 
Empire and marks Aristophanes as a man whose vision was toward 
the future and not the past, and wh(jse jjolitical horizon was so 
vast th It your tanner and lamp-seller politicians seem but pygmies 
at his feet. 

82. But this dream, his detractors say, was that of a " i)oete 
quelque pen chimericiue," his |)olitical wisdom was but sentiment 
and ])rejudice, and even that he uttered too late. — lirief, indeed, 
was his i)olitical creed, but sufficient if applied : Peace, based on 
justice, at home; mild justice toward allies abroad. That was 
what he ?>tr()Ugly insisted upcm. Such, however, was not the |)ro- 



40 ARISTOPHANES 

gramme of imperial Athens. Led by her Cleons, she had become 
sophistic, and was defending the tjttwv Aoyos. The war she 
waged was not in self-defence, but in defence of her empire. — 
Nor was Aristophanes' wisdom offered too late. " It is never too 
late to mend." Despite Pericles' words that it would endanger 
their existence to surrender their " tyranny," Athenian democracy 
could have had peace any day by lowering the flag she had raised 
over others' rights. The wisdom, therefore, of this "jester" (and 
of Thucydides in the Diodotus speech) is forever the highest 
practical politics, and that of Cleon (and of Machiavelli) forever 
folly. 

83. But those who would belittle the political Aristophanes 
have not yet exhausted their ammunition — he should be tested 
by results. " On the general march of politics, philosophy, or 
letters," says Grote, " these composers (of Old Comedy) had little 
influence." Yet it is Grote himself who speaks of the enduring 
effects of the Aristophanic Chnids (materially contributing to the 
condemnation of Socrates twenty-four years after its production) 
as " a striking proof that these comedians were no impotent libel- 
lers." Perhaps it would be wiser to admit that we have not sufifi- 
cient evidence for determining the amount of influence they 
exercised — such question l)eing difficult even for the contempo- 
raries of a man or movement. — Again we learn from Jevons : 
" Comedy is politically sterile. Aristophanes had nearly twenty- 
seven years in which to persuade the people to make peace, but 
his efforts were not crowned with success." Neither, we may 
add, were those of Leonidas and his Spartans at Thermopylae, 
and only seldom those of a man attempting to swim the Niagara 
rapids. These would seem to be instances of numerical or phys- 
ical, rather than of moral disparity between contending forces ; 
and condemnation of the weaker because beaten will not seem 
just to the fair. Be it further noted in passing, that tragedy also 
pleaded for peace (in Euripides' Cresphontes, for example), yet 
was equally " sterile." Perhaps it is the way of democracy to 
pay little heed to its minority and its poets. 



INTRODUCTION 41 

84. Last comes the modern humanitarian, who sees in Aris- 
tophanes an obstructionist, because he did not join Euripides in 
denouncing slavery and the subjection of women, and because 
he had only ridicule for the communistic theories of his day. 
— (i) In slavery, however, Plato, Aristotle, the whole pagan world 
in fact, and centuries of Christianity acquiesced without question. 
In their eyes slavery did not exist by convention {Hiati), but by 
nature (c^va-tL) ; without it society was impracticable and unthink- 
able. Hence Aristophanes cannot fairly be singled out for blame 
if he failed to support the quite novel doctrine of a handful of 
sophists that slavery was wrong. 

85. (2) As for the question of women, the reputation of Eurip- 
ides as their defender, rather than as woman-hater, is still too 
recent to justify a comparison of the two poets to the disadvan- 
tage of the comedian. According to Nestle, one of the latest and 
soberest students of Euripides, that poet's praise and blame of 
women about balance. He shows great sympathy with them, but 
so far from preaching their emancipation, he steadfastly holds 
that they should in all things be submissive to their husbands. 
On the other hand, it is evident in Aristophanes that much of his 
satire at woman's expense is of the stock sort, and cannot be held 
to embody his personal opinion. Nor will it do to cite against 
liim any of the slanders on women found in the Thesmophoria- 
zousae ; for clearly the chief humour of that play lies in formally 
accusing Euripides of misogynism, and then over-trumping him in 
it. Besides, in the poet's whole ridiculous universe, it is no more 
than fair that woman should receive her share of derision. 

86. (3) Finally, for the realization of the sociaHstic lltopias 
of his time, which were not more clearly formulatcii then than 
now, Aristophanes saw that an ecpial divisi(jn of goods or of reve- 
nues from a common fund was not enough ; there must be also 
an equal apixjrtionmciit to men of wits and will, of passions and 
virtues — a matter unhappily lying on the knees of Providence 
and not of human government. In society as in geonietry, if 
equals be added t(j unequals, tlie sums will be niic(|ual ; hence 



42 ARISTOPHANES 

equal wealth distributed among unequal men brings Utopia no 
nearer than it has ever been. Communism in theory, he shows, 
means brotherhood, but in practice works out as egoism, and 
Utopia is ov-TOTTui, nowhere. — Hence, for Aristophanes, poverty 
and wealth were as unalterable factors in society as human wis- 
dom and folly, human virtue and vice. He saw the world, it is 
true, through the coloured glasses of comedy, but he saw no less 
clearly than Thucydides or Montaigne. His brief concrete rediiciio 
ad absurdum in Ecclesiazousae and Plutits of all vague wish- worlds 
of the communistic sort is worth tomes of laboured argument, and 
remains unanswered to this present day. 

87. Thus much for our poet's opinions on state and society. 
Finding him in accord for the most part with those ancient his- 
torians and philosophers whose wisdom we most admire, and 
corroborated by a mass of political and social experience since 
accumulated in the world, it is difficult to see how we can fairly 
set him down as a mere court fool to King Demus, actuated solely 
by the desire to amuse and take the prize. Was he not patriot 
as well as poet? 

RELIGION 

88. What, we may next ask, was Aristophanes' attitude toward 
religion? Here the world will aihnit, if honest, that it stands 
baffled. The poet's visor is down. /He poses as the loyal defender 
of the ancestral faith, the steady opponent of all religious inno- 
vation and foreign gods ; yet his satire of priests, soothsayers, 
oracles, omens, and religious ceremonies has too hearty a tone, is 
too consistently biting, to be mere banter. And it would seem, 
moreover, impossible that an educated man of his period and city 
could hold honestly to the grossness and absurdity of old Greek 
polytheism. 

89. Are we then to believe that his pose as its champion was 
mere comic pretence and grimace, that under comic privilege he 
flouted the state religion, and that, too, in the sacred precinct of 
Dionysus? We cannot think him so abandoned, or, if he were. 



INTRODUCTION • 43 

that the city could have been so ckill as not to catch the drift, or 
if it did, that it could have tolerated more than once an impiety 
going beyond that of the mutilation of the Hermae. 

90. Shall we then believe rather that, while fully aware of the 
superstition, hypocrisy, and even fraud, bound up with the estab- 
lished basic religion of the state, while convinced personally that 
much of that basis was rotten and ridiculous, he nevertheless hon- 
estly believed that for the preservation of the state that basis must 
be maintained, it being impossible to remove foundations without 
danger to the whole structure? In other words, did he believe in 
the belief and its ritual, though not in the thing itself ? This we 
may accept, perhaps, as his true attitude, not only because in 
accord with his general conservatism, but because it is one com- 
mon in all ages among those in official position and among the 
educated. Whether such insincerity differs in quality from that 
-of allowing children to believe in Santa Claus, each will decide 
for himself. Aristophanes, at all events, by remaining among the 
faithful, could satirize the wolves in sheep's clothing, as well as 
the more foolish superstitions of the masses, without danger of 
being charged with impiety. 

91. But, it is said, the very gods themselves did not escape his 
ridicule; Hercules is made a bastard, Hermes washes tripe, and 
even Dionysus, in whose honour the festival was celebrated, receives 
a beating. Nor is Aristophanes alone in his mockery ; all the 
comic poets mocked the gods, and all the people laughed. W'iiut 
is this but utmost levity? How could a city guilty of such impiety 
have ever prosecuted ijhil()so|)hers for impiety? How could such 
a city have had any faith at all? 

92. The traditional explanation of this is undoubtedly the true 
one — that the comic licence of the festival-season was so ample 
as to permit ridicule for the moment even of divinity itself Fully 
to realize how this (an be re<|uires reading in the history of religion 
both before and after Aristophanes, when we learn that from the 
remotest jieriod to the present day there are found, mixed in the 
ritual and licensed in the sacred precinct, on ■special occasions, 



44 ARISTOPHANES 

forms of coarse humour ranging from parody to abuse, scurrility, 
and even obscenity, levelled at the object or deity worshipped, as 
well as at fellow-worshipper and bystander. 

93. This matter is a stone of stumbling for so many and yet 
so important for the unprejudiced understanding of Greek pagan- 
ism that space must here be taken for a mediaeval parallel from 
Christianity as set forth in Thomas Wright's History of Carica- 
ture and Grotesque in Literature and Art (1865), p. 207. 

" Our forefathers in those times were accustomed to form themselves 
into associations or societies of a mirthful character, parodies of 
those of a more serious description, especially ecclesiastical, and 
elected as their officers mock popes, cardinals, archbishops and bishops, 
kings, etc. They held periodical festivals, riotous and licentious carni- 
vals, which were admitted into the churches, and even taken under the 
especial patronage of the clergy, under such tides as ' the feast of fools,' 
' the feast of the ass,' ' the feast of the innocents,' and the like." 

Describing " the feast of fools " as celebrated in the churches, 
he proceeds (p. 210) : 

"These dignitaries were assisted by an equally burlesque and licen- 
tious clergy, who uttered and performed a mixture of follies and im- 
piedes during the church service of the day, which they attended in 
disguises and masquerade dresses. ... On entering the choir, they 
danced and sang licentious songs. The deacons and sub-deacons ate 
black puddings and sausages on the altar while the priest was cele- 
bradng; others played at cards or dice under his eyes; and others 
threw bits of old leather into the censer in order to raise a disagree- 
able smell. After the mass was ended, the people broke out into all 
sorts of riotous behaviour in the church, leaping, dancing, and exhibit- 
ing themselves in indecent postures, and some went so far as to strip 
themselves naked, and in this condition they were drawn through the 
streets with tubs full of ordure and filth, which they threw about at the 
mob. Every now and then they halted, when they exhibited im- 
modest postures and actions, accompanied with songs and speeches 
of the same character. Many of the laity took part in the procession, 
dressed as monks or nuns. These disorders seem to have been car- 
ried to their greatest degree of extravagance during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries." 



INTRODUCTION 45 

94. This quotation — which could be fortified by many others 
— should not only relieve Aristophanes of the charge of impiety, 
glaring as it seems to those of a more spiritual religion; it suggests 
also that we mitigate the condemnation most of us pass involun- 
tarily upon his pervasive obscenity. It is true that decency has 
only recently been born into the world anywhere (and threatens 
already an early death), while obscenity has long flourished un- 
challenged, and in the highest society. But bold as it was in all 
antiquity, it seems nowhere to have been quite so audacious as in 
Old Comedy. Its dominion there can hardly be overstated. It 
is comedy's very breath of life, its only atmosphere, by no means 
redolent of incense. 

95. How is this to be accounted for? Probably as was the 
apparent impiety above ; that is, a special indulgence, or rather, 
in this case, duty was imposed upon obscenity to manifold itself in 
sacred rites. Such had been the custom, time out of mind, in the 
worship of certain other divinities ; such was the especial obliga- 
tion in the case of Dionysus because taking over the worship of 
the Phallus. This latter worship seems well-nigh inexpugnable ; 
ov^v yap olov, as Aristoi)hanes says. In ancient Cireece its rude 
image was carried in procession about the fields to promote fer- 
tility. A song was sung to it, and young and old, slave and free, 
joined in the celebration, as we learn from its parody in Acharnians 
(241-79). Under one name or another (^aA.^s, 'Ep/ut^s, Priapus), 
the god both in Greece and Italy watched over fields, boundaries, 
and ways, was carved over city gates, painted on vases or houses, 
acted as prophylactic against the evil eye, or had his emblem worn 
by comic actors. — Nor was it only for a period and on stated 
occasions that his attendant obscenity invaded the churches of 
Christian Europe. In i)ermanent form it crept into the carvings 
of choir-stalls, pillar-rapitals, crypts, and secret corners of many a 
cathedral, where it is \.o be founfl to this day, imlcss so extreme 
as to have been chiselled out in the interest of |)ublic morality. 
Thus here again we see that the standards of today, recent and 
hardly assured, cannot be applied fairly to anc icnt Athens. Aris- 



46 ARISTOPHANES 

tophanes, measured by the standard even of yesterday, is not 
obscene. 

96. So also must we judge of his vulgarity, buffoonery, and lack 
of humanity. For example, his frankness of reference to the 
humbler operations of our physical being — belching, rumbling of 
intestines, breaking of wind, and the like — offends the refined 
among us ; but to the unrefined even yet an unexpected sally from 
their "little bodies" (o-wjuaTta) is highly comic. And the Athens 
of Aristophanes was as untouched by Preciosite as the England of 
Shakespeare. — As for buffoonery, the proper end of an old com- 
edy — a country-festival come to town — was an orgy, better if 
drunken, such as winds up the Acharnians, Wasps, Peace, Birds, 
Lysistrata, and Ecclesiazousae. Any other finale in the eyes of 
the country-folk was not to the point {o\)^(.v -rrpoi t6v Atowaov, as 
they said of tragedy). They enjoyed hugely the sight of" Her- 
cules cheated of his dinner," but to be themselves defrauded of 
their expected comic dessert was not to their liking. No wonder 
Nubes failed. Comedy without buffoonery was not true to the 
type ; rustic by origin, rustic it should remain. Broad oxa^ijioko-^ia. 
was the heart of it, not virovom, witty innuendo. 

97. Passing to the inhumanity of the poet — it is not so objec- 
tionable when he raises a laugh on some unfortunately ugly person 
in the audience, singling him out by namt- ; for to this day it is 
the one-eye, the squint-eye, the wry-mouth, the bald-head, and 
the hook- nose who occupy the comic stage by nature, suffer most 
from cartoonists, and hear fewest compliments in carnival season. 
In Athens all expected such badinage, and the comic poets pro- 
vided it liberally. — Far more distressing to modern feeling is the 
inhumanity of jeering, not only at the poor, but at the dead. 
Pericles, Cleon, Hyperbolus, Euripides — almost no dead enemy 
escaped. Even the mother of Hyj)erbolus, mourning for her 
murdered son, is not spared a bitter taunt. Here again, however, 
Aristophanes is no better and no worse than the world of his time 
and centuries thereafter. All comic poets ridiculed the poor and 
the dead, and the ears of Athens were no more shocked at it than 



INTRODUCTION 47 

were her eyes at the bodies of executed criminals flung out un- 
buried, or the public slaughter of sacrificial animals at the altar of 
their gods. Sensibility on these matters has much increased, but 
only since day before yesterday. " Tyburn Tree," the public gal- 
lows of London, was still in use in 1783, men are often burned at 
the stake in this country, and the memory of a dead political 
enemy is not always respected. 

98. Here, digressing for a moment, a word of protest might 
be uttered against taking Aristophanes too seriously. It is less of 
a sin against the comic spirit to regard the poet as a fool and 
laugh all the time than to revere him as a moralist and never laugh 
at all. — Editors often report that in a personal revolt from the 
buffoonery and obscenity of Old Comedy he tried to reform it, 
that the people would have none of it, that therefore he returned 
to indecency, but only under protest. They cite what Aristophanes 
himself says about the vulgarity of his competitors and his own 
purity therefrom. — How the comedian woukl rage at hearing his 
saucy wit so misconstrued ! How would he plunge his commen- 
tators into /3o^/io/jos along with Morsimus {Ran. 145 ff.), or 
willingly go there himself to escape their elucidations ! If Aris- 
tophanes really indulged in public self-praise, in public vilification 
of his rivals, in open reproof of his audience because of their 
preference for obscenity, except in the spirit of saucy fun, 
then Mark Twain was serious when he once introduced to an 
audience his fellow lecturer Ceorge Cable as "a man who in his 
one person united all the virtues with all the vices possible to 
human nature; " or when again he introduced (leneral Hawley as 
a personal friend for whom he had the warmest regard, " but as a 
neighbour whose vegetable garden adjoins mine, 1 wat( h him." 
Also we must not (juestion Artemus Ward's veracity in repcjrtingof 
a rival rditor that he was "so ugly he had to get up at one o'clock 
every night to rest his lace." 



48 ARISTOPHANES 

THE NEW LEARNING 

99. Let us next consider Aristophanes' relation to this New 
Learning with its rationalism and individualism. But again we 
are barred from the poet's personal secret ; for it is not his private 
mask, but that of the entire Old Comedy, which we find making a 
very wry face at this newcomer and its books, modern pedagogy, 
contorted music, fustian poetry, triumphant rhetoric, its logic 
proving black is white, and its morality preaching a life " accord- 
ing to Nature." Is it then Aristophanes or the professional poet 
in him, that ridicules the two most conspicuous Athenian teachers 
of the New Thought, Socrates and Euripides, the one nearly to 
the day of his death, the other beyond it? 

100. The answer can be only one of probability, not of cer- 
tainty. In Socrates' case it is not unlikely that Aristophanes felt a 
strong personal antipathy for a man so ugly, dirty, poor, disputa- 
tious, unpoetic, and generally plebeian as that philosopher was ; and 
as for Euripides, Couat is convinced that he is assailed with per- 
sonal hatred by Aristophanes, because " almost no trace remains 
of the attacks of other comic poets upon him," which attacks, had 
they existed, " would without doubt have been gathered by the 
commentators." Add to this the following consideration : if the 
political Aristophanes was brave enough (as we saw he was, § 77) 
to attack Cleon at the height of his popularity and ridicule the 
follies of Democracy to its face, is it not probable that had he felt 
personal sympathy with the new intellectual movement, he would 
have defended it? Yet here too, as in politics and religion, 
though impartially raining satire on all absurd people of whatever 
affinity, it is clear that he lets its heaviest floods fall upon the 
Intellectuals. We may assume then, though not with certainty, 
that in his heart Aristophanes was opposed to them — or rather to 
their busybodiness (TroXvTrpayfioavvrj) among the masses. 

loi. If now he had to find for his comic stage embodiments 
of this intellectual busybodiness in its most ridiculous as well as 
dangerous aspects, what two men in the public eye could he have 



INTRODUCTION 49 

pitched on more to his purpose than Socrates and Euripides — 
the one aheady on the tragic stage, the other forever before the 
people in the marlcet-place and gymnasia, and both busily (but 
absurdly, Aristophanes thinks) trying to teach people unprepared 
for it "to think, consider, and comprehend" {Ran. 957)? Was 
not this thinking-business indeed the very bacillus of their present 
malady, this Innovation-itch, which was ruining their art, educa- 
tion, manners, morals, and religion? 

102. "By their fruits shall ye know them." Aristophanes 
looked at the plays of Euripides and the pupils of Socrates. 
Could anything, in the first place, be more comic and also more 
dangerous to art and society alike than such tragedies? Those 
kings and heroes of ancient myth limping about on Euripidean 
stage in rags, debating with slaves and children " modern prob- 
lems" in modern phrase and legal form — those lovesick mad- 
women warbling out in latest imported operatic solos their doubt 
or denial of the gods, their erotic excuses for ailultery, incest, and 
murder — the piece winding up with a dei/s ex machina to cut 
the knot of an over-ingenious plot, some Gog and Magog effect 
worked from a flying-machine or the roof of the stage-house ! 
Where was either the form or essence of ennobling tragedy in 
that kind of spectacle? Where the teaching that the i)eople had 
the right to expect from their poets? 

103. No, Euripides might be patriotic, tragic, sym])athetir and 
" human," might groan for the woes of the world and be feeling 
after a truer god ; but when he failed to keej) his figures heroic 
in dress, speech, and character, when he forgot pnjpc^rtion and 
dramatic propriety in his love for debate and self-expression and 
novelty, when he fell into mannerisms, and let the chorus fall out 
of the action, and resorted to the machine-god, Aristophanes 
deemed him an inferior artist ; when he allowed his mind to run 
to and dwell on mf)ral disease rather than health, Aristophanes 
pronounced him immoral ; when he brought into <:ontempt the 
gods of the land, while in the very ritual of worshipping them, 
Aristophanes thought him impious. 

AKlsroI'llANKS — 4 



5° 



ARISTOPHANES 



104. It will not do to retort upon the comedian that his own 
comedies were immoral and impious. As already seen (§ 92), 
convention separated sharply the serious part of the religious serv- 
ice, i.e. tragedy dealing with the heroic mythical past, from its 
parody in the comic part presenting an uproarious present. The 
Spafui was not wholly secular yet ; what was mere fun on one 
side of the line was flat impiety on the other. The convention 
might be foolish, but it was there. Life is a masked ball of con- 
ventions ; it is a question whether he who insists on tearing off 
the masks is a wise man or a fool. 

105. Nor will it do to pour out scorn on such hypocrisy, or 
justify open discussion of all subjects at all times (as Euripides 
discussed them) by appealing to the frankness of Nature. Na- 
ture is herself an arch-hypocrite; her most vital functions are 
performed in darkness and mystery. 

106. It is therefore no idle question to ask if Aristophanes was 
not right in his criticism of Euripides — if he did not show the 
larger knowledge of society's realities and limitations — if, at that 
critical period when the plague of innovation was raging as fatally 
as that other physical pestilence, and when the spiritual war was 
a life-and-death matter more truly than the war with Sparta, if, I 
say, it was not Aristophanes rather than Euripides who proved 
himself true friend of society and ordered progress. 

107. And when the caricaturist turned to look upon Socrates 
and his group, what did he find? Why, that he himself was put 
out of business by the reality. A perfect caricature was already 
at hand of those grand foreign professors with their doctors' robes, 
their diction brilliant as their gowns, their high pretension and 
higher tuition, embodied namely in this rotund, noisy, barefoot, 
home-bred " chatterer," who beat the sophists at their own glib 
game, but in a highly comic and topsy-turvy way. If they deliv- 
ered set long speeches, he would rout them by short, quick ques- 
tions. If they were professors of the universe, he was professor 
of — nothing. If they charged high fees, he charged not an obol. 
If they had a reiinue of select admirers, he was followed by a set 



INTRODUCTION 51 

of nondescript adorers. The whole display was upside down. 
Aristophanes in his maddest moments could not improve on so 
daft a burlesque. So for the core of the Clouds he merely trans- 
ported the reality from the market-place to the theatre, retinue 
and all. 

108. Yox the retinue also was picturesque. .Already, in 
423 B.C., it included the /lai/iKos Chaerephon, "cadaverous bat" ; 
and Alcibiades, one of the young nobleman followers, had got a 
name far from enviable by his lawless and dissolute life, and his 
forensic lispings as advocate (crwi/T^yopo;). It was probably abtnit 
this lime that he set upon and severely beat Athens' richest 
citizen, the elderly Hipponicus, for no reason save "for fun" 
(cTTt ye'AojTt). If a disciple of the real Socrates was guilty of such 
outrage as this, .Aristophanes did not much exaggerate when he 
made the pupil of his stage-Socrates beat his own father. And if 
such conduct was to be the outcome of the New Education, the 
poet protested. 

109. Without doubt Socrates and Euripides meant well in try- 
ing to " bring down philosophy from heaven " and tragic heroes 
from their stilts. But .Aristophanes believed, earth not being 
heaven, that heavenly philosophy would not apply to an earthly 
society of underwitted Chaerephons and overwitted Alcibiadeses 
— at least, not at once, not "till kings became philosophers or 
philosophers kings," as Plato thought later. Here again, then, do 
we find that this ccjmedian, who could sink t(j buffoonery at one 
moment and rise to highest poetic flights the next, had a saner 
grip on the eternal facts of human nature than the " human " 
Euri])idcs or the divinely-possesse<l .Socrates. 

I ID. P.ut, it is saifi, Aristophanes is so grossly unfair to Socrates 
in presenting him as a taker of fees and a professor of physics, 
grammar, and artful rhetoric; for he was no sophist. — On this, 
however, we should bear in mind, first, that caricature necessarily 
distorts (like the comic concave mirror), that licence to caricature 
w.\s at the very basis of Old Comedy, that everybody expected it, 
that Socrat s was tnatcd no more " luifairiy " th.ui ("icon, I-'.urip- 



52 ARISTOPHANES 

ides, and the rest ; and secondly, it js by no means certain that 
Socrates felt the same disdain of science in his younger years or 
in middle life that he did when known to Plato and Xenophon in 
his old age. Indeed there is evidence from these two writers that 
the reverse is the truth — that he had at least studied geometry 
and astronomy. Hence the "caricature" of him in 423 b.c, 
when he was but forty-three years of age, may not be so far from 
the original as is commonly supposed. And certainly if we look 
not to the content of sophistic teaching but to its results, i.e. the 
unsettlement of traditional belief, then Socrates was indeed the~^ 
chief of sophists, and Aristophanes did not go far wrong in selecP~ 
ing him as such. 

FREEDOM OF THE COMIC SPIRIT 

III. One other question before we sum up — that of our poet's 
independence of thought and genius. Was his wit free, or sub- 
servient, or merely brainless ? This has been touched on above 
(§§ 77, 88; ioo)> but only by the way. If a general glance be 
now taken over the cross-currents of his satire, at the impartial 
slashes delivered to friend and foe alike when they displeased him, 
we shall see that he was a spirit as free, unbribable, and direct as 
the west wind. In politics, for example (to add to the instances 
given in § 74), whether Pisarxier was democrat or oligarch, he 
was in Aristophanes' eyes a coward and an embezzler. And no 
matter if Euripides was one with him in his scorn of demagogues 
and devotion to democratic Athens, his hatred of war and longing 
for peace, his esteem for the small farmer and the middle class, 
his contempt for rhetoricians and soothsayers, yet being an Inno- 
vator he is to be ridiculed forever. And what if Cleon denounced 
the dilatory Nicias as Aristophanes himself did, and thundered 
against the new rhetoric and the new philosophy, and even him- 
self brought the accusation against Anaxagoras which led to his 
exile, yet this was not to save him from a " mincemeat " doom on 
the comic stage. And should we not expect the poet to be a 



INTRODUCTION 53 

close friend of Euathlus, who accused and secured the exile of 
that other dangerous man, Protagoras? and of Diopeithes, who 
proposed the law which made it possible to prosecute summarily 
atheists and teachers of astronomy (fieTdpaui)? Yet with what 
brief contempt does he refer to Euathlus, and how despicable in 
his eyes is the creature Diopeithes ! 

112. In fact, while praise is rarely on his lips (which is proper, 
of course, since encomium is not comic), yet his satire "sprinkles 
with roses " quite the whole universe. The careful Couat finds 
but three things that escape : the Eleusinian mysteries, the cult of 
the dead, and three gods. If therefore in the Knights he flays 
the corrupt demagogue, he does not forget the imbecility of Demus. 
In the Clouds the rustic incapable of education, honest farmer 
though he is, is no less absurd as a dupe than the mountebank 
philosopher who tricks him, while the gods of both move us to 
equal hilarity. In the Wasps Philocleon is genially ridiculed no 
more as the humble tool and dupe of the demagogues than after 
he has been reformed into an enlightened aristocrat. In Plutus 
the poet drives out Poverty and all are to be happy ever after ; 
but the reign of Plutus in the end is as hilariously unhappy as 
Satan himself could wish. As for the "good old times," to which 
he is commonly said to be blindly devoted, does he not frankly 
enough let us see that after all Aeschylus may have been a bit 
bombastical, and Phrynichus the dancer a trifle of a hii^h kicker, 
and the sailors of Marathonian days a vulgar lot, and nitii of tlie 
old-fashioned stripe, such as Strepsiades, Philocleon, Trygaeus, 
Euelpides, hopelessly bourgeois, and that perhaps the only man 
in the world without reproach and deserving a i)rize was — 
well, some bald-head, •like himself! That is to say, despite his 
pose as a reactionary and his constant <all to lotjk, now on this 
good old j)i( ture and now on that modern bad om-, was he not 
in his heart as free from dehision on this matter as on all others? 
If it is a (juestion of free spirit and keen vision, is there any 
eagle in the (jreek literary heaven quite so free and keen as 
Aristophanes ? 



54 ARISTOPHANES 

CONCLUSIONS 

113. And now at last, having surveyed the poet's times with 
their swift drift of change, and the poet himself opposed to that 
drift, whether in government, religion, art, or education, what shall 
be oupsumming up concerning him? — A great poet he certainly 
was, as admitted by all who are capable of judging ; but was he, 
besides, a statesman or cartoonist — or a mixture of both? Was 
he a philosopher or frivolous — or between? Was he religious or 
a scoffer — or both at once? Could he have told us himself? 

114. What should we say of him, were he to appear in our own 
day and write comedies bearing, for example, (i) in politics, on 
the empire of our democracy over the Philippines against the 
will of the governed, on the activity of our legislators in passing 
\l/r)<t>LcrfjMTa, on our Cleon leaders who build navies and "do things," 
on our intelligent jurymen and swarming lawyers Kpova-TLKol kuI 
dopv/SrjTLKn (E(/. 1379), our tax-dodgers, and our patriotic and 
long-lived pensioners; (2) in industry, on the billionaires vs. the 
wage-earners, the trusts vs. the public ; (3) in religion, on the bank- 
ruptcy of theology, on Christian Science, IngersoU-skeptics, Ethical 
Societies, divided Protestantism, imported Yogis, Occultism, and the 
like ; (4) in poetry, on Swinburne, Whitman, Browning ; and in 
drama, on Shaw and Ibsen with their " modern problems" as old as 
creation ; (5) in music, on sentimental organs, on pianolas, on De 
Bussey and Richard Strauss expressing the inexpressible; (6) in 
manners, on our coatless academic world with its slang and its 
cigarettes; (7) in education on our "all-round (TravoTrrai) " 
teachers of pedagogy, our Educators (o-oc^tora''), simplifie 1 and 
phonetic spelling, j^opularization of Science, Nature Study, Domestic 
Economy, Sanitation, Eugenics, Ph. I). -theses "on the salivary 
glands of the cockroach," Seminar-</>poi/rio-T)7/3ta, et cet. ad 
nauseam ! 

115. Should he express himself on these matters as he did on 
the excesses and eccentricities, the hypocrisies and follies, the 
supernal ambitions and infernal wickednesses of his own times, it 



INTRODUCTION 



30 



is to be hoped that we might agree with the Athenians in holding 
him to be, not only the gay good poet in disheartening days, but 
also a genius of the keenest good sense, a man as " enlightened "' 
as any of his age, yet whose vision was never befogged by sophis- 
try or dazzled by unattainable Utopias, whose art of living was 
grounded on the two great utterances of Greek wisdom — yvltdi 
aavrov and fir]8kv dyav — whose highest utility and efficacy could 
never have been balked save in a decadent age fallen under the 
displeasure of the gods, anii never be questioned save in one too 
wise in its own conceit, too serious in its nonsense. 



REMARKS ON RHYTHM 



1 1 6. Rhythm {f)vdfi6<;, pew) is defined by Aristoxenus (a pupil 
of Aristotle of the 4th century b.c.) as a "definite arrangement of 
times," xpov^v ra^ts a(f>'ji)pt.afjiivr}. These " times " must stand in 
definite proportion to each other, as i : 2, i : 3, i : 4, 3 : 4, etc., if 
the " arrangement " or pattern or ra^ts is to be " definite." These 
time-patterns are independent of absolute time, /.<?. the unit 
assumed may be a ^ second, ^ second, 2 seconds, or what you 
will ; but once assumed, all other " times " in the pattern must be 
proportioned to it. 

117. The art of music has evolved a very perfect notation of 
these time-proportions, the essentials of which are as follows : 
the sign 

indicates a "time" twice the length of one marked ^ 
indicates a " time " 4 times the length of one marked J^ 
indicates a "time" ^ the length of one marked ^ 
indicates a " time " \ the length of one marked <^ 



The above signs ^ , J , J^ ^ and ^ are named respectively 
whole note, half note, quarter note, eighth note, and sixteenth 
note. 

Any of these signs followed by a dot, as J or ^ , indicates a 
" time " ^ longer than that indicated by the same sign undotted. 
The two schemes of equivalents will then be as follows : 

56 



INTRODUCTION 



57 



fJ= 



(I) ^=" 



r •■ 



ei- 1 



( • - 






.15 



o- = ii 



(2) 



J 

J 



/. = 






^ 



2 4 8 16 

1 1 8. By the substitution of equivalents a pattern may be much 
varied, yet is none the less definite, none the less a rhythm. For 
example, the pattern ^ ^ may be varied by substitution of 
J J ^"^ J ^'^ m ^ A' ^ ^^^■' ^^ pattern J j^ by substitution of 



.^.\ etc. 



N \ V 
J J* «•■ 

1 19. These temporal patterns or ro^ei? are as clear-cut and dis- 
tinguishable as are spatial patterns seen, e.g., in wall-paper, land- 
scape gardening, architecture, or geometry. Nor are they confined 
to music. They should be heard in poetry, as the primary ele- 
ment distinguishing it from prose ; and they may be seen by the 
eye in marches, dances, anvil-beating, or indeed any form of 
rhythmical motion. 

120. The means or material at the disposal of the rhythm-maker 
varies — legs and arms in bodily movement, syllables in poetry, 
tones in music. But legs, arms, and syllables are not so tractable as 
the tones of music. They have their own natural length, and must 
be soinewhat forced to be fitted into the rhythmical scheme. 
Hence, just as in mar* hing, short legs must step longer and long 
legs shorter than they naturally do, so in poetry short syllables must 
often be leu'^thened and longs shortened, if rhythm is an " arrange- 
ment of times " and not of syllables — a distinction often forgotten. 



58 ARISTOPHANES 

121. Nor is it only those syllables called in the grammars 
" common " that may be used as either long or short ; all syllables 
in fact are somewhat flexible, as if made of India-rubber, and — 
what is of greatest importance — flexible in both directions, i.e. 
longs may be not only compressed but extended, and shorts not 
only extended but compressed. 

122. First, longs were made longer from at least as early as the 
7th century h.c. in what is called ^daetyWe-^^pentameter " ; e.g. in 
>/ itffico'i K(iiirr]v y 8o/5i» fxaKpov cAwv, the long syllable -inqv must be 
twice the " time " of the other longs (J instead of i), unless 
rhythm is to be, not a " definite arrangement of times," but an 
indefinite de-rangement. Rhythmized as J ^ ^ I ' J I J I 

I ^ j^ I ^ ^ J 1 , the verse is seen to be hexameter; it is 
" pentameter " only for those who have no sense of rhythm and 
can only count syllables. 

Like i)rotraction is heard in English when the child sing-songs 

" The king was i 
• I • • I < 

or in the poem of Robert Browning 
" Kentish Sir Byng 

123. Secondly, shorts were compressed even from the time of 
Homer. A single short vowel could be shortened out of existence, 
leaving no trace on the page save the sign of elision or of aphae- 
resis, or perhaps a changed spelling, as in ko8 hi (= Kara Se), 
afJi/J-i^as (= dva/Ai'^as), TroTva (= Tro'rvta) ; or it could be reduced 
to the time of a mere grace-note (/), the time of which is too 
brief to be calculable. For example, in //. i. 18 vfilv fiev 6f.ol Soicv 

'OkvfXTTLa. etc., the rhythm is J J | J ^'^ J | J ,'^,'^ | J ,i^.^ | 
etc. where the short syllable Ot- is almost timeless in its brevity. 



the 


p - a - a - r- 

1 


lor 

J 


s 
stood 

• 


for his 1 


king 

J. 



INTRODUCTION 59 

The same is true in cases of synezesis, as in noXem, ;(pv(r£ov, IlT^Aea, 

AlyvirTuis. 

124. This being so, it was probably long before Sappho's time 
that musicians and nimble feet and poets began to enliven such a 
rhythm as J j^ | J J^ | J J*"! J •N J J" I ^X ^ saucy extra 
twinkle in the third group thus: J "^^ | I '^\ • j^Jsj 1 J^i 
^ ^ I . In her verse ao-Tcpes fiiv afKfn KaXav acXdvvav, Sappho sets 
words to this rhythm and expects singer or reciter to hasten the 
utterance of -<^i ku-, two short syllables, to the time of one, that is, 
to the time of -re- (in do-repf?), /lAeV, nnd o-e- in the other measures. 

English poetry is full of the same time-reduction of short sylla- 
bles ; e.g. : 

"From sense of injury's self and truth sustained."* 

10 \ \ 0,0 
\> \ , ^ : i ^ ^ M Hi '^ I I 

" I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers 

4 \ \ 0^ 0^ \ \ 4 

From the seas and the streams." 

^ ^ i I ^ ^ I I 

125. This liveliness was rarely tolerated in the iambic trimeter 
of the stalely early tragedy. There is but one instance of it in 
the first fifty verses of .Aeschylus' Prometheus : 

doa/xavT I'vw v huT^iZiv Iv d/j/j7/Krot<; TrtSui?. 

I i; ! ! '^ I 

But comedy brims over with it ; in tiic first fifty verses of Nubes 
there are 29 instances, e.g. v. 50 : 

7rt/jtou(ria?. 

\ \ 

i i\\ Ml 

See also vv. 2, 3 (2), 6, 11, 12, 13 f 2), 14, etc. 

* In this aii'l various fcjllowing examples the verse begins with the fraclinn 
of a measure, and the first syllable must be short, as indicated by the eighth 
(or sixteenth) note. 



ol 


\niV 


Tpuyo? 


Tpumds 


I fj I W V 




1/ 




1 



'^ 1 


\ 


\ 



6o ARISTOPHANES 

Even the trochaic measure, voluble as it is by nature, some- 
times admitted this extra fling, though rarely, as in Ach. 318 : 

VTr\p iTTLqrjvov 'OtXrjcni} Tr]v Ke<j>a\r]v l^wv Xeyeiv. 

^ ' [^ \\ ^ \l \y \\ u \\ ^j^J\ Ml b 






(See W. Christ i/^/r//' 278, Gleditsch AfeM'k 133 f.) 

126. The last quotation exhibits still another freedom allowed 
to brisk song and dance and later to the dialogue-verse of the 
drama, which would have comported ill with the stately dactyls 
and spondees of the epic. These latter always began with a long 
syllable ( J ^ j^ and I I ) ; but trochees and iambs ( I ^ and 
^ J ) were free to substitute for their long syllable the equivalent 
two shorts (J" J" J" for J ^^, and J^^^J^ for J^J). The licence 
was exercised naturally far more in comedy than in tragedy. Only 
two instances of it occur in the first fifty lines of Aeschylus' 
Prometheus, while in the first fifty of Niibes, 15 such " resolutions " 
are found, e.g. v. 14 : 



T O V T O VI TOV v\ 6 V . o 8e 



>ixr}v e ^0) V 



TOWT 


€ a T I 


TOVTL 


TO 


KUKOV 


^ 


J : 


1 ^ 


^ 


^ ^ 


• 


• • 


• 


• • 



v. 26 : 

o fi (ZTroXtoAe/cev. ")" 

; ; / ij / 1 J 

* The sign ^ over or under a note indicates a slight " hold " or protraction 
of the time of the note. For delivery of the long syllables -^riv- and -crw here 
assigned to such protracted short notes, see § 128 infra. 

t Sometimes the anapaest was permitted to scamper " on all fours " 
( ^ ^ I ^ ^ for ^'"^ J** I J ) as in Nub. 916. Even dactyls (perhaps a dozen 
times) have been suspected of like levity. See W. Christ 242, 145; Gleditsch 
127. — For explanation of 1 here, see § 128 infra. 



INTRODUCTION 6i 

And so in English : 

" The crown 

Rolled into light, and turning on its rims 

Fled like a glittering rivulet to the tarn." 

' .'^ .M ^ J" .^ I •'' ^ i J^^J I J 

127. The Greek verses last given bring us to the next important 
consideration. In the art of music we are first drilled to keep 
strict time ; from bar to bar the intervals of time must be always 
equal. This first stage of strict time-keeping corresponds to the 
scansion-stage in the art of reading poetry. But later we learn 
that music, except it be for an ensemble dance or march, is not 
to be held inflexible, but elastic. These measures or time-patterns 
{yjpovwv Ta^ets) must yield a little to some sudden discord or 
modulation or emotion ; they must sway now longer now shorter, 
just as the tones do of which they are composed. The whole 
tonal mass becomes like the sea, each one of whose surging waves 
bears upon it smaller waves and ripples. To this higher stage of 
musical art, with its rhythms springing from within and not held 
rigidly by clock-tick from without, corresponds the truly artistic 
composition and reading of verse, when composer and reader 
alike, while ever feeling the strict time-pattern beneath the verse, 
hold both pattern and syllables pliant, and adjust the necessary 
compromises between them. 

I 28. In Homer's dactylic hexameter we saw that the ra^'is or 
pattern I ^ ^ was rigidly held, only the syllables showing flex- 
ibility. P.ut in trochaic and iambic measures the time-pattern 
itself is tensile ; alternate trochees could take the form J J , 
alternate iambs the form ^ J. The symbol , indicates that the 
" time " -^ is a little retarded or protracted. At these J -jioints 
the usual short syllable could be replaced by a so-called long. 
Yet the long was not dwelt on to its full length — which would 
have stojjjjed the flow nor hastened to the time of a short ; 
but being only a little shortened, and the time-pattern only a 



62 ARISTOPHANES 

little extended, a compromise was effected which, so far from 
offending, was rather pleasing. The licence was so commonly used 
that the double iamb and double trochee with one retarded short 

/[Nil Ml and I I^ I | ^^ came to be felt as the normal 

v«l««l^ ••!••/ 

fierpov, which, twice, thrice, and four times repeated, made verses 

called di- meters, tri-meters, and tetra-meters. See for an example 

V. 5 of JSubes : 

ol S' ol-Ke-Tat piyKovaiv. dXX o v k av irpo tow. 

/T^ iTs ^7\ 

m \ 9 \ P •!• •!• •!• pip 

i( ^ 1 1 u Ij i/ ^ 1 1 '• h ^ ^ I I U IJ 

So in English verse the time-pattern may be varied from the 
perfect regularity of, e.g. : 

"The weight of all the hopes of half the world" 

M* Mr J i r Mr • i r 

by slowing one foot, as in 

"The long brook falling thro' the cloven ravine " 

* I * * \ P etc 

1/ I I • I I 

" Above the broad sweep of the breathless bay " 

I r M 

" And in the stream the long-leav'd flowers weep " 

I r f I 

or by slowing two feet, as in the second of the verses : 

" And neigh and bark and grunt and roar and burn 
Like horse, hound, hog, bear, fire at every turn " 

I r M r M r 

or by slowing three, as in 

" Rocks, caves, lakes, fens, bogs, dens, and shades of death." 

/TN /TN /TN 

U I I III U I I 



INTRODUCTION 63 

Here the rhythm is so (purposely) dragged and distorted as 
hariUy to be recognized by the ear. 

129. If the student intends seriously to practise the art of read- 
ing or declaiming the Greek drama rhythmically, he will perhaps 
do well to begin with iambic trimeters of normal type, containing 
twelve syllables and at times varying the ist, 3d, or 5th short by 

substitution of a pseudo-long (« ), as in Nub. vv. 5, 8, 9, 15, 17, 
18, 31, 36, etc. 

Let him then pass on to those verses in which two shorts are 

compressed into the time of one (j^^'^J), as in vv. 2, 3 (2), 11, 

13 (2), 16, 20 (2), 21 (2), 22, 24 (2), 25, 27, 34, 40, 44, 45, 
50 (3). Next to be taken are those where a long is resolved into 

1 /^I^^M NN,ssjl\ 

two shorts vJI«««i«or0f00|J/, as seen m vv. 32, 

35 ^2), 39, 46 (2) ; after which, those where the resolved two 

shorts are followed by a pseudo-long (^ ), as in vv. 4, 7, 10, 2S, 

Si/ 

T^Ty, 41. Finally let him venture on those presenting two or more 
of these variations at once, as vv. 6, 12, 14, 19, 23, 26, 29, 38, 
49. — For the need of this strict rhythmical drill in order to 
approximate the ancient delivery, see by all means Haigh's Attic 
Theatre''- 308 f. 

130. The manner of delivering the lines of a Greek drama 
varied with the rhythms and metres used, and these again with 
the emotion (real or comically simulated) of the character repre- 
sented as delivering them. 

131. Declaimed Verse. — Unemotional dialogue was written in 
iambic trimeter, and almcjst certainly declaimed as in modt-rn 
drama without musical accompaniment. In cf)medy this unemo- 
tional dialogue did not lift its diction above the level of daily 
speech, except when parodying the grandilo(|uenre of tragedy or 
lyric poetry. In regard also to elision, crasis, hiatus, "(piantity," 
etc., ordinary speech seems to have been closely followed in the 
free and fluent iambics of the comic poets. On these iambics 
sufficient has been already said. 



64 ARISTOPHANES 

132. Chanted Verse. — a'. A higher degree of excitement, with 
a corresponding departure from the common diction of iambic 
trimeter, was expressed in the longer iambic, trochaic, and ana- 
paestic tetrameters and hypermeters (or "systems") — which 
latter are, in fact, not verses, but long passages of continuous 
rhythm written for convenience in Hues of a dimeter each. All 
these verses were probably delivered in chanting or recitative 
style, to the accompaniment of the flute and in strict time, inas- 
much as they were often further accompanied with marching or 
dancing. Examples of these metres and their variations here 
follow : 

132 /3'. Anapaestic Tetramete}- is usually measured by dipodies, 

i.e. ^ ^ I J J J I J = one y-irpov. Spondee and dactyl (J | J 
and J I ^ ^) may be substituted, sometimes a TrpoKeXeva-fiaTLKoi; 
( ^ ^ I ^ ^) ; but the dactyl is rare in the 4th foot, the spon- 
dee rare in the 7th. The verse .ends with a series of two short 

syllables and two longs (^ v^ ). Whether the rhythm of 

these is ^^ j^ | J J | 1 * || or j'j'l J | J || is disputed ; but 
in a long passage the former would seem to be preferable, as 
affording time for breath. A word usually ends at the end of the 
4th anapaest {caesura). Some of the variants are : 

V. .63 .^ J^J .IJ' JU JiJ .1J .^J J I ^ II 
3.8j^/JlJ J^/ JIJ, etc. 

984 JlT J^J Tlljny, etc. 

Verses with two dactyl-substitutes, as in 318, are common (e.g. 
328, 342, 357, 372), those with three occur (353). The only 

instance in Nubes of a dactyl in the 4th foot is in v. 326 (JIJ 

J^lJ ••!• Jl#»)- The only instance in Nubes of 
♦ The sign 1 is an eighth-nute rest. 



INTRODUCTION 65 

caesura neglected at the end of the 4th anapaest is in v. 987. 
The anapaestic tetrameters in this play are vv. 263-74, 291-97, 
314-438, 476-77. 959-1008, 1510. 

132 y'. Anapaestic Hypenneter or "System^' is a tetrameter 
that has run " overmeasure " {virip fierpov) by repeating again and 
again the rhythm of the ist dimeter before finishing (usually) with an 

incomplete (" catalectic," A.T/yw) dimeter (J | J J | j • • I J 

J I 1 jl). The whole makes a huge verse sometimes of over 
30 fxirpa, as in Nubes 439-56. But in long continuous rhythms 
of this sort, which exceed the capacity of most lungs, breathing 
space was sometimes provided by substituting a monometer for 
dimeter — a provision almost necessary if the chorus marched 
while it sang. These great aggregates being regarded as one 
verse, it was only by licence that the poet allowed himself hiatus 
or syllaba anceps at the end of a dimeter, there being in fact no 
more break there than in the middle. — In comedy anapaestic hy- 
permeters most commonly come as a climax to anapaestic tetrame- 
ters. Delivered in one breath, the propriety of the name Tri/iyo? 
for such a monster verse can easily be tested by reading airvf.v<ni 
vv. 439-56 of Nubes. Anapaestic hypermeters in this play are 
from 439 to 456, 711 to 722, 889 to 948, 1009 to 1023. 

132 S '. Iambic Tetrameter. As in trimeter, the \x.irpov is a 

dipody with optional retardation of the first short ( J | J « | J 

for J I J « J). This J J (an apparent spondee ) may 

be further varied to J | ^ ^ (an apparent dactyl _ w w) ; and 
any iamb save the 7th may be rejjlaced by a tribrach ( ^ I J^J**) 
or by _^^| J, which, expressed by \j ^ —, looks like an ana- 
paest, but of course is not. 'i'ho last /xtV/joi/ of the series consists 

of short-long-long with the rhythini* \aluc of » I J. | J ||. 

Caesura, while f :oininf)nly found after the 4th iamb, is rather free 
in its position. Of a\\ rhythms this one is perhaps most clearly 

AKISIOI-IIANKS — 5 



66 ARISTOPHANES 

marked in character. It has a jog-trot swing so vulgar that tragic 

poets never used it. Its normal gait is seen in such verses as 
Nubes 



V. 1034 >\ \ >\ J ,^| J ,^| J ,^| J / 

Some variants are 



SA/ 



--39.^|J /I J ;|J ;|///|J /ijV.MJ.iJ 

\SJ \S^ v^ 

V. 1046 ^^\ \ J^l J, etc. 



V. 


1050 

1063 


• 


• 


/ 


J 

• 


m 


m 


.^^ 


• 


, etc. 
9 •"< 






V. 


1 
• 


;i 


1 
• 


: , 


^ 
p 1 


^ 


J . 



etc. 



Further practice of tribrachs may be had in vv. 1054, 1056, 1057, 
1061 ; of apparent dactyls ( # | # # ) in 1055 (2), 1060, 1068, 

1071 ; of apparent anapaests ( -^-^ | J) i" io5o> 1062, 1066. 
Caesura at end of 4th foot is neglected in vv. 1044, 105 1, 1056, 
1057, 1060, and often. — Iambic tetrameters in this play are 
vv. 1034-84, 1 1 13- 14 (syncopated), 1351-85. i397-i4-44- 

132 e'. Iambic Hyper meter is much like anapaestic hypermeter 
— a long verse formed by repeating many times the rhythm of 
the first half of an iambic tetrameter, then closing with the second 
half and its cadence ,^| J | J ||- In comedy it usually stands 
as a coda to a series of tetrameters, giving the scene a bravura 
finish. In this play such hypermeters run from 1089 to IT04, 
1386 to 1390, 1446 to 1 45 1. 

132 c"'. Trochaic Tetrameter. Its fierpov is a dipody, with op- 
tional retardation of the last short (J « | « J / as preparatory 

to the following dipody. The practical identity of this scheme 
with that of the iambic tetrameter is seen on comparison : 









L\rR( 


JDUCTION 






1' 1 

1 




1 ^| 
1 M 


1 ^ J r 
J ^M J ^^ 


>. 


1 ^l 1 


• 1 m 




J. ij 



67 



Yet the difference in the ^6os or character is considerable. 

The long syllable of any foot may be resolved into two shorts, 
as in vv. 589, 619, 625, 626 ; but this is rare in the 6th foot and 
extremely rare in the 7th, as in 575, 581. If, after two such short 
syllables, there follows a long-for-short at the end of a dipody, the 

secjuence v^ w _ appears to be an anapaest ( ^ J • ) , but its 

rhythmical value is only J J^J |. An apparent dactyl (_ w v^) 

/ ^ N\ . 
for trochee v J m'm') is allowed for intractable proper names and 

sometimes for other words, as e.g. in /1c/i. 318, /t^. 319, yes/>. 496. 
Caesura at the middle of the verse is much neglected in comedy, 
as in vv. 580, 591, 607, 608, 609, 620. — In this play trochaic 
tetrameters arc vv. 575-94, 607-26, 1 1 15-30. 

Trochaic Hypermeters not being found in Nudes are here passed 
over. 

132 ^'. Eiif>oli(lcan. Named from the comic poet Eupolis, this 
rhythm consists of four (li|)0(iies as follows : 



i ^11 UN j! ^ I I II ^11 1/ I I UN ^11 

Hut it is a /lerpoi' irn\v-rr)(r]imTirrTnv, i.e. of many schemes. Not 
to mention all, the isi long syllable in either half may be rcsolvcil, 
as in V. 539 (ipvOpw) ; cither or both short syllables in tin- ist and 
3<1 dipodies may be retarded, i.e. may be rej^laced by longs : 



r jiff ir 55ir' ir rr cir 5ir ■- II 

Further, the first foot in either h.ilf m.iy become • f instead of 
^, as in the isl foot of v. 529, and 5tli of 518, 527, 535. This 



68 ARISTOPHANES 

short may have been dehvered as a grace-note ( \ i V See Ross- 
bach 654 f., 661 bottom, Christ 473. 

Few Eupohdeans are extant. In Nub. they are 518-62. 

133. Song. — As emotion rises still higher, the rhythmic im- 
pulse strengthens, and, while taking up into itself greater com- 
plexity of elements, holds them the more imperiously to strict 
time. The voice then rises from the monotone of chant to the 
many tones of true song. The Spirit of the Crystal is at work 
thr.ough poet and artist. Verses no longer follow each other all 
cast in the same mould. A larger unity has become the purpose 
of the Crystalline Spirit — one embracing many verses, a distich, 
tristich, stanza, or strophe ; the individual verse is but one humble 
element therein. 

The rhythms of the songs in Niihes here follow, §§ 134-43. 

134. Verses 275-90 (w8»7 or arpocf)^) = 298-313 (avT-wSrj or 
avrL-(TTpo(j)TJ) are in the grave dactylic rhythm of ancient song. 
The only verses needing comment are : 

V- 275. J ^ ^'^ I J J^^l J S I ^ 3-measure phrase twice re- 
peated in the next verse (without rests), to form the first musical 
period. 

V. 285. o-eAayeiTat = (prob.) ^ i** I J I ' X I 
v. 286. J j^^!^ j 0, J^\ J I J 5J il forms the cadence of 
the 2d musical period. Or the rhythm may be I '^'j' I I ^^ I 

I M li. ■ 

• • I -"- 1 1 

V. 290. J? J I J ^J^l J /J^l J J II ; or the beginning may 

^^ J I J j^/l ^^^•' ^"^ t^^ ^"^^'"8 .^.^l J \ m ^h See 
Christ Metrik 229, Schmidt Kunstformen 2. ccxxi, Rossbach 113. 

135. Verses 457-75 = 

^'- 7/ ij ; ij / ij ^ I 



• 



^ I I j"^ I I ^ I I ^ I I M J 



INTRODUCTION 69 

-rav J .^ I J .T 1 J .T I J .T I J . I J •> I 

iv I ^ M ^ IJ I I -1 II 



''■'"- l/jl^^iJJ i J .Q"| J J; I J^i I 



— — ^ \^ 

" I I 1" n" 



"^- ij.':i..^ijjij.^!j.jjjxii 

The first musical period in 3-8 time consists of 4 verses, and these 

in turn of 4, 6, 6 and 4 measures respectively, thus forming a sym- 
metric whole. The second period in 2-4 time is made up of two 
phrases repeated in varying order (the so-called dactylo-epitrite 
rhythm), one phrase of two measures' length ( i ^| ' I ), the 
other of three ( J J^ I J J^ ' ). On the symmetric ar- 
rangement of these phrases the student may jjrofitably sjjend 
some time, even if arriving at no certain result. The line-arrange- 
ment of the text is fjuite arbitrary. See Rossbach 489 and 479, 
Schmidt 2. (,(.xxni, (.'hrist 589. 
136. Verses 5 10-5 i 7 : 



ciAA* 



JIJIJIJ JIJ JIJ 






70 



ARISTOPHANES 



.r^ J / J j^ 


• . 


STj J / J. 


J 1 


rrr, 1 1 r=-' 




J .^ J. .rj! 




J ; J J J ; 


J 1 


.rsj J .^ J. 


• 1 







The first musical period, in anapaests, is properly the close of the 
previous scene, as it chants a march-measure for the retiring actors. 
In V. 3 begins the song. See Schmidt 2. ccxxiii, Rossbach 666, 
Christ 482. 

137. Verses 563-74 (wSrf) = 595-606 (dvTwBtj) : 



Vip- 


« . •• • dm m 


1 *i 






z^- 


j.ij J jIJ : 


1 1 






TT/OOJ- 


ITj J /J. 


J ^ 


1 




TOV 


J . • • • •' • • 


^ 


1 - 1 1 1 




y^s 




. 


jTj J .NJ 


J 


Kal 


.rn l.m J"T3 


1 ^ . 
\ M MM 


J. J^ 




Al- 


.rs: rTj ST. 






TOV 


d m^ dd •.•• 


• • 






-XdfJL- 


1 ^ 1 ^ nr 

• • • m d .dm 


•• 






yij's 


J ^rr^ 1 : 


d . 






ev 


J / j-i: J, 


J *^ 







INTRODUCTION 



71 



Believing tlie rhythm J^\ ^ ^ \ J to be the cadence of the period, 
I have written double bars at the end of 3, 5, 7, and 11. In v. 10 
of the antistrophe BdK)(aL<; ( J J^) retards the time of the corre- 
s ponding y?79 7r€- ( '*') in the strophe. Schmidt 2. ccxxiv, Ross- 
bach 667, Christ 482. 

138. Verses 700-05 (wS-q) = 804-13 (dvTwSri) : 



CTTpO- 

Tax 



(yvows 
(tux- 



IJ . «J 






: 



IJ 



1 |j? 

M 1 



/IJ 



• l«.l«.««I« \m . \m 



Taking v. 2 as a mocking echo, perhajjs //V7///W///C', of the last five 
tones of V. i, I close the first period with it, as likewise the second 
period with its reecho in v. 4. For 4>p(.vo<; in 5 of the strojiho, 
the antistrophe has one long syllable cKTr-. The strophe being in- 
complete, the syllables yvov<; and mx- in the above scheme are 
taken from the antistrophe. Schmidt 2. crwv. 
139. Verses 949-58 ((J8»/) = 1024-33 {dvTdohrj) : 

vr. /IJ /IJ. \rri\y i 
'- ^ij:?3ij/ij. ij 
^-r /IJ /IJ. \rri\i. I 

■)"""' IJTi. I J /IJ. I J 



72 



ARISTOPHANES 



.t; 


J. i 


1 r 




• . 


1 M 


1 ^l 


1 




1 


1 ^ 1 


, 




• 


n: . 


1 


m 


1 ^ 

• • 4 


i ;. 


, 




J ;. 


p . • 


1 



afi- 
vvv 
•hv- 



In vv. 5 and 6 of the antistrophe is text-corruption, hence no 
corresponsion. The first syllable in v. 3 of the antistrophe (w?) 
retards the time set by X6y- in the strophe. Schmidt 2. ccxxvii, 
Rossbach 666. 



Verses 1 1 13-14 : 

M I 

TaC- I 

140. Verses 1 154-70 : 

)8o- ^| J ^! J 



I ^| 

• • • I 



;8o- J^ 






I M 1 

J /I J 

M J J"! J . I . 

1 J jj I J .^ 



^ 



;' 



J 



/I J 

M I 



Trpo- 



J 



I M 



J J 

M 



M 1 M I 



INTRODUCTION 73 



xvcr- ^l■^ J h! J ^1 n ' ^ 



m 



ov 



^l n I ^I I ^i n i ^| j 
r, I II I I I I I I 



5- I I n I I n 

V 

<3 ji j^^i-t:^! 

V 

I rn 1 ! ^|l 

h| n I ^| N ^| r, i ,^1 j 

Note the changes in time : in the first four vv. 3-8 time ; in the 
next three 2-4 ; v. 8, 3-8 ; in vv. 9-10 the dochmiac rhythm con- 
sisting of alternate 5-8 and 3-8 measures ; in vv. 1 114, anapaestic 
2-4 time ; finally a 3-8 verse and a dochmiac (16). Schmidt 2. 
ccxxix, Rossbach 305, who gives v. 7 as J | J | J | J | 
! I J I J ' J ^^^ ^^^° Rossbach 803. 
141. Verses 1206-13 : 

qi I 1 rn 1 1 -1 I;? 
^ 1 1 rji I i ^|J 

\0 . \0 » 10 



t"'- 00 0. 0.00 



av- 



- 7 ij .Nj. ij /ij 






*v- : IJ /IJ. IJ j^ij 

x~ / IJ /IJ II 

■'^'- / IJ /IJ /IJ /I J . I J /IJ /IJ. fj 



74 



ARISTOPHANES 



Schmidt 2. ccxxx, Rossbach 305 (but at 741 he inclines to iambic- 
paeonic rhythm, as does Christ 407). 
142. Verses 1303-10 = 131 1-20: 



y€- 



Xrjxl/- 



AvO' 



j^lJ .^IJ .MJ .^IJ .^IJ .nJ 
^l nn 1 1 M i li 

Ml Ml Ml Ml Ml Ml N 



The antistrophe retards the first tone of vv. 3 and 4, and does not 
retard the first of 8. Schmidt 2. ccxxxi. 

143. Verses 1345-50 = 1391-96 : three iambic trimeters sung, 
alternating with three verses in the rhythm -^ J^JJ J J |- 
The first tone may be retarded. Schmidt 2. ccxxxiii, Christ 216, 
Gleditsch 178 {pv0ix6<; TrpocroStuKos). 



ARGUMENT OF THE CLOUDS 

The play opens with a night scene, nearing dawn. Strepsiades 
lies tossing restlessly ; near him his son Pheidippides and the 
slaves, snoring (i-ii). Strepsiades is harassed with debts in- 
curred by this horse-racing and aristocratic son (12-18). He 
begins to count over these debts (18-40). He bewails the day 
that ever he, the plain but well-to-do farmer, married the fine city 
lady of noble family, ])roud and extravagant (41-74). But now 
at last he has found a plan to free himself from his creditors 
(75-77). He wakens his gambling son and begs him to go to 
Socrates' school (78-110), where there are two Arguments, a 
Stronger and a Weaker, the latter always winning, right or wrong. 
This is the one for Strepsiades' jjurpose ; with it he will repudiate 
his debts (111-118). The son refuses to go (119-25). But Strep- 
siades is not cast down ; he will go himself ( 126-32). From the 
Hisciple who admits him he hears wonderful ])roofs of Socrates' 
wisdom and is the more anxious to meet him (133-220). 

Socrates is next descried aloft, a transcendentalist, " treading 
the air" (221-36). He descends, hears the old man's request, 
then matriculates liim by a mysterious initiation (237-62) and 
summr)ns the Clouds, " our divinities" (263-313). After these 
have rome, the neophyte receives instruction concerning them ; 
also how the new god Revolution (AFvos) has su|)planted Zeus 
(314-424;. Strepsiades renounces the old and devotes himself, 
body and soul, to the new (425-56). The ('louds promise him 
grand Success (^457-75), -ind a preliminary examination is held of 
the old man's (apicity. This proves to be (juite w//, but rccpiirt'- 
ments arc waived and he is taken within U) begin his studies 
(478-509). 

75 



76 ARISTOPHANES 

The Parabasis follows — a digression with interspersed hymns, 
wherein (i) the poet reproaches the Athenians saucily for having 
failed to award first prize to his first Clouds (510-62), then (2) the 
Clouds give some political advice (575-94), and deliver a message 
from the moon (607-26). 

Re-enters now Socrates, exacerbated at his unpromising pupil ; 
but he calls him forth to one more trial — with negative results 
(627-93). He then throws him on his own resources — he must 
be original and think for himself. Strepsiades does his best, but 
with truly horrifying issue (694-780). He is expelled (789). 
In extremity he again begs his son to get this higher education 
(814-64). With much reluctance and some impudence toward 
the Professor, young Pheidippides agrees to enter college 
(865-88). 

Before Pheidippides now speak the two Arguments, the Just and 
the Unjust, the one offering him the old education, simple, honest, 
healthy, and virtuous, the other setting forth the alluring modern 
education, gay, frivolous, clever, unscrupulous, irreligious, and 
lecherous (889-1104). Pheidippides chooses the college novelties 
(i 105-14). — During his brief career there, the Clouds, in a 
second digression, promise timely rain for the crops of the judges, 
if they award the prize to them, but floods, hail, and all-night 
storm, if they do not (11 15-30). 

Strepsiades next comes to fetch his son. At first glance Phei- 
dippides is seen to be "disputatious and repudiations " (1165-77), 
and he at once gives proof of it, wielding the Weaker Argument 
in consummate fashion (1178-1200). The overjoyed father takes 
him in to a banquet (1201-12). Enter in turn two creditors — 
easy prey even for Strepsiades' own poor smattering at the Weaker 
Argument. Rid of them, he returns to the banquet (12 14-1302). 

A brief but ominous song from the Clouds, announcing 
imminent Doom (1303-20). 

Doom comes. Strepsiades issues howling, with a broken head 
(132 1). His son has beaten him, and now follows him out still 
further to ply the victorious Weaker Argument. In a set de- 



ARGUMENT 77 

bate, presided over by the Clouds, Pheidippides proves that he is 
right not only to beat his father, but his mother too (i 325-1443) ! ! 
This is too much for the old man (1444-51). He bitterly re- 
proaches the Clouds for misleading him, though admitting he has 
done wrong himself (1452-64). He appeals to his son to help 
him wreak vengeance on that accursed College ; but his son, now 
a young Alumnus, is all for his College (1464-75). Strepsiades 
enlists the aid of Xanthias his slave. Together they mount the 
roof of the <f>povTi(TTr]piov and fire it, occupants and all. Exeunt 
the Clouds (1476-15 11). 



AI'I2T04>AX()T2; 
NEOEAAI 



TnOBESElS 



Ai TrpuJTai Ne<^«Aai iv aarei ' iSiSaxO-qcrav ^ ctti ap)(OVTO'i 'lcrdp)(ov* 
ore KpuTivo? fiev iviKu" TIvtlvi], 'A/Atii/zta? 8e Kovvu). SiOTrep 'Apt- 
(TTO<j)d.vr]<: a.Troppi<f)dtl<i Tru/aaAdyoJS wi^^r; SeZv uva8i8a^at ras Nci^cAus 
Tois SeuTcpas aTrop.ifji<j>eadaL "^ to Biarpov. d7roTv;(tov ^ 8t ttoXv /aoAAoi' 



1. v7ro9^<r€is : in the manuscripts 
of most Greek dramas are found brief 
prefatory notices of the date and cir- 
cumstances of their first production, 
taken from a work now lost, the At- 
8a<TKa\iai, by Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). 
To these are added arguments or 
summaries of the play (iiTro^^a-eis), 
with other miscellaneous informa- 
tion, probably written in part by the 
famous grammarians of Alexandria, 
whose activities date between 300 
and 146 B.C. Of the ten paragraphs 
prefixed to Nubes but two are here 
given. 

2. €v a<rT€i : in to~vn, i.e. in 
Athens at the chief festival of Diony- 
sus, called Aton/(ria to iv darei. (or 
TO. dcTTiKii, or Tcb fieydXa), to distin- 
guish it from the country celebration 
(^AioviKTia TO. Kar dypovi) and the 
Lenaea (to. fVi Aijvafffi). 

3. €8iSdx^6T)o-av : were /a ng A/, i.e. 
to the actors and chorus. 

4. iirX apxovTOs 'I<rdpxov: the 
archonship of Isarchus fell in the 
latter half of 424 B.C., and the first 



half of 423. As the festival came in 
the spring, the play was produced in 
423 B.C. 

5. KpaTivos €v£Ka : Cratinus, now 
an old man, was one of the most 
famous of the earlier comedy writers; 
see n. on § 98, Introd. It was an 
honour to have one's play accepted 
by the archon as one of the three to 
be presented at the state's expense, 
and each of the three poets received 
a prize. But to obtain the third prize 
was to be beaten. As young Aris- 
tophanes had by this time been hon- 
oured for four successive years with 
first or second, it is now contrary to 
his reckoning (irapa\6yois) that he 
finds himself cast aside {diroppi(pdfli) . 

6. dTroiifiJKtkco-Oai : /o 7-ebuke, ex- 
presses purpose after dfa-SiSd^ot (to 
re-exhibit). 

7. diroTvxwv ktI. : if Arist. failed 
far more the next time (iv toTs 
fweira), it must be that his play was 
not even accepted. For that reason 
he did not after all (ovKiri) present 
his revised version (SiaaKfvijv). 



80 



NE^EAAI 



8i 



TikevToIov OTTOV KaLCTUl rf 8uiTpi(3r] '^ 2 



Kol iv rots ^ireira ovk€tl tijv 8uicrKexn]v elarjyayev. ui 8c Sevrepai^ 
Ne^eAai ctti Afietvcov a/j^ovros. 

P' 

TovTo TavTov i(TTi Tcp TTpoTepo), SucTKevaaraL Be i-jrl fiipois o)? av^" 
or] a.V(WLO(i$at p.kv uvto tov voi-qTov TrpoOvfi-qOivTo^, ov/ceVi Se tovto Bi 
TjV TTore alriav 7rot?/o"avTOs. 

KapoAov ■ /i€v oi'v (T^eoov irupa. irav p.€po<; ycyevrjfJiivr] Sidp^oicrt?. 
Ta /x.£v yap irtptfjp-qnu, to. de TrapaveirXeKTut, kuI iv rij Tat«i Kat ev ryy 
Twv TrpoatiiTTWv ouiWayij fJLeTta)(r]fJ.dTL(TTaL, a Se oAoCTvcpovs r^s Sta- 
(TKCv^S TOUivTa ovTu T£Tv;(7;Kev, ai'TLKu fxaXa rj fj.ev irapu/3acn<; ^'^ rov 
^opov iip.€LT7Tai, Kal OTTOV o StKatos Aoyos tt^os tov uBikov AuAei/^ Kui 

2wK/3aTOt>S. 

15. SiaTptPrj : school, a late 
usage. f)ther marks of the post- 
classical date of this passage are 
ainlKCL fidXa = airrlKa, for example, 
and KoX Sttov answering fj-^v in i) fiiv 
wapafiaffis. 

This last paragraph has given rise 
to endless dispute among modern 
scholars, who have attempted to re- 
construct the plot of the first ClouJs, 
e.g. by making Socrates only a physi- 
cal philoso|)her and not also a moral 
corrupter of the youth, and then ilis- 
engaging from the text as it now 
stands those parts that ex hy/'olhesi 
were inserted or substituted in the 
never-completed revision. Kor all 
this one must consult the editions of 
Teuffel-Kaehler (1887) and of Kock 
(1S94) besides endless essays in the 
philological journals. Hut it is seen 
at once that the ilata for final settle- 
n)ent of such (piestions are wanting. 
In recent years philological acutencss 
has turnetl to nmre profitable subjects. 
See 1'. ,Ma/.on. 



8. al 8c ScvTcpai ktI. : this state- 
ment, directly in conflict with the 
preceding and with what follows, is 
best regarded as an addition due to 
some misunderstanding. 

9. TOVTO KT€. : i.e. this present 
drama, as found in the manuscripts. 
But it has been recast in part. 

10. iLs av : with ■irpod\iix-i)6ivTo%. 

11. 81 T]V iroTC alrCav : for some 
cause or other. 

12. Ka66XovKTc. : speaking broadly, 
in nearly every part has correction 
taken place. For some passages have 
been removed, others inserted, and 
changes made in the arrangement 
and in the distribution of the charac- 
ters, while other passages (& = rd) of 
the following sort ha't'e been subjected 
to a cotnplete recasting ; for e.xampU 
{avriKa it.i.\ai) etc. 

13. irapd^o-is : see n. on vv. 510- 
626. 

14. XaXti : post-classical substi- 
tute for \^7£i. Thi' passage referred 
to runs fnjm v. 889 to 1 104. 

AKfSl<)l'IIANI-S — 6 



TA TOT APAMATOS nPOSnnA* 



Stpe^iaahs 

4>EIAinniAH2 
©EPAHQN STPE^IAAOT 
MAeHTAI SiiKPATOTS 
SiiKPATHS 
XOPOS NE*EAfiN2 



AiKAios Aoros 
Aaikos Aoros 

TTA2IA2, Saveiari]^ 
Amtnias, haveicrrri^ 
XAIPE*ftN 

Epmhs 



I . •irpoo-co'ira : masks, lit . faces. 
It has lung been taught that the 
state provided but three acturs for 
a drama, and that the poet had so 
to compose his play that these three 
could present all the characters. So 
Haigh, Attic Theatre^, 252 f. 

But it has recently been made 
almost certain that such limitation 
in the number of actors was unknown 
in Athens in the fifth century B.C.; 
that the changes of costume ren- 
dered necessary thereby would have 
been inartistic and almost impossible 
from lack of time; and that the 
three-actor rule arose only later, 
when troupes of players travelled 

^ ; 

(J 



through Greece and other lands 
presenting their dramas with as little 
expense as possible and practising 
excision if necessary. The fact that 
normally the dramatic dialogue was 
limited to three persons is due there- 
fore, not to economic exigency, but 
to the Greek artistic sense for pro- 
priety and clarity of expression. So 
Dr. Kelley Rees, The So-called Rule 
of Three Actors in the Classical Greek 
Drama (Dissert., Chicago, 1908). 

2. x.op6s v€<)>eXtov : in comedy the 
chorus, or band of singing dancers, 
numbered 24, in tragedy, since the 
time of Sophocles, 15. Haigh, Attic 
7'heatre^, 323 f. 



82 



NE4>EAAI 



2Tp€x|/Ld6-qs 
'lov lov ■ 

6} Vjtv l^acnXev, to ^prjjxa tCjv uvktcou oarov 

a-rrdpavTov. ovhenod' rj/jLepa yevrjcreTaL ; 

KuL jxrjv TToXai y a.\e\Tpv6uo<? rjKovcT iyco- 

ol O oiKerai peyKovcjLv. aW ovk av rrpo tov. 

aTToKoio SrJT', d) TToXe/xe, ttoWcou ovueKa, 

OT ovSe Ko\d(T e^ecrrt /xot rov<; ocKera?. 



At the back of the round op^rj- 
arpa or dancing-place of the cho- 
rus is represented a street with two 
or three houses. (There was 
probably no stage.) In the por- 
tico or irpodvpov of one of these 
houses lies Strcpsiades, near him 
his son Pheidippides and some 
slaves asleep. It is night. 

npoAoros i 262 

The ijrologuc is all that part of 
a drama (8pa/xfi, hpdui) which pre- 
cedes the entrance (7rapo8os) of 
the chorus. It is usually com- 
posed in iambic trimeter. For 
this .see Intrnd. §§ 125 31, HA. 
1091 ff., G. 1658 ff. 

STp€\)/id8Tis : by etymology a 
.scion of the arpc'c/xu tamily, one 



of the McFraud clan, we might say, 
or one of the Dodges or Turners. 

1 . lov lov : /ic/i^/i-Zio ; O dcafy 
O dear ! 

2. TO XP^M'"' '*''■*• ^^"^ fiii^/ii- 
busiiiess — /low loiif^ it is'. It is 
broad day in the theatre, but the 
audience take the hint and imagine 
night. 

4. Kal (t^v : surely. — ly&: 
added bitterly, as he hears the 
slaves snoring (piyKut). 

5. OVK av : almost as common 
as our own ellipse "they wouldn't 
've"C*"'- tppiyxov) '- cj). 108, 154, 
769, 1379. — irpi TOV : before this; 
Tm< in its old dcmonstr. sense. 

6. -iroX-.iroX-. iroX- : a |)etulant 
explosion of p's. 

7. irrw w//tv/, passing into cau- 



83 



84 



APl2TO$ANOY2 



aXX' ovV 6 ^pr](rTo<; ovToal ve ivias 

eyeiperai Trjs vvkto^, dXXa irep^eraL 

iv irivre (Ticrvpat^; iyKeKopSv\r)jjLepo<;. lo 

aXX', ei So/cei, peyKcofxeu iyKeKaXv/j fieuoi. 

dXX' ov ovvapiai SetXato? evoeiv, OaKvopievo^ 

VTTO TTj^ Sd7rdprj<i Krxl TTj^ (l>dTPr)<? koI TOiv )(pea)u 

8td TOVTOPi Tov vlov. 6 8e Kopiqv e^wf 

tTTTrd^erat re /cat ^vvj^piKeveTai 15 

oveipoTToXel 6^ Ittttov? • iycj 8' dTroXXvpat 

bpoiv dyovcrav T'qv creKrjvriv eiKctSa?- 



sal since. With war literally at 
Athens' gates, escape for the slaves 
was easy, hence chastisement had 
to be light. By the year 413 B.C. 
more than 20,000 of them had de- 
serted to the enemy (Thuc. 7. 27). 
8. ov5€ : no more (than the 
slaves) . — XP1*'"''<'s : nice ; ironic. 

10. irevTe : probably a 'Mound " 
number, like our "half-dozen"; 
not lit. " five." — l-y-Ke-KopSuX-q- 
(ji€vos : en-swaddled; a comic and 
scornful partic. formed directly 
from KopSvkrj (/lead-scar/) ; nian- 
tilla-ed. 

11. cl SoKcl: if thai" s the vote, 
the will of the majority. Cp. the 
formula tSo^ev r^ (SovXrj km tw 
Srjixw. 

12. Delivered after fruitless si- 
lence in tragic style ; for Sei'Aatos 
and €v8(D (instead of KuOevBw) are 
extremely rare in prose. 

13. iiTTOTfis 8airdvT]sKT£.: a vari- 
ant from the usual biters. — <j>d,Tvt]s : 



lit. manger; = stall, or stud. 
Note the recurrence of 8 and 779 
in 12 and 13, and the falling apart 
of the three fxerpa in 13. 

14. KojATiv 'i\(i>v : wearing long 
hair — the habit of the aristocratic 
knights and people of quality, 
which came to mean " taking on 
(h)airs," "playing the fine gentle- 
man," as in 545. 

15. Even in war times tTTTTorpo- 
(^ta for the festival races was the 
great passion of the fashionable 
youth. In 416 B.C. their head, 
Alcibiades, entered no less than 
seven four-horse chariots at the 
Olympic games. The single racer 
was called tTTTros KeXrjq, the pair a 
(TvvoipLS (whence ^vviDpiKevo/Mit.) , 
the four-horse chariot a ^eiiyos. 

16. The verse divides in the ex- 
act middle, eyw winning a pathetic 
prominence. 

17. cUdSas : the twenties, the 
days of the month from the 20th 



NE<3>EAAI 



85 



01 yo.p rd/cot \copovcriv. anre, nac, Xv)/vov, 
KaK(f)ep€ TO ypajXfxaTeLOu, iv avayvoj ka/Scov 
OTTOcroL^ 6(^etXfL), Kat koyicrcofjiai tov<; tojcov?. 
(f>€p' LOCO, TL 6(f)eiko) ; ' SojSeKa /xt^ct? llama ' 
Tov 0:)SeKa pva<i TTacrta ; tl i)(prj(Tdpr]i> : 
or iTrpLap-qv top KOTrnariav. olpot ra\a<;, 
elO^ i^eKOTrrjp irporepov tov 6(f)daXpoi' Xido). 



on ; cf. our " teens." They were 
hateful only because they ended in 
the hrj kol veu, which was the day 
for paying interest (tokos). So at 
Rome they had ^' tristes kalendae."' 
Tlie old man evades naming the 
ugly day from dislike of it. just as 
for the opposite reason the lover 
of " Sally in our Alley " plays 
round the name of Sunday in the 
old song : " Of all the days that's 
in the week | 1 dearly love but 
one day. | And that's the day that 
comes betwixt | A Saturday and 
Monday." 

18. x^P**""''- • interest did in- 
deed come on at a sleejjless rale in 
Athens, running from 10 to 36 per 
cent. — fiiTTt : Ui(ht, lit. touch. 
The slave brings lamp and 
ledger. 

21. SiiStKajivas: I2y$l8.00 — 
$216.00. Pasias comes for his 
money later (v. 121 3 IT.). 

22. ToO : for 'iuliat ? a gen. 
of exchange (as in 31), usually 
called gen. of price. t( : inner 



ace. ; ivliat use diet I luake of 
tlieu! ? 

23. Spoken after a pause. — 
KOTTiraTtav : one of the famous 
blooded horses of Corinth, branded 
on the haunch wilh the city's an- 
cient initial letter Koppa ( Vopiv- 
6*05) — the original of our Q. A 




Corinthian coin of the 5th cent, 
li.c. shows the winged horse I'eg- 
asus wilh a 9 benc.ilh him. 

24. <^-«K6irr]v : a pun on kott 
TTdTi'iis- For tli;' iii(li( . with iWi, 
expressing unattainable wish, see 
S. 1176, HA. .S71. (;. 151 I. 



86 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



$ci8nTiri8T|S 
4>tXa)i/, aSt/cet? • eXavve tov cravrov opoyiov. 25 

TOIT e(JTL TOVTL TO KaKOU, 6 fJi OLTToXcoXeKeV- 

oveipoTToikel yatp /cat KaOevOoiv IttttlktJv. 

TTOcrov? Spd/xov? eXa ra TroXepxcrTrjpia ; 
St. e'^ae /xev crv ttoWov^ tov TTorip iXavueL<; S/ad/Liov?. 

oLTap ' TL ^peo9 e/Bd p.e fxeTa tov Xiaaiav ; 3° 

' T/aet? jLti^at St^ptcr/cov /cat Tpo^oZv 'Afivvia.' 
$€. dnaye tov Ittttov e^aXtcra? ot/caSe. 



2t 



$£ 



25. dSiKcls : ="a foul, Philo! ■' 
Dreaming of his race-practice, 
Pheidippides sees his friend cut- 
ting across the course {vTTOTpe)^ei) 

— an unfair and dangerous act. 
Hence — "keep to )our own 
track." 

26. tout£ : a feeling repetition 
of ToDro ; " that's the troulile — 

27. Kal KaOevSuv : e7>e/i when 
asleep ; a comical charge truly, but 
excusable from the sleepless sire. 

— iinriKT|v : sc. Te^yrjv, horsoy 
(like "archery," "cookery ") =///^ 
track, or turf. 

28. Clearly Philo has got pos- 
session of the course and " is going 
to drive his war-chariots {sc. ap- 
fjuiTu) " as many laps (Spo/xou?) as 
he pleases. These TroXeixKTTr'ifjia 
flourished of course on no real field 
of Ijattle at that period ; they were 
but racing cars decked perhaps in 
martial gear. 

29. i\Li : emphatic by reason of 



its form, position, and the following 
fjiiv ( = fj-yv) . — iroWoiis : emphatic 
because separated from and pre- 
ceding its substantive. The line 
is not easy to deliver rhythmically, 
if the logical emphasis beobserved. 

30. In his tragic plight, the old 
man borrows a tragic phrase from 
Euripides; note (i) XP^^'' f^^^bt, 
for the prose form )(pe(D<i indeclin. 
or XP^"^ plural; (2) e/3a — Attic 
e/3r;; (3) the ace. fxe after efia 
without prep. (Cp. "arrive" in 
Shakespeare, e.^. 3 Henry VI 
5.3.8 "have arrived our coast"). 
"What debit hath arrived me ?" 
would be corresponding stilted 
English. ' •". '■■ ^-'- - - %.u>^\c\3'-^ 

31. 8i()>pC(rKov : the light Sil^pos 
or chariot-box of the app-u, item- 
ized apart from the wheels {rpoxoi), 
and unshipped from them when 
not in use (Hom. //. 5. 722). 

32 f. The groom (ittttoko/lios) 
is told to give the horse a good roll 
(i^-aXivSu)) before leading him 



NE^EAAI 



87 



St. dXX , (u /xe'A.', i^rjX.LKa<^ ifx4 y iK tcou i^wv, 
ore KoX Si/ca? a)(f)\r)Ka ^drepoL tokov 
eve^vpacrecrdai (fyacnu. $€. ireou, o) Trarep, 35 

Ti QvaKoXaCveLS kol aTpe<f)eL Ty)v uv^d' o\r)v ; 

St. ooLKuei jxe rt? OTJp.ap'^oq Ik twv cTTpiofxaToiv. 

$€. edcrou^ oj oai/xoz^te, Karaho.pdfjv tl jxe. 

St. (TV o' ovu KoiOevSe ' to. 8e XP^^ Tavr' lctO' ort 

et? TYjP Kecpakrjp anavTa Trju arju Tpe\\ieTai. 4° 

eW^ a)(f)eX' rj TTpopvrjdTpC dnoXecrOai KaKa><;, 
y)TL<^ pe yrjp inrjpe ttjv crrju pr^repa ' 
ipol yap -qu dypoLKo<; ryStcrro? /Sio'i 



home. But in liis own case (e'/iie 
y£) Strcpsiades finds the prep. i$ 
literally true. 

33. Tiov €)iu>v : sc. ^prjfJ.a.Twi' 
property. 

34. ore : causal, as in 7. — 
<<><)>\T)Ka : with h'.Kr\v the verb 
<)<^X.ia KCLVUi (to owe) means to lose 
a suit. — xartpoi. : kill trepot. 

35. €ve)^updo-to-Oai : middle, xi'/// 
^t»/ their surety (ivtx')pa) by levy- 
ing on my property. — iTidv: 
really; an adv. used only in 
questions with roused feeling ; 93, 
820, 1502. 

37. Tis : some sort of — then a 
pau.se before naming this new 
specie.s of insect, the sheriflT (Sry/ti- 
apxo<: — shire-reeve). 

38. ti 8ai|x6vi< : •' my ilriir 
Sir"; a formula iniu h iiscfl m ex 
postulation. 



39. o-u 8' ouv : witii imv. 
gives impatient, unwilling, or 
scornful assent : •' well, well, if you 
must.'" The pronoun rarely seems 
to be emphatic. — kA9(w8« : ".sleep 
oir'.\ note present tense. — tio-O' 
oTi : assuredly ; a clause paren- 
thetic and practically an adverb. 

40. airavra : the whole set of 
thnii. witli postscrijjt emphasis. — 
TT)v o-T|v : ^'our (nvu, also emphatic 
by sep;iration from its substan- 
tive. — 4>€v : alil He falls into 
reverie. 

41- -irpo-iivTJcrTpia : luiitch- 

maker ; from 7rpf>-/xi'fio/A(u to n'ltrt 
for another. 

42. "y^iiai : elided, as /coAafrai 
in 7. iir-^p* : (dtpo)) put ine up 
to — , iiiiiui eti >ite. 

43. 4(iol : emphatic. ";;//;/(• was 
a farm-life most delightful." 



8S 



API2T0<I>AN0Y2 



jSpvcou /xeXtTTat? Kai Trpo^arot? Kat (TTefjL(f)}jXoL';. 45 
eireLT^ €yr]fxa MeyaKXeof? tov Meya/cXeoug 
dSekcpLSrjp dypoLKo^i oiv i^ acrreo)?, 
aepLVTjv^ Tpv(l)(i)aaUy iyKeKoiavpoiixevrfv. 
TavTTjv or eydpiOVVy (rvyKaTeKXlv6fJirji> iyo) 
ot^oiv Tpvy6<i, Tpacnd<;, ipicDP, TrepLovaias, 5° 

Tf o av jxvpov, KpoKov, KaTayKcoTTicrixaTcou, 
oandvqf;, Xa<f)vyixoVy KwXtctoo?, Fe^'eTuXXtoo?. 
44 f. might be a picture of the §§ 39, 62, 108), that Arist. quite 



farm and deserted monastery of 
Kaesariani to be seen at the pres- 
ent day perched on tlie rugged side 
of Mt. Hymettus overlooking 
Athens. — eipws is mould, decay ; 
evpwTLau) to inoitlder. — d-KopiiTos : 
u)i kempt, rude; Kopewto sweep. — 
Ppvwv : teeming, bursting; a poetic 
word = prose opyaco. — to a-Tifx- 
<l)vXov is pressed o/ive cake. 

46. To marry ///^ niece of Meg- 
acles i/ie son of Megacles was to 
marry " the daughter of a hundred 
earls." The family, under the 
name Alcmaeonidae, had been 
celebrated from before the time of 
Solon and Draco, antedating all the 
tyrants and producing (or allying 
to itself) such men as Pisistratus, 
Cleisthenes, and Pericles. At this 
very time a Megacles appears in 
the inscriptions as -ypa/XjUaTeiJ? to 
the Treasurers of the Sacred 
Monies (428/7 B.C. ) ; and the 
youngest scion Alcibiades has 
alrrady such a record (Inlrod. 



naturally names this house, from 
which to draw his young horse- 
racing hero Pheidippides. 

47. The contrasts are juxta- 
posed. 

48. tY-K€-Koi<rvpw-|At'viiv : be- 
Fompadoured. Coisyra seems to 
be the name of some grand dame, 
some Madame Pompadour, of 
earlier times, probably of this same 
family. Cp. the word-formation 
with that in 10. 

49. €-yto : emphat. position, as 
in 4. The contrast comes in 51. 

50 ff. The metrical feet fall 
apart (Si-atpecrt?) as he slowly 
numbers the odours; thrice we 
hear the rhythm ^ J* . His mem- 
ories waken echoes in the words 
(^Tp- Tp-, -a<; -a?, -ov -ov, -80s -8os). 
" Smelling of lees, pigs, fleece, 
and ease '" is not literal but gives 
the tone. — Kara-YXtoT. : billings 
and cooings. 

52. Xa<{>v-Y(j.ov : gluttony ; Xa- 
<f>v(T(r<ti to devour, gorge. — Colias 



NE4>EAAI 



89 



ov fJLTju ipcj y 0)5 apyo? y)v, dXX' icnrdOa. 
iyo) o' at' avrr) dolfxaTiov SeiKvijq roSt 
Trp6(f)oicnu €(f)a(TKov, ' co yvt-at, Xtat- cnraOa<s-* 



55 



GcpaTTcav 

eXatot' T^jLttt' ou/c evecxT iv to. \v)(i'(p. 
St. otfxoL • TL yap p.01 tov rroTrju ■^ttt(.<; Xv^vov , 

oevp' iXd\ iva K\drj<i. 0€. oto, tl SrJTa K\avcrop.ai ; 
2t. OTi Twv ira^eiwu iveTidei^ upvaWiooiv. 

fxera Tav9\ ottco<; vmv iydveO^ vlo<; ovtoctl, 60 



and Gcnet3-lli.s are epithets of 
Aphrodite, the one because of her 
temple at the promontory Colias 
near Athens, the other because 
the goddess of marriage. 

53. |iT|v : in truth. — dW 
€(rirdOa : on the contrary, she was 
always at the (TirdOr], i.e. using the 
weaver's rod ((rirddr)) to drive 
down closely the woof-threads 
upon the warp. A virtuous wife, 
think the aufhcnce. 

55. X(av o-traeeis : but when 
Streps, shows thciii his thrcadl)are 
i/xttTioi' — as he had to his wife by 
way of excu.se (Trf)6<f)u<n<;) for his 
words — they see his joke ; for <T7ra- 
Bav was also coilociuially to waste 
or .squander. "Wife, all too well 
you weave mc w^nA-coats." — €<j)a- 
o-Kov : witli av iterative, would say ; 
S. 1 183, HA. 835. (,. 1296. 

56. The l.imp has gone out. 



— T)(iiv : the plural is perhaps a bit 
presumptuous. 

57. -irirrjv Xvxvov : a toper 
lamp was indeed extravagant in 
war-time. With olive-groves cut 
and all Attica cooped within the 
walls, both honey and oil (" sweet- 
ne.ss and light " as Gildcrsleeve 
has said) were scarce and high. 
Note the emphasis of nor-qv by its 
separation from the substantive. 

58. KXd|]s : " to howl " meant 
often " to get a cuffing " ; so oifiu'i^ui 
in 217. Cp. the Kng. "you'll 
catcii it" — no boy asks what. 

59. OpvaXXCSwv : scinc (>f the 
fat wicks; S. 883, HA. 736, (\. 
1097. I. 

60. Sttus : (1>«, when ; an old- 
r.ishioiiid usage projMT to the old 
countryman. — ouTO<r£ : here, with 
a gesture ; hence no article with 
mos", S. 805, N.A. r)74. (1. 945. 2. 



90 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



ijxoL re Sr) Kal ttj yvvaiKi Tayadrj, 

TT€pl TovvofiaTO'^ OT) 'vTevOeu ekoioopov^eda ' 

Tj jxeu yap Ittttov TrpoaeTiOei 77/30? Tovuofxa^ 

"BidvOnTTTov, rj KacpLTnTOP, r) KakkLTTTTLorju, 

iyo) 8e Tov TrdTnrov Widefxr]^ (i>€LO0JVLOr}u. 65 

rectj? jxev ovu eKplvofJieO^ ' etra t(o ^povoi 

KoivTj ^w€^r][xep KaOifxeOa <\>eihLTnTihy)v. 

TovTov TOV vlou kafx^dpova eKopil^tTO, 

' orav (TV juteya? o)v dpfM iXavur)'? tt/jo? ttoXlv, 

wcnrep Meya^Xo^?, ^variS' e^cnv — .' eyw 8' €(^y)v, 



61. 8t| : 11 (If III'!}'. 

62. €\oiSopov|xe6a : note the 
tense. 

63. 'iirirov : for antiquity a ;io- 
f/ien was an omen, and the " man 
on horseback '' was a leader and 
an aristocrat. What better omen 
then than Hav^iTTTros or the like? 
That was the name of Pericles' 
father. — irpoo-eriOei : was for add- 
ing; imperfect tense for imperfect 
act. 

65. TOV irdirirov : again old 
country-usage instead of cltto tov 
irdirirov. — tTiOeyrjv : was for nam- 
ing; imperfect as in 63. The 
middle is regular in this .sense. — 
<I>€i8wv-i8tiv : Strepsiades' father 
was named <t'£t8ojp' (v. 134) ; he 
would follow the ancient custom 
of naming grandson from grand- 
father, yielding a bit in adding the 
proud patronymic -1877?. 4>e('8oji/. 
from <fi'.i8oiJiui, was a '"tluifty" 
omen, if not aristocratic 



66. Tt'ws : for a time. — cKpi- 
vofieGa : wc disputed; an old-time 
use of the word in middle voice. 

67. <iȣi8 nr-n-iSriv : Spare-Jiorse ; 
a compromise hardly easy for the 
youth to bear among his fast 
associates of the turf. Cp. the 
Indian name Young-man-afraid- 
of-his-horses. 

69 f . O w/ien you are a man ! 
The sentence is incomplete, as are 
el-ydp wishes and English wishes 
beginning ''if only." Madame 
Strepsiades is probably thinking 
how her darling will look in the 
Panathenaic procession or when, 
returning a victor from the Olym- 
pian games, he is granted proces- 
sional honours to the acropolis 
(TroAts), clad in long saffron robe 
(fvcTTts) . 

70. McyaKXcT]; : two genera- 
tions earlier a Megacles had in- 
deed won a four-horse chariot race 
in tlie Pythian games. Pindar's 



NE4>EAAI 



91 




92 



API2T04>ANOY2 



' oTav ixeu ouv Ta<; aiya? eV rov ^eXXeiw?, 
axnrep 6 TraTTjp crov, ht^Oepav ivrjfxfjievof;. 
dXX' ovK ineCdeTo rot? e'/xot? ovoev Xdyot?, 
dXX' liTTTepov ixov Kare^eev tcou ^pruxdrojv. 
vvv ovv, oXrjv Tr^v vukto. (^povTil^oiv ooov, 
[xiav r)vpov aTpaTTOv Sat/xoi^ict)? VTvep^va, 
Tjv rjv avarretao) tovtovi, crw^r/cro/xat. 
dXX' i^eyelpat Tj-pcoTov avTov ySovXo/xat. 
TTw? ^TjT av yj^LCTT avTov iireyeLpaifxi : ttco^ ; 
^eiSLTnTiSr], 4>ei8t7r7n'8toi^. $€. ri, w iraTep ; 

St. kvcto^' /xe /cat ttjv X^'-P^ ^o<? t']^i^ Se^tdi/. 

<&€. tSoi^. TL ecTTiv ; St. elne fxoL, (^tXet? e/te'; 

^€. 1^17 Toi^ nofretSw TOiTo^'t. roz^ Ittttiov. 



71 



75 



80 



seventh Pythian ode still cele- 
brates it. 

71. |i€v o5v : nay, 7' at her ; cor- 
rective. Stony ground (^eAAevs) 
is the natural habitat of goats. 

72. «v-rifi(i€'vos : (-aTTTw) = €v- 
SfSv/AeVo?. Cp. uTTTo) 1 8 for differ- 
ent sense. 

73. o«K eirtCOtTo : would not 
heed. — «|iois : emphatic because 
separated from its noun. 

74. i'irir-€pov : a comic new 
voo-o? iTTTTiKvy. the horse-compliu'nt, 
named on tlie analogy of LKT-tpo'i 
jaundice, vS-epo<; dropsy. — \lov : 
may depend on Kara- in tiie 
verb or on )^prjiJ.a.Twv ; in the first 
case )(pr)fxdT(DV is a nearer defini- 
tion of fxov. — KaT-€X(€ : prob. 
aor., from (x^a. 



75 i. 680V : way, depends on 
(j)povTLt,wv and is contrasted with 
the one tra// or bypath (drpa'n-os) 
which is so devilish extraordinary 
(8at/xoi/ta)s virepcfiva), On which in- 
deed, the plot of the comedy is to 
run. ■ — [iiav : emphatic by isola- 
tion. 

80. <I»«i8i'TrTri8tov : coaxing di- 
minutive ; Pliiddy. 

81. K\i<rov : Kvi/eo). 

82. ISov : there, voilfx, ecco. 

83. no<r€i8o> : the sea-god was 
also creator of the horse, and pa- 
tron saint of the knights and of 
aristocrats in general. — tovtovC : 
yonder; he probably points to 
some statue or jjust of Poseidon 
standing before the house with 
the statue of Hermes, which regu- 



NE<I>EAAI 



9S 



St. fxi} 'fxoi ye tovtou /LtT^da/otoj? tou ittttiov • 

ovTO<; yap 6 ^eo? atrtd? /xot tcoi/ KaKwv. 85 

dX\' eLuep e'/c 7179 KapSta? /u,' oVroi? f^tXet?, 

w TTttt, TTidov fjioL. ^€. Tt 8e TTt^oj/xat 8')7ra (rot ,• 

2t. e/ccrr/aei/zoz^ w? Td')(L(TTa tov<; cravrov Tp6-nov<^^ 
/cat fxdvOav' iXdcou dv iyco TrapaLvecra). 

$c. Xeye 817, Tt /ceXeuet? ; St. Kat rt Tretcret ; §€. vret- 
crofxai, 90 

i/:^ TOf Atdz^tio'oi'. St. 8eC/3d i^ft' d7rd/3Xe77e. 

Opa? TO dvpLOU TOVTO Kol TOt/CtOtOZ^ ; 

^€. opoj. Tt oui^ TovT ecTTtf eTeop, d) TTarep ; 
St. xjjv^a)^ (TO(f)(i)u tovt icm (l)povTLcrTr)pLOv. 



larly guarded Athenian entrances 
(see V. 1478). 




Poseidon lli|>piMs, with triditnl; a 
coin (jf I'otidaca. 



84. (XT] "(loC -ye : Jf. Xc'ye. — tov 
'iiriricv : a|)p().sitivc to tovtov, not 
its substantive. 

87. tI: ivlwrcin .^ — 8<^Ta : 
pray; impatiently. 



88. €K-o-Tp€\)/ov : he is to turn 
his haljits inside out as he would 
his t/xttTtov ; = "to turn over a new 
leaf." 

94. «|/vx«v: philosophers had 
been disputing much what tlic 
^v\r] or soul was. Strepsiades 
liad heard of these discussions, but 
perhaps for him \\iv)(ixi meant what 
it did when he was a boy learning 
Homer — the "spectral dead," 
"disembodied spirits." .Socrates 
was to him a modern " medium." 
— <)>povTt(rTf|piov : formed on the 
analog V of /^orAti^TT/^jiOf, StKua- 
Ti'ifHoy, if)y(i(T-T7'iinov, means rejlec- 
tory, loiili'iiiplatory, sptxitldtory, 
or cof^itatoriiiiii, from (/)/joi'T('^(ii. 
c^poi/TWTTT/? ; hence by strange 
irony it is Arist. him.self who first 
worked out even in detail the i)ro- 
fessional thinking-shops of modern 



94 



API2TO*ANOY2 



ivravO^ ivoiKova dvSpe<;, dt top ovpavov 95 

Xeyoi^TC? avaTTeidovaiv co? ea-TLu TTPLyev<;, 
KacTTiv Tvepl T^/xa? ovto^, rjjxelq o civ9paKe<^. 
ovTOL hi^dcTKovcr , dpyvpiov rjv tl<; otow, 
Xeyovra PLKap koI SiKaca KoioLKa. 

#€. elatp Se rtVe? ; St. ovk otS' dKpl^o)<i Tovpofjia ■ 

lxepLixpo<f)popTL(TTal Kokoi re KayadoL. loi 

$€. at/3ot, 7TOpr)poL y\ oiSa. rov? dXa^wag, 



universities, the seminaries and 
laboratories. 

94-97. ovpavov : stands by Trpd- 
\y]\\)i% {fore-seizure) in tlie earlier 
clause, while English transfers it 
into the ws-clause. — Hippon 6 
a^eos, one of the new philosophers, 
seems to have compared the dome 
of heaven to a Trvtyeu's or sinoth- 
erer, a dome-shaped furnace or 
oven in which charcoal was burned. 
Cratinus had ridiculed this in his 
comedy the IlavoTrTai {Eye-ails, or 
Kiio-cU-it-alls). Arist. borrows the 
doctrine for his composite Socrates, 
and adds from Heraclitus the com- 
parison of men {avOp-oiiroi) with 
charcoal {avSp-aKts). For accord- 
ing to Heraclitus we draw in tov 
Oiiov Aoyov {divine reason') by 
respiration and through the pas- 
sage-ways of the senses (01 alcrOr]- 
TiKol TTopoi) — less when asleep, 
more when awake — just as 
av6paK€<i grow black when with- 
drawn from the fire, but if given 
fire and air become living. 



96. Xe'Yovres : fy argument, as 
in 99, 115, 121 1. 

98 f. Again a borrowing and 
blackening. Socrates asked no 
pay, indeed offered no formal in- 
struction at all ; and it was Protag- 
oras, not Socrates, who boasted 
that he could win in debate though 
holding the weaker argument (tov 
i^TTO) Aoyov KpiLTTUi TTOuiv) • Hcrc 
Arist. voices probably the general 
feeling when he changes this boast 
of mere skill to the very dangerous 
business of winning whether right 
or wrong {g()). So, however, in 
fact was this skill working out in 
contemporary Athens. 

100. oviK 0I8 : true to his name 
Strepsiades here dissembles a bit 
{(TT pi<i>u) . 

loi. }j.tptnvo-<j>povTio-TaC : anx- 
ious tliinkcis, original researchers, 
strug-for-trutJiers. Then after a 
pause (the v. divides in the exact 
middle) he adds perfect getitlemen, 
aristocrats. 

102. at|3ol : bah ! — irovrjpoC : 



NE<|)EAAI 



95 



TOV<; oi^pioiVTa^, tov<; (xvvttoSiJtov^ Xeyet?, 
d)u 6 KaKohaiixcju SwK^arrys kol \aLpe(f)(x)i'. 

St. Tj rj, (TLcona • fjLiqoeu eL7Trj<; vtJttlop. 105 

aXX et TL KrjoeL tcjv Trarpcpajv aX(f)LT(j}v, 
ToyjTOiv yevov /xot, cr^acrdixevo<; rrju ImnKTJu. 

$£. ovK av fxa top Alopvctop, il 801179 yd poi 
Tov<i (^dcridvov<; ov? rpec^et Xeojyopa^. 

St. i6\ duTL^oXco cr , w (^tXrar' dvdpoiTTojv ifxoi, no 

iXdcjp SiSdcTKov. $£. KOL TL (XOL fMadrjcTopaL ; 

St. elvaL nap avTol<; cfiacnv ap(f)0) toj Xoyw, 



/oTV fellows. — dXa^ovas : swind- 
lers. 

103. bixpi^vras : untrue of 
Socrates, who was always in the 
open, but probably true of Protag- 
oras who Tot TroWa Ivhov BiaTfjil^u 
(Plat. Protag. 311 a), and of 
Prodicus, who even gave lectures 
in l)ed (op. cit. 315 d). — dv- 
viro8f|Tovs : '' sockless Jerries."' 
Of this crime Socrates was in 
truth guilty ; though not bare- 
faced (dAa^ojr), he went bare- 
footed. 

104. Xaipc^uv : tlie iin|)ul- 
sive half-mad di.scipie (jf Socrates 
((T(l>oSpo<; Kill /Kii'tKo?). who ques- 
tioned the Delphic oracle concern- 
ing his master's wi.sdom (Plat. 
Apol. 21 a). He was unmerci- 
fully ridiculed by the comic poets 
as a pale, cadaverous bat, a son of 
night, a sycophant. Hatlerer. para- 
site, flirty beggar, and thief. No 



wonder the young aristocrat re- 
coils. 

105. 11 \: ah, ah I or 0,0 ! — 
vT|Trtov : an old-fashioned word 
perhaps (certainly at this time a 
poetic word) for av6r}Tov or evT;^£?. 

106. d\<t>£Ta>v : (lit. harUy 
meal) — daily bread. Here, after 
Trarpajdiv, it is a comic substitute 
for ^fj-q/JidTwv or the like (ances- 
tral property): so in 176. 648. 

107. TovTwv . one oj the\e ; 
predicate and partitive. — o-xatrd 
(uvos : (T)(i'i{t,)u) (to cut) here is 
to slacken, ease off, abate; cp. 409, 
740. — iir-iriK^v : see 27. 

108. owK dv : I wouldnt ; verb 
omitted as in t;. 

109. <{>a(riavous : pheasants .\\\i\ 
peacocks were then rare new birds 
in Athens, kept only by the rich 
sucli as Lcogoras, father of the 
orator An(io(i(l<"s. 

no. u 4>'^'''°^'''< ' ■■> tragic air. 



96 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



Tov KpeiTTov , ocrrt? ecrri, Kat tov rjTTOva. 
ToijTOLP TOV erepov toIp Xoyotv, tov rjTTova, 
VLKOLv XiyovTO. (fiaau TaScKcorepa. 
r^v ovv jxddiqf; jxol tov oioLKov tovtov Xoyov, 
a vvv 6<^etXaj Sto. <Te', to{)T(ov T(ov ^peoiv 
ovK av oLTroSoirjv ow av 6/3oXov ovoevL 

$€. OVK av TTidoifxiqv • ov yap av T\airjv loelv 
tov<; t7777ea9 to ^pwp^a ota/ce/ct'atcr/xeVo?. 

St. OVK apa, p.a Trjv ArjixrjTpa, twv y ijJLMv eoei, 
ovt' avrd?, ov0^ 6 ^uyjo?, ovd' 6 craix(f)6pa^ ' 
dW i^eXo) a e? KopaKa-? Ik ttj^ ot/cta?. 



"5 



113 f. KpeCxTova . . . T^TTOva : 
the weaker argument is not always 
in the wrong (aSiKos) ; an inno- 
cent man may have appearances 
against him. But from the moral 
point of view the argument of the 
aSiKos-man is always rjTTUiv. Poor 
Strepsy's conscience tells him that 
of these two strange Sat/xdi/ia, 
Buttal and Re-buttal, it is Re- 
buttal, the TfTTuiv Aoyos, whose aid 
he needs. 

119. TXati^v : xA^rai to brook 
is poetic for toA/xSv or dvcxecr^at. 

120. A gentleman -knight 
should be well-groomed (aTr-eo-r- 
Atyyto-jueVo?, Eq . 580) ; but if the 
strigil of hard study scrape your 
colour off (Sia-Kvat'oj) and leave you 
WXPOS' Pheidippides wants none of 
it. The Knights were that select 
and aristocratic body of a thousand 
horse, the City Troop, figuring 



more largely in pomp than in field. 
They are preserved in stone to 
this day in the frieze of the Par- 
thenon. 

121. ATi(it]Tpa: the oath by the 
goddess of grain (including Strep- 
siades' aX^iro) fits well the situa- 
tion (cSet from eo-^t'to). Greek 
swearing, on the artistic "referen- 
tial system " of Bob Acres, usually 
fitted well ; cp. 83. 

122. 6 tv-yios : in a four-abreast 
the ^ijyiot were the two horses 
under the yoke (^vyoV) ; the two 
outriggers were called oreipa-c^opoi 
trace-bearers ( 1 300). — <ra(x-<}>6pas : 
was a horse from Sicyon, branded 
with that town's initial letter, /.<?., 
in Doric form and name, San 
(M) ; cp. 23. 

123. €s KdpaKtts : to the crows; 
a common imjirecation, = to Per- 
dition . 



NE^EAAI 



97 



#€. dXX' 01) TreptoxpeTai fx" 6 0elo<; Meya/cXer^? 

apLTTTTOi'. aXX etcreLfjiLy crov o ov (f)povTL(t). 125 

St. dXX' ovo' iycj fxeuroL irecroju ye KeiaofjiaL, 
dXX' ev^ct/xei/o? rotcrti' deoi<; biSd^ofxaL 
avTo<f, ^aSit^oju et<; ro (f)povTLaTT]pLOi^. 
'TT(t)<; ovv ydpoiv ojv, KaTnXricrp.o)v, /cat ^paSu<?, 
Xdyo)!^ oLKplfioju cr)(^LvodkdiJiov<; /xadTJcrofiaL ; 13° 

iTrfTeov. TL ravT e)((ou cTTpayyevofxau, 
dXX' ov^t /coTTTO) TT^i^ Ovpav : TTat, 77at8tOl'. 

Ma0T|T"qs 

^dXX €9 KopoLKCL^ ' Tt<? €0"^' 6 /cdv//a<? 717^' Bvpav ; 
St. •iJetSoji'O"; uto? Srpei//t 01817 <? Kt/cvt't'd^et'. 
Ma. dp.aSrj's ye vtj At", octtl^; ovtcjctI (r(f>6Spa 135 

dTTepnxepip.vcji)<; ttjv dvpav XeXd/<7tK'a<?, 



124. Ocios : here great-nticle, 
not //«t/i? ; see 46. 

125. ct(rci|ii : liereupon the 
youth enters the house. 

126. ov8' t^M : «f; w^r^ will /, 
jf . than you. — ir€(r«v : as if in 
wrestling. The first three feet of 
the V. stand detached, as if to be 
delivered with fitting gesture, per- 
haps with three shakes of the fist. 

130. o-xivSaXdfiovs : splinters. 
In English wt.- si^cak rather of 
"hairsplitting," '"quiMjles," "sub- 
tleties." 

131. TavTtt : inner ace. with 
OTfjayyivofuu \ = ouTws, as often. 
— ?Xwv: lit. keepinjL^ dX it; with 
(TTfiay., keep Imteriiti;, .S. 1277 rf. 
HA. 968 a. G. 1564. 

AKISIiilllANI '. — 7 



134. Official completeness 
Kt'/cuvt'a was a deme. 

135. d(ia9T|s : unlettered. 

136. d-Trepi(j.€pijj.v&>s : even 
knocking at a door i>.'ithout rati- 
ocination was blameworthy in the 
eves of the advanced Thinkers 
( cf>povTi(TTai ). I n t he Frogs 97 1 ff. 
Arist. makes Euripides boast : 

'• I taught them all these knowing 

wass 
r>y chopping logic in my plays, 
And making all my sjieakers try 
To reason out the How and Why. 
So now the people trace the 

springs. 
The sources and the roots of 

thint's." 

(Rogers' translation. ) 



98 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



Koi <f)popTLS' e^7^'/x/3Xw/ca9 i^rjvprj^xevrjv. 
St. crvyyvojO'i /xot • Ty]kov yap oIkoj t(ov dypcov. 

aXA.' elire fiot to Trpayfxa Tov^rip.^\(ji}xevov. 
Ma. dXX' ov ^e/At? nXiji' rot? ixaOrjTalaiv Xtyeiv. 14° 

St. Xeye t'Vt' e/u,ot Oappcou ' iyco yap ovToal 

rJKO) fjiadr)Tr)<; et? to (f)pouTL(rTy]pLOu. 
Ma. Xe^co. vop^iaai 8e ravra ^pi) ixvcrTijpLa. 

di'TJpeT dpTL XaLp€(j)(i)i'Ta XcoKpaTrjf; 

v//vXXai^ OTTocroL"? aXotro rov? avTrj<; 7roSa<; • 145 



137. l^-T|n.pXwKas : dfJ-ISXtaKOi. 
This "causing the miscarriage of 
a well-conceived thought " is a hit 
at Socrates as the son of the mid- 
wife, Phaenarete. But the philoso- 
pher did not take umbrage at the 
joke, but fell in with it — or Plato 
for him. In Plato's Theaetetiis we 
find him boasting the inheritance 
of his mother's profession, in that 
though knowing nothing himself, 
he assisted his young friends to 
the birth of their ideas. 

138. TT)\ov : = TToppu), with 
dypaJv, perhaps an old word suit- 
able to the rustic ; if the schol. is 
correct, a parody of Euripidean 
usage. — oIkw : but since the war 
he has been a refligee in the 
city. 

140. ov 6^|iis : sinfitU i»i pious. 
Science has become the student's 
religion, his master a prophet. 

141. \«7€ : i,'^^ on and tell it; 
pres., not aor. — Oappuv : witJioiit 
fear, cheer up, boldly; S. 1273 a. 



HA. 968 a, G. 1564. — ovToo-i: 
here, with a gesture. 

143. Xe'^ctf : will tell yon ; not 
cpw {%vill say). — (ivo-rifjpia : not 
mystery in the modern sense of 
secret, but divine mystery, i.e., the 
holy rite of initiation as practised, 
for exam.ple, at Eleusis. 

145.. \j/tJX\av : prolepsis, as in 
95. — Toxis avTTjs TToSas : probably 
a travesty on the doctrine of Pro- 
tagoras, that man was the measure 
of all things (Introd. § 44) ; if 
man, why not fleas? Or Arist. 
may be ridiculing the triviality of 
the problems of the New Learning. 
He did not foresee tliat a modern 
strug-fortruther (/xepi/Avo-cro*^!- 
(TTrj<i) would laboriously compute 
that a human leap proportionate 
to the flea-jump would be a quarter 
of a mile, and tliat dissertations 
would be written by Masters of 
Arts on " The Salivary Glands of 
a Cockroach," and " The Taxo- 
nomic Value of the Characters 



NE4>EAAI 



99 



baKoixra yo.p tov \aLpe(f)ioi>TO^ rrjv ocppvu 

iiTL Tr}u Ke(f)akr)p Trjp HcoKpciTOV^; a^rjXaTO. 
2t. ttw? hrJTa tovt i[Ji€Tp7}(re ; Ma. Se^twrara. 

Kiqpov Starr/^a?, elra rr^v xjivWau kajScof 

iuefiaxfjei' et? tou K-qpou avrrjq tco vrdSe, 150 

Kara i/zv^etcrr^ nepLecPvcrau liepcnKai. 

ravras vTTo\vcra.<; .dvefxerpei to )(a)piov. 
St. o) Zev ^acnkev, T179 XeTrroxT^ro? roii^ (jipevwu. 
Ma. Ti 8177' aV, irepou el ttvOolo "ScoKpaTOv; 

(^povTL(jp.a ; St. ttolop : duTi/Boka), /caretTre ju,ot. 
Ma. duTJper avTov XaLpe(f)(t)i> 6 S^ifxTto? 15*^ 

OTTorepa Tr)v yv(jjp.r]v e)(oi, ra? e/ut7ri8a9 



presented by the Legs of Ortliop- 
tera." — &X01.T0: had jumped, sc. 
on this occasion. 

146. 6<{>p€v : tlic schol. says 
that Chaerephon liad bushy eye- 
brows, and Socrates a Ijald head. 

150. TO) iroSt : some editors see 
here a joke in the biped flea. But 
the poet as a kuAo? Krlya^o?, may 
have known no l)ettcr — jierhaps 
would have scorned to know 
better. 

151. 'Tr€pi-€4)v<rav : ip'cw (i.e.. 
formed) around, with <f>v)(cimi sc. 
Trj ypvWi], meaninj^ only its feet, 
of course. -- n€p<riKa£ : a (Jreek 
woman spoke of her " Persians." 
omittinjj ifj-fidSts s/ioes, just as 
now we name things by their place 
of orij^in. as China. Afi^han. 
.Spaniel, Newfoundland, Jersey, 
Havana, Port. 



152. dv-€(i€'Tp€i : imperfect, be- 
cause the u/easur/ui^ off was in 
l^rocesswhen Strej^siadcs knocked. 

153. XeiTTOTTjTOS : tli(-' subtlety 
of his wit ; a frecjuent use of the 
genitive, giving the cause of the 
preceding exclamation. S. 906 a, 
HA. 761, G. 1 1 29. <t>pivt<; at this 
time had become high-sounding 
and unusual in daily speech. 

154. t£ 8tjt' av : cp. 5. — 
cTcpov : empiiatic by .separation 
from its .substantive. 

157. oiroTtpa : = -cpoi/ or -£^>a)S, 
adv., "n'hiih nuiy he thought. 
This cjuestion, later seriously <li,s- 
cu.s.sed by Aristotle, is perha|)s a 
jest at the expense of the sinunit 
Archelans, an initiator of acoustics, 
of whom I)iogi-n>'s Laertius reports 
( J. 1 7 ) : -fjioTOi t^ni (ftiiH'fj'i yti'CiTLV 

TljV TOV liifJOi Tr\fj$LV. 



loo API2TO<l>ANOY2 

Kara to aTOfx aSeti^ t) /caret TovppoTrvyiov. 
St. Tt hrjT iK€lpo<; elne vepl Trj<; e/x77t8o9 ; 
Ma. e(f)aaKeu elvac TovvTepov ttj^ e'/LtTrtSo? i6o 

(JT€.v6v ' Ota \e777o£» 8' OVTO^ aVTOV TTjP TTVOrjV 

yStot ^a^it^eiv evdv TovppoTTvyiov ' 

eTretra Kolkou 7rpo<; cTTevco TrpocrKeifxevov 

Tov npcoKTOu y)X^^'^ '^^o /8ia9 tov nuevixaro^;. 
St. (ToXiTiy^ 6 irpoiKTO'; icrriv apa tmv iybTrihoiv. 165 

oi rptcr/xaKctpto? tov oievTepevp.aTO';. 

rj pa.hio)<; <^evyoiv av diroffivyoL hiK-qv 

ocrrt? 8tot8e TOvvTepov Trjs ifxniSos. 
Ma. TrpMTjv 8e ye yvat/x-qu fxeyaXriv dcfyypeOrj 

vn d(rKaka/3o)Tov. St. rtVa Tpoirov ; KctretTre 

/Ltot. 170 

Ma. tpqTOvvTO'; avTov Trj<; aeXyjvrjq ret? ohqvs 

/cat ret? 7r€pL<f)op(i<;, etr' ai^w Ke^-qvoTO^ 

158. Kara: (5y ^//f ^cwj' (^t/", via 167. <|>€V7<ov and dTro«J>«70i with 

= 8ta with gen. — ToippoirvYiov : hU-qv are legal terms = to he prose- 

= TO opp. We might denature the ciited and /^ /^^ acquitted. 

jest by making the question one 169. 84 -yt : ye stresses the 

oi fire-litde m\A post-liide. word before 8f, as in 175. 8e 

162. €vp0vp : with gen. = straight claims its favourite position and yc 
for. yields. 

163. KoiXov KT«. : a hollow 170 ff. This story of the lizard 
(such as the vent) being attached (acrKaXalSwTr]? or yaXewTTjs, 173) 
to a narrow thing (such as the varies the anecdote told of Thales 
entrail) causes an echo ; whence the astronomer, who, while gazing 
the inference (apa) in the next at the heavens, fell into a well and 
verse from rtwip-et to trumpet! furnished amusement to his Thra- 

166. An exclamation at the cian maidservant. 
ie?ic\\tr^s entrailspection or insight 172. k€xtiv6tos : \a.(TKU). 

inside; Si-tvTeptvfJui for St-eper- 173. KaT-ixta-t: X^^*^ i ^^' 

vrjixa. folded. 



NE*EAAI 



St. rj(Tdr}p yaXeunrj KaTa^dcravTi ^oi/cpctrov?. 

Ma. ixde<; 8e y r^ixlv helirvov ovk -qv icnrepa<;. 

St. €Leu ' TL ovi' 77/369 toK^it iTrakafXTjcraTo ; 

Ma. Kara rrj? TpaTritr]^ K-ara7racra<? keirrrju Te(f)pav 
Ka/xi/>a9 o^ekiaKov, eira SLa/SfJTTqv Xa^cou — 
eV TTJq TTakaL(TTpa<; Oolp^aTiov v^etX-ero. 

St. Tt hrjT eKelpov tov Hakrjv davixd^Ofieu ; 
d.voiy d.voiy a.vvo'a.'s to (f)povTLaTr)pLOP, 



175 



180 



174. f\<rdr\v: idiomatic aor. 
where Eng. uses present (S. 1126, 
HA. 842, GMT. 60) ; / /tke the 
notion of — . 

176. €l€v : ivell; expletive. — 
£iraXa|i^<raTo : a word beloved of 
Euripides ( = prose ifj.r]X(J.v''](ru.To), 
in comic contrast here with the 
homely d\<l>LTa {iiutiials). 

177. KaTa-irao-as : Tratrtrw. — 
The hocus-pocus begins : Over 
the table he sprinkled fine ashes, 
bent a small spit, then taking it 
as a pair of compasses he — . 
Here we expect, as the hungry 
pupils did, and as the audience 
in the theatre did, some wizard 
Medea-trick — perhajjs *' out of 
tiie sprinkled place (TraXdo-trtu to 
sprinkle) he fisiii.d (vcftuXiTu) a 
small victim (dvixdnov) " for din- 
ner, or rather part of the victim 
after the burnt .sacrifice to the 
gods. But instead comes sud- 
denly an outrageous punning slan- 
der : Out of the wrestling school 



(7ra\-aL(TTpa for perhaps TroX- 
ay/xa) he filched himself that coat 
(6olfxdTLov sounding almost like 
$vfj.dTi.ov). The AtoTToSuTT/s, or 
cloak thief, of the (ircek palaestra 
still plies his trade among the 
lockers of gymnasia and the um- 
brella-racks of the modern club- 
house. — This whole passage was 
perhaps inserted at the last mo- 
ment. In competition with Nubes 
— it may be just jireceding it — 
Amipsias had presented his Con- 
nus, in which .Socrates, here too 
one of the dratnatis personae, is 
asked jfoBtv dv aoi ;(Aur»'a yti'oiTO ; 
Hy the time the turn of the N^ubes 
comes, Arist. has an answer ready. 

180. The ca|)Uire of goat and 
coat at one fell hook captuns 
.Stre|)siades als(j ; why pray ad- 
mire the famous (Iku.vov) Thalts, 
when we have a Socrates among 
us? 

181. dvvaas : (ifiHi). Translate 
as imv. hurry and — (cp. 



I02 APISTO^ANOYS 

Kal Sel^ou 0)9 Td)^L(TToi fioL top ScoKparr). 

fjLadrjTLO) ydp' d\X' avoiye ttjv dvpav. 

o) 'Hjoa/cXet9, ratirl ttooolttol to. drjpia ,• 
Ma. TL idavfjcaaa'; : tco aoi ookovctiv et/ceVat ; 185 

St. Tot? Ik \\v\ov \r]cf)0€lcrL rot? AaKcjpLKo2<?. 

drdp TL TTOT et? T-qv yrjv ^XeTTOvcriv ovtoll ; 
Ma, ^r]Tovcnv ovTOi to. /caret y^?. 2t. ySoXySov? dpa 

[,r]TovaL. fjLTJ vvv TovToyl (f)popTL[,eTe ' 

iyo) ydp otS' tV etcrt /xeyotXot Kal Kokoi. 19° 

rt ydp otSe SpaxTLU, ol (T(f)6hp^ iyKeKV(f)6Te<; ; 



Tp€)((t}v 780, 1 1 64) or as adverb = 
ei^c'tus. Tu;i(€'<)j?. Cp. for treatment 
of partic. t'^wv 131, Oappwv 141. 

182. Tov SwK. : cp. 180. 

183. ixaOi^Tibi : a desiderative 
in -aoj ; / -ziiafit to be a pupil. 
(Hence "I want to be an angel 
and with the angels stand " might 
be dyycAAtd) kixi crvaraTiw !) — 
avoi-y* : the theatrical management 
of tlie scene is uncertain. Perhaps 
the door-opening was merely the 
rolling back to either side of a 
great linen curtain which had rep- 
resented the house-front or the 
back wall of the premises, thus 
disclosing the inner court, or ai'Ar/, 
of the house. This court, open 
to the sky (198) and flanked and 
backed by chambers, is filled witli 
IxaOrjTuL in singular attitudes of 
"original research.'' Aloft sits 
Socrates in his KfjffiaOfja (218). 



The old farmer is horrified at it 
all. 

185. €6av|jia(ras : Gr. aor. for 
Eng. pres. ; 174 n. — elKt'vai : — 
ioiKcv.n. 

186. These '' Laconian cap- 
tives from Pylus " had been bleach- 
ing some twenty-odd months in 
prison, where they were destined 
to remain two years longer. 

188. rd Kara -ytis : Plato's 
phrase is ^r/raJv to. tc vtto y*;? kul 
ovpdvLu (Apo/. igd). See Introd. 
§ 1 10. — PoXpovs : trtijffles (under- 
ground mushrooms). 

189. TO-uTo^C : = Toi'Tt y£ ; ye 
struggles for ])recedence, as 8e in 
169. — <j>povT£5€T€ : to the starve- 
lings. 

190. I'va : ivliere. 

191. Ti vap : in questions of 
surprise yap is an exclamatory 
lohv- — oVS« : voiider . 



NE4)EAAI 103 

Ma. ovTOL o' ipe(3ooL(f>ojcrLu vno top TdpTapcv. 
St. tl otJ0' 6 7Tpo)KTO<i elq tou ovpavov /SXeVet . 
Ma. avTO<; KaO' amov dcrTpopofielv 8t8acr/<erat. 

dXk etaiO , tVa p-r) Vetz^o? vp.li> iTTiT{)^rj. 195 

St. p^yjiro) ye p.rJ7ra) y\ d\)C iTTLp-eLuduTcou, ipa 

avTolcTL Koivojcroi Ti irpaypaTiov ep.6v. 
Ma. dXX ov^ olov r avTolcri 77/309 top depa 

e^o) otaTpt/SeLP ttoXvp ayav icTTLP ^popop. 
St. Trpo? TO)p Oecop, tl ydp rao' iaTip .■ etyre poL. 200 
Ma. dcTTpopopia pep avTrji. St. rourt 8e ri . 

Ma. yeajp^eTpia. St. tout' oi/i' rt eVrt xprjatpop : 

Ma. yrjp dpap.eTpela6aL. St. TroTepaTrjP KXrjpov^iKrjp . 
Ma. ov/c, aXXo. 77)1^ (Tvpnaaap. St. dcrretoi^ Xe'yet?. 

TO yct/j cr6(f)Lcrpia hrjpoTiKop koi ^prjcnpop. 205 

192. ep(Po'Si(t>b>cri : to dive to 199. -rroXvv d-yav : (n'cr/y long. 

Erebu.s, wliicli lav under Tartarus, Exeunt tlic iLuBqTai. 

wa.s indeed J^oiiig to the liottoin 200. irpos twv itdv : is exactly 

of tilings. tlie older Kngiisli oatii " fore (lod." 

194. avTos KttG' aiiTov : by itself, — tABc : pointing to the apparatus 
indcpciidejilly. of tlie school. 

195. €\!o--iT€ : i.e. from the 203. kXt]pouxikt)v : four years 
court into the adjoining cham- earlier Strepsiades had .seen much 
i)ers. — ^Kcivos : .Socrates; cp. aiV of the island of Leshos sulijugalcd 
TO? 219. — ciriTvxTj : /./'. when he and measured into allotments 
descends from his KfjifxaOfji. {/<A/}/jo() for the 2700 Athenians 

197. avToio-i : at the head <if who had drawn the lucky num- 
the verse one might expect avTd<; hers (K\i)i}0\')((n). To make the 
to retain its //.vt* sense, though it whole earth (/«7/A///f is. he thinks, 
does not alwavs; here perhaps A' ,\ pretty lomeit^ a ii^ooii mid fntpfi- 
thetii nliiiii\ Iiefore tVtii/o? appears. l/stii trick (204 f. ). 

198. -rrpos Tov d«pa : ill tlie dir. 204. ouk, dWd : iia. I'lnglish 
t.e. in tin- court. Cp. tt/jos" t'dv idiom drojjs dAAii, as it does so 
rf\Lov 771, "/// the sun.'' many 8e\s. 



I04 



APISTO^ANOYS 



Ma. avTT] 8e crot yrjq irepioSos Trdar]^. opa^ ; 

alhe p.kv^ kdrjvai. St. rt (Tu Xeyets ; ov TTeiBofxat, 

inel otKacrrct? ou^ opu Kadrjixeuov?. 
Ma. o)? rovr' aXrjdw'^ ^ Kttikov to ^wpiov. 
St. fcat TTov }LiKvvvri^ elcriv ovfxoi orip,6rai ; 210 

Ma. ivravO^ epetcnv. rj Se y' Eu^ot', w? opa<5, 

■qhl irapaTETaTai fxaKpa iroppco ttolvv. 
St. otS' • ^1776 yap rjfxcou napeToiOr) /cat rieptKXeov?. 

dXX' 7) KaKe^aifxwv ttov 'ar ; Ma. onov 'cttlv ; 
avry)L 
St. &)5 iyyv<i -qfXMi'. tovto ttolvv ^povTit,eT€, 215 

Ta-vTTjv d(f)' rjfjiwu dirdyayeZv iroppoi iravv. 
Ma. dXX' ou^ olov re. St. 1^17 Ai" olfjiai^ea'd' apa. 



206. avTTi <roi : there y Oil have. 
— ■n'cpioSos : map. 

208. Athens was not Athens 
without its ever-busy, over-busy 
throng of 6000 jurymen, countless 
officials, and swarming sycophants. 
Introd. § 26. 

209. ws : Oh., spoken with 
hearty assurance. Cp. the wish- 
d>s in ws oKpeXov- 

210. Kttl irov : Kat joins a que.s- 
tion of surprise to the preceding 
statement, often to expose an in- 
consequence therein; = pray, why, 
or /hen. — ol tjiol Srifidrai : so, on 
visiting Niagara F"alls. Strepsiades 
likes to have his picture taken with 
himself in the foreground and the 
Falls at the back. 



211. 8« yt: ye gives stress to 
Euboea; cp. 169, 175. 

212. For little Greece the is- 
land of Euboea does in truth he 
stretched alongside very long, viz., 
about 100 miles. — t)8(: here. 

213. Trap-tTdOri : Tctvo). Eu- 
boea was laid low or made to 
stretch her length when subju- 
gated to Athens by Pericles in 
445 B.C. 

214. Vti oirov : spoken by dif- 
ferent people at the same instant, 
I and o do not here make hiatus 
nor a long syllable, but one short. 
— a\iTT)£ : here. 

215. «s : horrified exclama- 
tory ; so near us I He is not used 
to maps. 



NE<t»EAAI 



105 



(fidpe, rt9 yap ovto<; ovnl Trj<; KpefxaOpa^; dvrjp ■ 
Ma. aurd?. 2t. ri9 avTO^ , Ma. %0JKpdTr]<;, St. at 

r^' OUT09, dua^orjaou aurdi/ /otot fxeya. 220 

Ma. auTO? /xei^ oui^ (TU KaXecrou ' ov ydp p.01 (j^oXtj. 
St. &> 'Ea)KpaT€'^, 

Oi XcoKpaTL^LOU. 

SwKpdTTlS 

TL jxe Kakel<;, co '(f>rjfx€p€ ; 
St. TrpoJTOv [xev 6 tl Spaq, dvTL^oXo), /caretTre /xot. 
Sto. depo/BaTCi) koI 7T€pL(f)pou(Ji) tov TjXiov. 225 



217. olfiw|£<r9' apa :'■ the worse 
for you then." 

218. Tis Yap : pray, who ? Cp. 
igi. — Kp€|ia.epas : usually ex- 
plained as a haiii^ini!; basket (Kpi- 
(juifuiL), meant to burlesque the 
IMrjxavrj used in Tragedy, viz., a 
crane and pulley by which gods 
and heroes were swung out aloft 
and raised and lowered according 
to tragic need. For anotiier view 
see the Appendix. 

219. avT6s : from the days of 
Pythagoras auro? meant Master 
for pupil as for servant, and as 
"He" means "husband" now for 
the plain women. If aiVo? <<^i7, 
ipse dixit, that dictum settled ail 
disputes. — w ScoKparcs : not an 
address but an exclamati(ui, liki- 
Z) Z<i', <T» 'llpaKAti?; cp. 328. 

220. |i^"ya : loudly. " auTos 



was apt to be abstracted, as we 
know from Plato's Syniposiitiii. 

221. (iiv ovv : corrective, as in 
17; nay. rather. Exit /juadrjT-q^. 

223. w ZuKparCSiov : not here 
coaxingly, as the diminutive in 80, 
nor with any pretence of verisi- 
militude, but merely to be " pert " 
in the comedy; Sokky, just as a 
freshman in a college play might 
address the president as " Prexy." 
— w l<t>-'^|icp« : Ephemeral One ; a 
loftv r(i)uke from the higher re- 
gions of speculation. 

225. Note with what pom|) the 
litrpti fall apart, and how the first 
twoare alike- in rlivthm and rhyme ; 
/ treat/ the air and eonteinplate 
the siiu. Hut Trtpi-<f>fjov(t> was not 
onlv to toiiteniplate but sometimes 
til ioiitcinti (vnif)-<l)fKn'i'i>), not only 
to look OTcr ihduglitfully, but to 



io6 



API2TO<I)ANOY2 



St. eneLT dno rappov tov<; 6eov<; v7T€p(f)pov€l<s, 

aW ovK 0.770 Trj<i yr]s, eiirep ; Soj. ov yo.p av ttotc 

i^y)vpov 6p6u)<; to. [xeTecopa irpdyixaTa, 

el jxTj Kp€p.d(Ta<i TO vorjpua koi tyju (ppovTiSa 

XeTTTrju Kara/xei^a? el<; top 6p.oiov ctepa. 230 

et o 0}v ^a/xal raVw koltojOev icTKonovu, 

OVK av TToO' rjvpov ' ov ydp dXX.' r) yrj jSia 

eX/cet Trpo? avTrju Trju t/c/xctSa Trjq cfypopTiSo^;. 



overlook scornfully. Cp. " de- 
spise " from de-spicere. — This 
scene made so vivid an impres- 
sion that over a quarter-century 
later Plato quoted this verse in 
his yipology. 19 f as one of the 
sources of the popular misunder- 
standing of Socrates, and of the 
prejudice against him. 

226. eireiTa : introduces a ques- 
tion with the same tone of surprise 
or impatience or indignation or 
whatnot that Kai does ; see n. on 
210. 

227. (Kirtp : sc. ■)(py] or tovto 
noLti<i- — 7ap : else or otherwise. 

228. opOws : r lightly = the mod- 
ern "scientifically"; one of the 
shibboleths of the sophists. 

229 ff. el [J.T| Kp€fj.d(ras : e.xicpt 
by suspending ; S. 1^27 a. GMT. 
476. Still another phiiosoph 
must contribute to our Socratic 
pot-pourri. Diogenes of Apollonia 
had been recently teaching that air 
was in everything — rare in the 
sun, fluid in water, solid in earth 



and metals — indeed, was itself 
omniscient deity (^eos) and the 
soul of man as well (i/'D;(r;), im- 
parting tlie power of thought to 
all things according to their quota 
of dry, pure air. The worst enemy 
of thought was moisture ; because 
of it fish were witless, drunkards 
fuddled; and quadrupeds and chil- 
dren inferior to grown man because 
breathing impurer and moister air 
nearer the earth. For this reason 
Socrates has here lifted his intel- 
lect, which is subtle {Xfmri), to 
its own level of gravity, careless 
of the gravity of his audience. 
The airy doctrines of Diogenes 
are further ridiculed in 264 f., 627, 
814. — opioiov : like., kindred, i.e. 
in l)eing Acttto?. 

232. ov -ydp dXXd kt£. : for it 
is only the earth that — as if ou 
yap k(TTiv aAAa. Cp. the French 
ne . . . qne, the Italian non . . . 
che. 

233. There seems to be a ma- 
licious muddle of the doctrine as 



NE<|)EAAI 



235 



ndcrx^L Ce Tavro tovto /cat to, /capSa/xa. 

St. tl (f>rj<; ; 

■q (j)povTi<^ e'X/cet ttjv 'iKixdh' etc to. KoipSafxa ; 
l6l vvv KaTd^r]6\ oj ^(oKpaTihiov, w? e/xe, 
tVa /xe StSa^Tyq oiVTrep ovveK iXrjkvOa. 

So). rj\de<; Se KaTOL TL : St. ^ov\6pevo<; fxadeiv \eyeiv. 
vTTo ya.p TOKOJu )(pTJaT(ou T6 SucrKoXairarwr^ ^40 

ayo/xat (f)€pofxaL, to. )(^prj^aT ive^vpdt^o fxai. 

So). TToOeu o' vTr6)^pe(jj<; crcivTou ekades yev6p.€vo<; ; 

St. i^dcro? /u,' eVer/ati/zei^ ImnKyj, Seti^r) (payelv. 



here put into Socrates' mouth ; for 
if the earth drew the hurtful mois- 
ture out of the intellect, then the 
nearer the earth the better. 

234. /I is just this same way 
with the water-cress ; a parody on 
the true Socrates way of teaching, 
viz., by illustrating the unknown 
from the known anrl common 
things. Every (ireek child knew 
that the seeds of the water-cress 
(to. Kafj^afui) sown in wet sponges 
also (k.u) liad this same property 
(ttci^o?, itu.(T)((-l) of drawing mois- 
tiMc in a wonderful measure. — 
Trdo-xti: often almost = TT/jaxTti ; 
cj). 79.S. 1198 (where some Mss. 
read -Kudtiv for iroitiv). 

236. The muddle here is a jest 
as much at the exjjense of .Soc- 
rates as of .Strepsiades. 

• 239. Socrates descends to earth 
masked and costumed quite like 
the living Socrates - bald-headed, 
with protuberant st.uing eyes. 



ijroad and open nostrils, large 
mouth, thick lips, rotund and 
waddling, as if intended by nature 
for comedy. The story goes that 
the real Socrates in the audience 
good-humouredly rose, that stran- 
gers might recogni/e tiie truth of 
the portrait. ^ Probably here the 
linen house-front closes. leaving 
the two actors in front of it. — 
Kard rt : nearly the same as hia. ti 

or TtVo'J €V(.K(l. 

240. \pr\a-ruv : from XPV"^'''V^ 
tiiouey-lemter, not fiom xfjiftrTot. 
Note the dominant vowel in the 
verse. 

241 Note the o/xoio TcAtrroi' 
of the three verbs, -oftai. .Strep- 
siades is being " harrietl and 
plundered," as Attica itself w.is. — 
^vcxupd(o|iat : here not middle as 
in 35, but passive, and taking an 
ace. like other verbs of depriving. 

243. v<i<ros [tnTiKi\ : sci- 74. 
The piiet may ii.i\e 111 mind liie 



io8 



API2T0'I>AN0Y2 



2(0 



dWa /x€ OLoagoi' tov erepou rolv crolv Xoyotv, 

Tou fxrjoeu oLTrooLOovTa. fXLcrOov 8', ovtlv av 245 

TTpaTTTj jx , ofMOVfJiaL (TOL KaTadijaeLu TOV9 Oeorj<;. 

TTOLov<; deov<i ofxel av ; irpcoTov yap 6eol 

TjfxZv vopLLcrfx ovK ecTTL. St. tw yap OfxvvT ; ^ 

' (TiodpeoLcnv ' axrirep iv Bv^ai^rtw ; 

So). ySouXet ra ^eta TrpdyfxaT etSeVat (Ta(f)(i)<;, 250 

arr' iariv opdux; ; St. V17 Ai', elirep eari ye. 

So), /cat qvyyevicrOai rat? Nec^e'Xatcrti^ et? Xdyov?, 

rat? rjixerepaLCTL SaifMoaLV ; St. fxdkicrTd ye. 



appetite (Seiv^ <^ay£ri') of the can- 
cer (cfyxyiSaLva) or the (3ov\ifjLia 
(Xen. Anab. 4. 5. 7) . Rogers trans- 
lates "a galloping consumption." 

246. irpdrrn : middle voice, to 
charge, defiiand as a price, with 
two accusatives. — KaraOria-civ : to 
pay diyu.ni. — Otovs : with o/Aoi'/xai. 

247. irotovs : used in scornful 
question, or rather exclamation, 
with the word repeated that has 
raised the scorn ; what gods for- 
sooth ? or gods indeed ! 

248. v6piio-pia : means not only 
" current usage and belief," but 
currerd coin, currency, which is 
Strepsiades' sense of it. Since 
Greek coins were often stamped 
with the image of the gods, he 
naturally asks, ivith what cur- 
rency, pray, do you swear (if you 
have no ^eos-currency) ? — tu» : 
seems to be the syntax of business 
(dat. of instrument), not of re- 



ligion (ace. of the god sworn by). 

249. o-i8apcoio-i : the Doric 
form because Byzantium was a 
Doric colony. Perhaps he drawls 
out with some contempt the men- 
tion of their i-i-i-r-on money 
though probably at this period 
iron was used only in obols, if at 
all, even among the Dorians. 

250-62. A bit of parody on the 
initiation into Orphic mysteries. — 
TO, Otia irpd-yjiaTa : true religion, 
or theology ; in prolepsis, as at 95, 
145. 

251. arra: — uTiva; SO 345, 
589, and often. — 6p0ws: see on 
228. Science every now and then 
offers a " correct " exposition of 
religion. Professor Socrates and 
rustic Strepsy are enduring types. 

253. T)|x(T€paia-i : an emphatic 
our. Unemphatic "our" would 
be T/jUwv in predicate position. 



NE<I>EAAI 



109 



S(o. KaOiC^e Toivvv inl tov upov cTKLfXTroSa. 
St. ISov KcLOrnxai. So). tovtovX toivvv \n^e 255 

TOV aTe(f)avov. St. eVl tl (TTecfiavnv ; olfxoi, 



^OJKpaTt^, 



ojcnrep fxe tov W6dp,av6^ ottm^ pr) OvcreTe. 
S<o. ovK, aXka Tama ndvTa tov^ TeXovpevov^ 

r)pel<; TroLOvp,€v. St. eira 8t) tl Kephavw ; 

Sw. XeyeLv yevrjaei Tplppa, KpoTakov, TTanTaXy). 260 



254. o-KCji-iroSa : the .sacred .s-(^'/(?, 
trundle-bed, or cot caricatures the 
Qp6vo<i used in the Orphic initia- 
tion. Cp. the Eleusinian scene in 
the Frontispiece. 

256. tirl tI : to what purpose. 

257. p.< : object ot" dvcrtTt, liut 
thrust well to the front, even into 
the heart of a word-group ; see 
Appendix. — birws : with fut. indie, 
expressing exhortation or coni- 
mand(S. 1 1 15, HA. 886. (i. 1352); 
common in daily speech, e.i;. 489, 
882. — Ovo-cTt : at sight of the 
wreath Strepsiadcs recalls that 
victims of sacrifice were wreathed, 
al.so that he had seen (perhaps 
recently) the unhappy Athamas 
thus wreathed for death in the 
tragedy by Sojjhoclcs — Athamas 
that had married Nt<f>i\r) ! And 
was not he himself seeking an 
interview with the Nt<^eA/u? No 
wonder he yowls oifixii. 

258. Tovs TtXovjUvovs : t/ie ini- 
tiates ; reassuring for tlic victim. 



259. -fiiicis : professional. — Kcp- 
8avw : the question of questions for 
Strepsiades — what he is to make 
out of it. 

260. He is to become more 
than a "clever speaker" (Scii'o? 
At'yeti/) ; he is to be a snioot/i fel- 
low (TpififMi) ; a rattler (or clap- 
per, or Castanet, KpoToXov) : fine 
meal '\\st\i (TraiirdKr]) — all terms 
cho.sen appropriate to the action ; 
for according to the schol. Socrates 
here rubs some porous stones to- 
gether (hence rpi/ii/xtt, " Sia to rpi- 
(itadai Toi's XlBov; "), then knocks 
thiin against each other (hence 
KpOTuXov, "8ia TO Kpovtardai"'), then 
gathers up the small fragments 
and dredges the old man with 
them as with flour. All this is a 
close parody on the rite of purifi- 
cition {K<i.6tip(TL<:) as ])ractiscd l)v 
itinerant su|)erstition-peddlcrs on 
ignorant dupes. .See the Frontis- 
piece ('' Initiation into the F.Icu- 
sinian Mysteries"). 



APl2TO$ANOY2 



aX\ e^ aTpefxei. St. fxa top Al\ ov ^€-ucreL ye jxe ' 
KaTa7raTT6fxeuo<; yo-p TranraXTj yeurjcrofxai. 



Sco. ev(f)r]fxelv ^pr) tov TTpea-jSvT-qp Kal t>J? ev)(yj(; ina- 
Kove.iv. 
d) oecTTTOT ava^, ap,eTprjT 'Ar^'p, 69 ^X^^^ '^V^ yV^ 

p-erecopou, 
Xa/x7rpo<? T AlOrjp, crefMuaL re 0eal Nec^eXat ^pov- 
TrjcTLKepavpoL^ 265 

apOrjTe, (j)dvrjr\ w hecnroivai, tm (fypouTLaTrj 
ixerecopoi. 
St. fXTj-noi fxrJTToi ye, irplv av tovtI TTTv^cofxai, [xrj Kara- 
/3/Jex^w. 



262. Tims dredged Strepsiades 
is sure he will become a floury 
(flowery) speaker. The initiation 
is carried on into the 

IIAPOAOS 263-477 
After the spoken iambic trim- 
eters of the TrpdAoyos follows the 
TrapoSos or Chorus Processional, 
partly chanted, partly sung. In 
this play, however, the chorus does 
not come into view till v. 326. 

263-74. Chanted anapaestic 
tetrameters; see Introd. § 132 /3' 
for rhythm, § 132 a' for diction. 

263. €v4>T|p,civ : tiie solemn 
opening word of religious service 
( = favete Unguis'), in slow spondaic 
measure. — liraKovciv : to listen to 
with attention. 

264 f. This trinity of gods is 
not born of tlic poet's fancy. He 



is satirizing the materialism of his 
day. Air was god for Diogenes 
of Apollonia (n. on 239), aether 
for Euripides the rationalist, and 
Ne<^eAat merely visualize the new 
nonsense and complete a trinity — 
the preferred number in oaths and 
other solemnities. — ova| : at this 
time was no longer used as in 
Homer of human princes and mas- 
ters, but only of deities and heroes 
( = Lord) . 

265. PpovTT)o-i-KepavvoL : altered 
to suit the new goddesses from 
Homer's epithet of Zeus, Ttp-m- 
Kepavvoi- 

266. 4>po''Ti(rTfj : i.e. Socrates ; 
not in the humble tone of '' David 
thy servant,"' imt in that of " Pro- 
fessor Socrates thy sa7/ant." 

267. TovTi : se. TO IfxaTLOi'. 



NE<I>EAAI 1 1 1 

TO 8e /xr^Se Kvvrju oiKoBev iXOelv e'/xe toi^ KaKoSai- 
fiov' e)(ovTa. 
So). eXOere SrJT, w TrokvTijJirjTOL Ne(^eXat, tojS' elq int- 

eiLT in 'OXv/xTTOu Kopv(f)al^ le/aat? ^Lovo^XrjTOKXi 

Kadrjade, 270 

eir' ^ilKeauov Trarpcx? eV K7J7roL<; Upou ^opou LcrraTe 

err' a/3a NetXou 7r/3o^oat<? vScltcov ^/aucreai? dpvecrde 

TTp6)(0LCnV, 

17 Matoirti^ \ip,vr)v €)(^eT rj aKoireXoi' vccfioeuTa Mi- 

/xavTo<? * 
vnaKovcraTe Se^dfxeuaL dvaiau kol 7019 lepulo'L ^a- 

petcrat. 



The candidate having thus veiled 
himself, the parody uf an initiation 
was complete ; see tiie Frontis- 
piece. 

268. TO eXBtiv €fA€ : /^^ //u;ii' of 
my cotniiig! exclamat. inf.. .S. 
1262, HA. 962. (J. 1554- 

269. TwSt : .Slrepsiades ; goes 
with eVtSticH'. — €ls: of purpose, 
aseVi'in 256; to display yourselves. 

270-73 Not by name does the 
|)oit indicate the points of the 
compa.ss, hut hyijittures: in the 
North, tile siunvsweftl sacred sinit- 
nnts flf Olyi/t/nts ; in the West 
Father Ocean's i;<irdciis, \\ Iwre /'or 
the iiyiiif>lis the ('ImikIs niin^e sn- 
creit i/auce-andsoHi; ; likewise in 
South and East. 



272. {i8aTwv : •' i)artitive" ob- 
ject of u/ji'£(r6't ; c]). 59. 

273. Lake Maeotis is the mod- 
ern Sea of Azov. The snowy 
clitTof Mimas juts out from Ionia, 
just above Chios. 

274. vir-aKouaaT< : '• hear and 
ansiuer,''' i.e. respond, obey ; dis- 
ting. from in-aKoiiuy 263. — Upoia-i : 
neut. ; rites, ser7'ice(? The only 
"sacrificial victim" present u.is 
Strepsiades). — xapfio-ai: a r.gular 
ritual term : Jindniii pleauire in. 
Note the marks of poetry tiuis far : 

(1) no article with Kopvtiau'i. ira- 
Tf}i>s. »<»;7roi<;, Trf)U)(().U'i. trKHTuXov : 

(2) locative dat. 7rpo\<)iu>i without 
preps.; (3) the word Tr^ioytjiiK 
(oiitpournii^s) lor (rro/iu {.mouth 



APnT0<l>AN0Y2 



280 



Xopds 

aevaoi Ne<^eXat, \A^^ 

dp0(i)fieu (f)avepal Spocrepav (f)vcnp evdyrjTov, 276 
Trdrpog 0.77' 'flKeauov /8a/3fd^eo? 
vxp-qXwf opeoiv Kopv^a<^ im 

8e^'SpoKd/^ov9, cva 
Tr}Xe(f)avel<; (TKottlols dcfyopatixeda, 
KapTrov<; t dphop,evav lepdv ^Bova, 
Koi TTOTaixcov t^aOecov KeXaSijixaTa, 
Kol TTOvTov KeXdSoPTa ^apv/3pofxov ' 
ofxjxa yap aWepo^ d/cct/Aaroi' creXayetrat 

IJiapfJiapeaLCTLV avyat?. 



285 



of river) ; (4) the uncontracted 
forms xpvaiaii;, vK^devra (273) ; 
(5) dpvw for dpvTw; (6) 7rp6)(ov<; 
for vBpui (p/tcAer), the compound 
Xiov6-l3\r)To<;, aKOTrcAos for aKpov 
or opos, n(/)dets for ;^iovi^6/xci'os 
or vL<f>6p.€vo<;. 

275-90. Still invisible, the 24 
Clouds " hear and answer " the 
invocation with a (TTpotfty of dac- 
tyls ; see Introd. § 134. " Except 
in the Nubes and Aves, where 
Arist. strikes a higher note, the 
lyrical portions of Comedy are 
rarely free from parody" (Starkie 
on Vesp. 317). The "higher 
note " is finely struck in the ttuvo- 
pu/xa following. Poetic as the dic- 
tion is, there is no trace of parody. 

276. As "deep calleth unto 
deep," so the Clouds summon 



each other to rise to view (<l>ave- 
pai) in dewy ductile forjn. — 
4>vo-iv: ace. of specificat. ; in the 
sense of form cp. Homer's <^vrj 
in 01) Sipwi ovSe <^vrjv (//. l- 115)- 

281. d()>-opw|j.e6a : a.cf>-opav is 
to look off at, to regard from a 
distance. From their mountain- 
summits they see the four things 
most salient : mountain-spurs 
(o-KOTTtai), valley, river, and sea. 

282. Kapirovs: acc. of speci- 
ficat. with dp8o/u,€vav; cp. Xen. 
a.TTOTfJirjOiVTe'i ras Ke<f>aXa<i. 

285. -ydp: the endless night 
of v. I is now passed, and the 
clouds rise (dpOwfxev 276), not 
because summoned by Socrates 
as he boasts in 291, but because 
(yap) aether''s eye (the sun) is 
gleaming. 



NE4>EAA1 



"3 



dXX' oLTTOcreLcrdixevaL u€(f)o<i ofx^piov 
a.davdTa<i toe'a? iTrLOcofxeda 

TT/XecTKOTTw OfjifJiaTL yoXav. 290 

2co. cu fxeya aefxvai, Ne<^e'Xai, (f)av€p(i)<; rjKovcraTe fxov 

KokicravTO';. 
TjcrBov (f)(Dvrj<; dfia koL ^povrrjq jxvKiqcraixevrjf; deo- 

(rcTTTov ; 
2t. /cat cre/BofxaL y\ w TToXvTLfxrjTOL, /cat /8ovXo/xat di^ra- 

TTOTTapSelu 



288. v(<|>os ofi^piov : they are 
to s/iai'e off the rain cloud from 
their itnmortnl fortn (iSea? gen.) 
like some black l/xaTiov. Schol. 
on 289 says they are to appear in 
i.(jQx\'i iroLKiKf). — Note the depar- 
tures from prose level in the sung : 
(l) Doric d in iv-dyrjTov (rfyiofiai) 
276, (iafjv-u)((0'i 278. dp6ofXivuv 282, 
u6avdTa(; 289; (2) uncunlracted 
fiapv-uxio<; 278, opiwv 279, fuifjfiu- 
pt'uis 286; (3) middle voice of 
a<f}opwfjit6u 281 ; (4) poetic words 
deVaot 275, )(^6<j)v 282, ^d6to<; and 

Kl\ll6y'llJJlTUL 283, OfJifMl, (TlXaytlTUl, 

and (l/cu/xaTO^ 285, fjxippApio<i 286. 
v/t^os 287; (5) poetic compounds 
ScfS/jo-KU/xof 280, T-q\t.-<^avr'i<i 28 1. 
TTjAc-ffKOTTOS 290, fiapv-ayij': 278, 
(itipv-lipofjio<i 284: (6) the forms 
uftifctTa? (-uTou) 289. ynukv 290; 
(7) the long first syiialile of wa- 
Tpos 277, as in Kck/jottos- 301 . Set- 
note on 335. 

AKISTOPHANKS — 8 



291-97. A return to tlie 
chanted anapaests. The poetic 
touches here, as /A-ya for fidXa, 
and fxvKr)(7aixivr}<; and dtoaiirrov 
in 292, are meant only as bombast. 

292. Note the sound play on 7/. 

— Schol. on 294 says of the theatric 
(SpuvTCLow or thunder macliine : yv 
dp(t)optv<;, if/r)4)l6a<; (prliblcs) txioy 
6a\aiT(TLu^. iji' 6k \il3r]<i {kc/(lt') 
Xu-Xkoxs. €is ov at \pij<^OL KaTr'iyoyTu, 
Koi KvXiofiti'ai. {by their rolliiii;) 
r}XOv dirtTiXovv ioiKOTa lipovTij. 

293. KttC . . . Y* : a.s.sents, and 
adds an empi\atic item ; aye, and. 

— Here, hard upon true |)i)etry, 
follows, as so often in Arisl., 
coarse jesting, which can only be 
condemned by modern standards, 
yet is left standing that the stu- 
dent may learn of other dinics 
and ages than his own. ivr-afro- 
irapStiv ; Imm TripfHtpiti ti> l>> cak 
lutiiU. 



114 



API2TO<l>ANOY2 



7r/3o<s ra? l3pouTd<i ' ovtojs aura? rcrpefxaLva) Kai 

Kel 0€fjLLq iaTLv, vvvt y 17817, /cet fxr^ 6efXL<; icTTL, ^e- 

creLO). 295 

Sa>. ov fJi-q aKcoxlfY)^ /xr^Se TTOLrjcrr^f; airep ol Tpvyohaip.oveq 

OVTOL, 

aXX' €v(f)7JiJLeL ' jxiya yap tl decou Kiuelrau (rfx'fji'O'i 
aotoat?. 



Xo. irapdeuoL ofx^po^opoi, [dvTw8V| 

eXdcojxep XiTTapau ^66va IlaXXaoo?, evavopov yav 
KeKpo7ro<? oxlfOjxevai TroXvrjpaTOP • 301 

ov crel3a<? dppyJTcju lepoju, tVa 



294. T€-Tp£p.aCvw : a redupli- 
cated Tpefxw. 

295. x*<''*'**= 'I desiderat. in 
-acioj from x^'C*^ ^^ £^ ^^ stool; 
S. 616, HA. 573, G. 868. 

296. ov (1^: with subjv., usu- 
ally with fut. indie, to express 
strong prohibition ; S. 1639, GMT. 
297 f., 301, G. 1361. HA. 1032 a. 

— Disapproval of what the " comic 
devils " do on the stage is a 
standing joke upon themselves. — 
Tpv-yo-Saijioves, formed on analogy 
of KaKo-Saifjiove^, is a comic variant 
on Tpvy-w8oL, lees-singers, the rus- 
tics who smeared their faces with 
wine-lees and sang derisive .songs. 

297. doiSais : wSais in prose. 

— The Clouds having summoned 
each other from the ends of tlie 



earth with song (after the manner 
of the Valkyrs in Wagner's opera), 
Socrates may well say that a per- 
fect swarm (afJLrjvo^) of goddesses 
is astir with so/igs. 

299-313. A bird's-eye view of 
an ideally holy city. The student 
should note for himself the Doric 
forms and poetic diction, syntax, 
and metre, which mark this anli- 
strophe as the mate of tlie strophe. 

300. Xiirapdv : s/ii)iiii'^, bril- 
liant ; an epithet bestowed by 
Pindar, and proudly claimed and 
expected by the Athenians ever 
after; see Ac/i. 640. 

302. ov (TC^as : sc. icTTi. dp- 
prjTu are tlie Mysteries. — iva: 
where, as in 190. 

303. 86p.os : the temple that 



NE<1)EAAI 



115 



iv reXerat? dytat? dpaSeLKuirraL, 
ovpavioi<; re Oeol^ 8ci>/3>^'/xara, 
vdoi 6' v\jjepe(f)ei,<; /cat dydkixara, 
Kol TTpoaoSoi ixaKoipojp ie/D0J7arat, 
evarecpavoL re dea)u dvcriai Qakiai re 

TTauTooanaLcnu ajpai^, 
r]pi T iirep)^oix€u(o Bpopia )(dpL^, 
evKeXdSo)u re ^opwv epeOia-p.aTa, 

Kai fxovaa ^apv/BpofjiOf; avkoju. 

St. 7j-po9 Tov A109 duTL^oko) cre, (ftpdaov, Tive<; (.la, w 



305 



3«o 



V 



(jjKpaTe<;, avTai 



•'receives tlie initiated"' (fiva-rr)'; 
and 8c';i(o/Jiat) is in sad trutli tliroivn 
wide {a.va.hi.iKvvT.Li) at the present 
time; it lies in ruins in the vil- 
Ia<(e of Eleusis, twelve miles from 
Athens. 

305. ovpaviois : in contrast to 
Demeter and Persephone, the j^od- 
desses of the temple at Eleusis 
just mentioned. The.se belonged 
to the nether group (^yQovmi). 

306. Also of these hii^h-ronfcd 
temples the ruins still stand, e.i^. 
of tiie Parthenon and the The- 
seum : hut the colossal statues 
(aydXiuiTa) of Athens have per- 
ished. 

307. /'rocessifltts vwst sacred 
to the blessed gods were especially 
hrilliant at the I'anathenaca and 
the Dionysia, comi)ining the glit- 
tering cars and the ef|instrianism 
of our secular circus i),iradc with 



the music of a church-pageant at 
St. Peter's and tiie sacred dance 
of tlie ancient Hei)rews. 

308. €v<rT«<j>avoi : because vic- 
tim, altar, priests, and banqueters 
all wore ciiaplets. 

310. Over against the sacri- 
fices and banquets of' nil seasons 
is set pre-eminently, 7ii/ieii sprint^ 
comes on, the Bromian Joy, i.e. the 
Dionysiac festival now present, 
with its teasini^s of tuneful cho- 
ruses. — The adj. fipo/uot roarini; 
(verb (ipiixut), Ironi the frequency 
of its a|)plication to Auiivtros'. 
came to be a proper name Itpo/xios 
for the god obstreperous. 

312. ^p<6((rfiara : proroeatiTes 
to joy in gencr.il : or it may refer 
tf) the contests of dithyrambic. 
tragic, and comic choruses. 

313. ^oOcra : ntitsii. ^apv- 
ppo|ios : applied to the llute 



ii6 



API2TO$ANOY2 



at (fidey^afxepdi tovto to ae^vov , ^xwv -qpcpuai Tives 

elcnv ; 315 

So). ryVtcrr', dXA.' ovpdviai Nec^eXai, /AcyaXat deai dv- 

opdcTLP dpyols ' 
aiirep yvwixrjv koi Scdke^LU /cat uovv rj/xlv irape'^ov- 

criv 
Kat TepaTeiau /cat nepike^LU /cat Kpovaiv /cat /cara'- 

Xi7i/;tz/. 



(ai'Ads) must be loud-sounding 
ratlier than deep-sounding. — On 
re-study of the ode as a whole, 
note the sound play in the endings 
of 304-309, the in 309, the echo 
in €VKika8o<; 312 of the strophic 
words KekaS-^ixara 283 and Ktkd- 
SovTa 284, the repetition of fiapv- 
(ipofxo'i 313 from 284, and the 
scansion of KeKpoTro? 301 and 
ISapv(3poixo'y 313. A memorizing 
and chanting of the ode will help 
one to feel why Arist. is numbered 
among the great poets of the 
world. 

314-438. Anapaestic tetrame- 
ters. 

314. avrai ; the Clouds are not 
seentill323 ; but Strepsiadesknows 
they are hero-esses from their fem- 
inine voice. 

315. (iniv : nij ovv = 'surely not 
. . . , are they ? ' 

316. •t]Ki<rT dXXd : drop dWd 
in tran.sl.. as in v- 204. 

317. -yvw|iT)v : has many mean- 



ings : jnaxini^ glittering generality, 
striking tliought m a telling 
phrase. A glib talker with the 
knack of striking off such yv(i)fw.i 
was called yvwp.o-Tviro<; ; cp. 952. 
— • SidXcliv : dialectic, the art of 
disputation, debate. — vovv : rea- 
son. 

318. What the rhetorical ideals 
of V. 317 amount to is now given in 
plain Aristophanese : phrases por- 
tentous and prating, striking and 
catching — the last two reminding 
one of the famous law-firm "U. 
Ketchum and I. Cheatham." — 
irepCXs^iv : merely circumlocution, 
not '* talking round " one to de- 
ceive him. — Kpovo-iv: may mean 
aTTaTr} deceit, as the schol. says 
and as it often certainly does mean ; 
but perhaps it is better here to 
take it of striking, telling rhetoric. 
Note the series of derisive abstracts 
in -(Tis, parodying the word-forma- 
tions and phraseology cf the New 
Rhetoric. 



NE<l>EAAI 



117 



St. ravT ap aKovcraa* avTcjv to <f)0e'yfx' 17 ^XV /^"^^ 

TTenoTrjTaL, 
Kai XeiTToXoyeiv t^St^ ^17761, koI nepl Kanvov (TTefoke- 

o-x^ti/, 320 

Kai yucofxCoLO) yvojixrjv vu^aa eTepco Xoycu dvTLkoyrj- 

craL ■ 
cocTT , et 7rcL)<; ecrrti^, tSeti^ avra? 17817 (f)avep(o<; inL- 

Ovpo). 
2(0. ySXeVe i/w 8et»/3t Trpo? 717 z^ Hdpurjd^ • 17817 ya/D opoj 

/carioucra'; 
■r)(TV)(fj auTa<?. St. (/)e/9e, ttov ,■ Sei^oi^. Sw. ;j(aj- 

povcr avraL ttclpv TroXXat 
Ota Twt' KoiXojv KoX Toju oacrioyv, avrac TrXayiat. 

St. tl to xprjixa , 
CU9 ov Kadopoj. So), napd ttjv ^Icrooov. 

vvvL /xdXt? oi/roj<;. 



325 
St. 17817 



319. TavT apa ; so then, that's 
the reason then; cp. 353. Tu.vT^x, 
adverbial ace = outw5 (S. 993, 
HA. 719 c, G. 1060), but we may 
translate as if 8ia tuOtu. — <^0^'Y(i.a : 
perliaps a high word. — irtiriTiiTai : 
TTOTtio/iuit, a poetic derivat. of ttc'to- 
/xai ; the perfect - to be a-flutter, 
to be on the wim^. 

320. XfWTO-XoYciv. <rT«vo-\t- 
«rx«iv : to subtiiize and quibble-ize. 
— Kairvov : the first syllable is 
long, though in 330 it is short. 

321. The duel of sophists is 
not between brain and brawn, but 
between sharp and "shar|)er." 
rapierand bodkin,styleand stiletto. 



— Xo-yu) avTi-Xo-yfierai : word-pl.iy ; 
to coitnterart^iie or arj^ue bat k with 
argument. 

322. After his Ktidaptn^ or 
purification. Streps, now longs to 
pass to the last stage of initiation, 
the cV-OTTTtui or actual vision of 
the gods. 

323. Ml. I'arnes frowns dnwn 
on the Attic plain from the north. 

324. avTtti : there, vouiier. 

325. irXd-yiai : r/.vA////, |)robably 
trailing colours of simset and sun- 
rise glory (urB)]<i TTotKiAt;. schol. 
299). 

326. liif : causal. — •l<ro6ov : 
I.e. to the theatre. To bn .ik 



ii8 



API2T04>AN0Y2 



Sco. vvv ye rot rjor) Kadopa<s avra?, el jxr) Xry/xct? koXo- 

KVl'TaL<i. 

St. vrj At" eywy, o) TTokvTijxiqTOi ' iravTa yap rjSr] /care- 

)(ov(rL. 
2(0. raura? fiepTOL crv dea<; ovcra<; ovk ySr)cr9^ ov8' iuo- 

ftt^e? ; 
St. ^o. At", dX.X' 6yiV)(\'qv Kol opocrov at»Ta.<? r)yo}jfJiy]p /cat 

KaiiTVOV eivaL. 33° 

S(o. ov yctp, yLta At", olcrd^ otltj TrXetcrrov? aurat /8o- 

CTKOVCTL <TO(f)LaTd<;, 

SovpLOfxapTetq, ldTpoTe)(pa<;, dpSpa^ fxeTe(i)po(f)€vd- 



through the illusion of the play by 
allusion to the realities of the 
theatre is a common trick of com- 
edy to the present day. — ti8ti vuv( : 
now at length. 

328. w iroXxiTipLTiToi : exclama- 
tory, as in 219 ; not address. Tlie 
word is a regular epithet of the 
gods ; cp. 269, 293, and often. — 
irdvTa : i.e. the whole place. — 
KaTtx.owo-1 : are occiipying. 

330. jtdA£a: negative ; O Zeus, 
no. Drop dAA.a in translat., as in 
204. 

331-34- As in 316, it is not 
Socrates, but Arist. ma.sked as 
Socrates, that is speaking. 

331. -ydp : that is because. — 
oTi^ : probably from on ^, that in 
truth ; common in Arist. as in 755, 
784, 1046, 1258. Cp. TIT/. — Po- 
(TKovo-i : to pasture, 7>ictual, provide 



provender ; of men used only con- 
temptuously, for Tfjicf^w. Cp. aX- 
cfiLTj. 106. — (ro({>ia-Tds '.professors', 
from ao(f)L^o} to make wise. The 
various species are named in- the 
next verses : prophets, pill-men, 
p(h)ilosophers, and poets. 

332. Caesura isolates the items 
as in 13, 225. By Thurian sooth- 
sayers he means such as Lampon, 
still high in favour as he was with 
Pericles, who had put him in 
charge of all religious matters 
connected with the founding of 
Thurii (443 k.c), making him, as 
it were, Bisliop of the Philippines. 
— larpoTt'xvas : at this time the 
most famous healing artists were 
Hippocrates, the Father of Medi- 
cine, and Herodicus, brother of 
the .Sicilian orator Gorgias. — 
(tcTeu>po-(t>evaKa9 : transcenclental 



NE<i>EAAI 



119 



kvkXlcop re )(op(jju acr/xaToKct/xTrra?, a<f)pdylSouvx- 

apynKOfXTqTa<;. 
ovosu op(jJi'Ta<^ /SocTKOva dpyou^, OTL ravra? fj.ovao- 

TTOLOVCTL. 

St. ravT ap iiro'-ovv xrypav Nec^eXai^ crrpcTrratyXat' 
odiov opfxdp, 335 

' TrXo/ca/xouq 0' eKaToyKe(f)dka Tu^oi,' ' vprjfiaLvov- 
cra<? re 6veWa<;,' 



quacks ; the early gropers in as- 
tronomy and meteorology (ra 
oupavia). as Anaxagoras, Hip- 
pias, Melon, Prodicus (vv. 360- 
61), and Diogenes of Apollonia 
(see on 229. 264). Astronomy 
was as disquieting to the estab- 
lished religion then as was Evolu- 
tion to the modern world forty 
years ago. 

333. T€ : connects ftoctKovnt in 
331 with its repetition in 334: cp. 
359. 566, 571, and often. — ao-jxaTo- 
Kd(nrTas : the ' soii}^ twisters of the 
circle-choruses' are the poets of 
dithyrambs, whose music was 
florid with ornament and whose 
choruses circled alx)ut the altar 
and were not ranged Ttrfxlymyoi 
(J'our-corncrcd) as in the drama. 
— <r«^paYi8-KT€. : sealri)i^-lon(^- 

nailed-itilettiiiite-lnnji^liairs ; the 
persistence of the tyix: .seems to 
prove that Arist. his here hit on 
the essentials, nf)t thr ncciUentiu, 
of fine-art professionals. (Cp. 
Tennyson's " snowy-banded, dilet- 



tante, delicate-handed priest.") 
F"or the long hair see 349. Ach. 
390, Av. 9ti. 

335. TavT apa : see 319 n. — 
€iro(ovv : composed, i.e. celebrated 
in song. Note in the following 
(i) Doric a in gen. pi. and 
gen. sing. (-K£</)a\a). (2) long 
first syllable in vypav (cp. 320, 

301, 277 KaTTl/Ol', KtKpOTTO?, 

Trarpoj), (3) poetic vocabulary, 
(4) compound adjectives, and (5) 
the sound-play with the Doric a. 
These plirases may be quotation, 
not parody; see Introd. §35. 
The student might find par.dlels 
in English literature (or t/te raTag- 
ing rush of lif/'iid Clouds sheen- 
•whirling. With rrrpenr-aiyAai' 
cp. TtfiTn-Kipivvwi in Homer. 

336. To call the Clouds the 
tresses of hundred-headed Typhos 
(god of the whirlwind) would not 
now be hi-ld ln)ml)astic; and 
scorching lilasts is a commonplace. 
Rut in th.il great jx-riod of dreek 
literature lliey seemed lurid and 



I20 



APl2TO$ANOY2 



€LT ' depta? Ste/od? ya/xi//ov«; olwvovf; depoi'T^^et?,' 
' ofx/Spovi 6^ vhaTOJV hpo(T€pav ^e(f)e\au' ' etr' at'T* 

avToiv Kareinvou 
Ke(TTpai> Teixd^rj fxeyaXau ayadav Kped t opvideta 

Ki^y]kdu. 
So). 8td /xeWot TctcrS' ou^l St/catw? ; St. \4^ov Srj 

fxoi, TL TTadovaai, 34o 

eLirep i^ecfyekaL y et(Tl^' dXr]0(o<i, dpr)Tal<; eiL^acn 

yvvai^iv ; 
ov yap eKelvaL y etcrl rotavrai. So). <^cp€, 

TTOtat ydp 7ivi% etcrtv ; 
St. ovk otSa aaffyax; ' el^acriv S' Ol;^' ipCoLcnv TreTTTajxe- 



windy rather than simple and 
direct. — -rrpiiiiaivovo-as : an equiv. 
of Homeric irp-qOo} to blow and to 
burn. 

337. dcp(as Supas : Homer calls 
the sea the wet (vypi]) as he calls 
morning t/ie early {rjoi-q) ; so here 
the feminine adj. depia .serves 
as substantive. But the air- 
switnining, crook-clawed birds of 
the liquid airy (meaning the 
clouds) leaves Homer far behind. 

338. olvt' avTwv : ill return for 
which (phrases). 

339. Kix^iXa is Doric for KiyXt] 
thrush. — Opportunity for this 
feasting was had by the " cyclic " 
poets at the training tables of the 
ten choruses — one for each tribe, 
the expenses of which were met 



by the rich men of the tribe in 
turn as yop-ayoi. 

340. TacSc : i.e. rots v£<^eAas 
ivaivovfjitvas. — ov\\ 8iKa((os : sup- 
ply KaraTTivovaL ; i.e. " Is this guz- 
zling of goodies any more than a 
just recompense for their fine 
phrases in honour of these god- 
desses ? " — tC iraOovoroi : what is 
the matter 7uith than that — f 
S. 1279 c, HA. 968 c, G. 1566. 

341. €)I|ao-i : 3d pi. of lotKa. 

342. cKclvai : yonder clouds in 
the sky. 

343. 8' ovv : he does not know 
exactly ; but certainly. — ireirra- 
|i,cvoio-iv : prose would use dva-Trc- 
rdi/i'u/i.i, here, as so often, electing 
the compound verb, while poetry 
chooses the simple. 



NE4>EAAI 



KOv)(l yvi/aL^LU, fxa. At", oti8' otlovv ' avTai 8e plva<s 
e^ovaiv. 
So). OLTTOKplvai vvv arr' av epa>/xat. St Xeye vvv 

Ta^eoj<; o tl /BouXet. 345 

So). i70')7 TTor' ai^a/^Xei/za? eioe? v€.(^i\rjv Kevravpoi ofxoCau, 
rj TTapodkeL, rj Xvko), rj ravpo) ; St. ui] At eyojy. 
elra tl tovto ; 
So). yiyvovTai irdvO^ ocra /^ovkovTat ' ko-t rju fxeu tooicrt 
KOfxrJT'qi' 
aypLou TLva toju Xacricov TovTcuf, olounep top He- 

VO^dvTOV, 

(TKcoTTTOvaaL Ty]v fxauiav avTov Keuravpoc^ -^Kacrau 
auTct?. 350 

St. tl yap, r)u dpnaya tojv orjfxocTLCou KaTLOojcTL ^Lfxcoua, 
TL SpwcTL ; 



344. plvas ; tlic schol. says tliat 
the noses were /xeyaAat and the 
masks in other ways ridiculous 
and unseemly. The business of 
comedy was caricature, not pres- 
entation of beauty, as perhaps we 
should prefer here. — Note that in 
comedy initial p will always make 
a preceding short syllable long 
except in parodies and hexame- 
ters. Here 8e jnva<; as if hip- 
pmz? ; cp. the written double p 
in augment {Ip-fnov for example), 
and see 416. 647. and often. 

346. i\hr\ irori : t'Ti'f at iiny 
lime, rrc ii<ra>. Cp. I In inlet 3. 2, 
where the courtier Foloniiis. in 
careful accord with the wish of the 



prince, finds that yonder cloud is 
now '• like a camel," now " backed 
like a weasel," now " very like a 
whale." 

349. aYpiov : iec/ierous. — tov 
g€vo4>dvTou : is the dithyrambic 
poet Hieronymus, one of the s/i<ii^- 
heads (AfifTioc) of v. 333, and men- 
tioned by name in Ach. 388 — 
possibly i)res(nting a <iithyranib 
at this .same festival. 

350. fiavCav : here is lenu/ness. 

— Kfvravpoif : because as half- 
beasts they were Kiurun and dypioi. 

— |]Ka(rav : gUdinie aor. (cikii^'d)' 
as seen b\ tin- hkmkI nt the condi- 
tioning clause. 

351. £((iwva : .some tem]>orary 



API2T0<I>AN0Y2 



2<o. diro(f)aLi'ov(rai rrju (fivaLU avTov Xvkol l^ai^vr)<i lyi- 

VOVTO. 

St. TavT dpa Tavra Kkecopvixov avTai tov pLxpacnnv 
X^^'^ tooOcrat, 
ort SetXorarov tovtoi' eatpcou, eka(f)OL oud tovt' iye- 

VOVTO. 

Sa>. KoX vvv y ort KXetcrOepr) eloof, opa<^, ota tovt' iye- 
vovTO yvvalK€<?. 355 

St. xatpeTe roivvv, m SeanoivaL ' /cat pvp, elwep tlvI 
/caXXw, 
ovpapofXTjKr} ptj^are Kafjiol (jjcovrjv, Si 7ra/x/3ao-tXetat. 

Xo. X^'-P'' ^ Trpea-^vTa naXaioyeues, Orjpdrd Xoycov ^iko- 
fxovcrwp, 



unworthy, known now only by 
this verse, v. 399, and a mention 
of him liy Eupolis as a pecu- 
lator. 

352. t-ye'vovTO : gnomic. 

353. Tavra : repeats ravr ; 
thafs it then — tliat's why — ; cp. 
319. — KXetovufiov : in Arist. he is 
a corpulent coward, a greedy cor- 
morant, a perjured flatterer. He 
is barked at and nipped in the 
heels by the poet's jokes for at 
least fifteen years — from AcJi. to 
Thes/n. ; cp. 400, 673 ff. — x^*'? : 
o/ity yesterday ; referring to the 
battle of Dclium fought six months 
before, where there was much 
"shield-throwing" by the defeated 
Athenians. 

354. €Xa<)>oi : proverljially timid. 

355. Kai . . -ye: yes, and 



now; n. on 293. — KXcio-Gcvri : 
another pet abomination of the 
poet, serving twenty-odd years 
(from Aeh. to Ran.) as his model 
of a womanish, lecherous shave- 
ling. — Arist. counts on his pres- 
ence in the audience, and of course 
there is a roar at his expense. — 
Sid TovTo : thafs why. 

356. y^txlperi. : the 24 Clouds 
are now all present. 

357. ovpavofj.T|KT) KT€. : this from 
Strepsy proves that bombast is 
catching. 

358 ff. Chanted for the chorus 
by its headman, or Kopvc^aios 
(Kopv4>y head), who always acted 
as spokesman when the " chorus " 
engaged in non-lyric dialogue 
with the actors. — iraXaioYcvt's : 
sounds Homeric and respectful, 



NE^EAAI 



123 



(TV re, XeTTTOTaTojv \rjpcov lepev, (f)pa.[^e tt/do? rjixa^; 

o TL ^prjl^ei's ■ 
ov yap av aXXco y VTT(x.KOV(raip.^v Tiov vvv fxeTeajpo- 

CrO(f)L(TTCOl' 360 

Trkrjv -q UpoocKco, tco fxkv cot^ta? koI yuu)ixr]<; ovveKa, 

aoL 8e, 
oTt ftpevdveL T iu Tolaiv oSot? /cat T0J(p6a\pco napa- 

/3aXX€t<?, 
Ka.pv7T6or]To<i KaKo. TToXX' dpe^ei, Ka(j> r)plu crepvo- 
7rpo(Tco7Tel<;. 
St. w yrj, tov r^^ey/xaro'?, cj? lepou /cat aepuou /cat 

T6paToj8e<? 
2{o- avTat yo-p tol popat elcri Oeai, rctWa 8e ttolvt icTTL 
<f)\vapo<;. ,v>s 

St. 6 Zeu? S' rjplu, (f)€pe, TTpo<; Trj<; yrj'^, ()vXvpTno<; ov 
de6<; icTTiv ; 



but addresstci tn the grey-headed 
schooll;i)y is of course comic. 

359. XtlTTOTdTCDV KT€. : O pliest 

of subtlest tiiuiiiiile \ Arist. again 
speaks for himself, not for the 
character in the scene. 

360. (UTcupo-o-o(|>i.(rTwv : pro- 
fessors (f tlh- Illicit l.ii^hts. — For 
VT:iiKoviTtn\Lf.v see 274. 

361. irXiiv tj : exrepi \ pko- 
nastic, Hke ilAA' y). — npo8Uu : 
professor of .Synonym antl AtriJjol- 
ogy (aKfjifiu-Xoyui) — an excellent 
teacher. .Socrates said ( I'lato, 
Tlieaet. 151 b). for pupils wiliiout 
ideas. His ao^in is here put on 
a par with Socrates" strut {/ifjiv- 



dvtadai), squint, and other eccen- 
tricities, as sufficient reason why 
these vaporous goddesses should 
"give ear and answer." 

363. €<!>' T|)iiv : cVt' causal. 

364. <I» >*) : O i/tr ; proper ex- 
clamation for a farmer, if '"gee" 
were not slang. For the gen. fol- 
lowing see on 153: for the word 
<l>0 y/Ar/. 319. 

365. Toi : yoi/ kiio^ii, tiuirk you. 
— rdW a irdvra : s, . in the way of 
gods or dogmas. (^Xvapos : tl)e 
Athenians had liefore this heard 
the ( haracters in Kuripides' trage- 
dies reduce the gods lo //<)// .»v7/iv. 

366. irpis T<)s -Yfis : for l,init'\ 



1 24 APIITO^ANOYS 

So). 77010? Zev? ; oti /at) Xr/pT^Vry?, ou8' ecrrt Zev9. St. tl 

Xeyets av ; 
dXXct Tt<? veL ; tovtI yap efxoLy* dnocfirjuai TrpuiTOv 

aTToipTcov. 
So). avTUL StJttov ' /xeyctXot? 8e o"' eyoi (jiqyLeioi^ avTO 

OLod^O). 

(f)epe, TTOv yap ttcottot dvev Nec^eXwt' vovt ^817 reOea- 

crat ; 370 

KaiTOi XPV^ aWpta<; veiv avTou, ravra? 8' dTToOt)- 

fxelu. 
St. 1^17 Toj/ 'AttoXXo), Tourd ye rot 8?) rw i^vi^ Xdyoj eu 

7rpocr€(f)vcra<? ■ 
KairoL irpoTepov top At' dX-qdox; (^jx'r]v 8ta koctklvov 

ovpelv. 
dXX' ocrrt? 6 f^povTcov ian <^pd<jov, rovd^ o fxe 

TTOtet T^TpepLaiveiv. 



sake, perhaps; again the fitting tiBt] : eve?- yet at any time; cp. 

oath. 346, 1 06 1. 

367. iroiosZcvs: 247 n. ; Z^?^i- 371. al6p(as : gen.; /// clear 
Fiddlesticks I — ov |ji^ : 296 n . — weather. — avrov : of himself, 
ov8' ?o-Ti : does not even exist. alone, without the aid of " rauras." 

368. Tis w«i: he has in mind Long before this, Anaximenes had 
Zeus's rainy epithets — o/xf^/jio^. oljserved that rain came only when 
iicTtos, K€\aLi>€<f>ij'i, ve(f>€Xr]yefjlTa. "squeezed out" of thickened 
— <pLoi,7€ : tiiough all the world clouds; but not till now had 
turn infidel, at least (ye) Streps. " science" begun to spread among 
demands proofs. the people. 

369. 8^irov: of course. 372. IVell (Bt^) certainly (tol) 

370. vovra : sc. Atu, often that (rovToye). — «v ■Trpo<r-€4>v<ras : 
omitted with weather-verbs vei'cfiu. neatly clinched ; lit. wade to ^ro^tJ 
PpovTa, aaTfjdvTtL, Kxi. — irwiroT' /ast to. 



NE<I>EAAI 



^25 



S(o. avrat Ppoi'Twcn /cuXt^'5d/xe^'a^.. 2t. tco rponu), 

oi nduTa crv toXjx(op ; 375 

So). oTav iiJLTT\r]<j6oi(j uSaro? ttoWov, KavayKacrOiiXTL 

(pepecrdaL, 
KaTaKprjpudpeuaL 77X17/3619 Ofi^pov St' dva.yKrju, 

eWa ^apeiai 
et? aXXr^Xa? ifJUTLTTTOvcraL prjyvvvTai /cat Trarayovcrt. 
St. 6 o' ai^ay/ca^o)!^ ecrrt ri? aura?, ou^ 6 Zeu?, wcrre 

(fiepecrOaL : 
So). rjKL<TT\ dXX' aWepLOS Alpos- St. Atj/09 ; tovtl 



375. o) iravra o-i) ToXfiwv : tragic 
style. Streps, is shocked but in- 
terested. This tree of knowledge 
had never grown on farm of his. 

375-78- The explanation of 
thunder here and of lightning in 
404 ff. is not a jest of Arist., but 
the real doctrine of the High 
Lights (360) throughout antiquity, 
e.g. of Anaxagoras, Uemocritus, 
Aristotle, the Stoics, and Lucretius. 

376. 4>(p(o-9ai : much used of 
inanimate things, which t^n, cotne, 
or move involuntarily; so in 379, 
395. 406. 

377. 81' dvd-YKT]v : since Py- 
thagoras, |jhilosophcrs had been 
"explaining" the operations of 
nature by amy/c?;, not by the gods ; 
.so in 405, and c|). 1075. 

379. 6 8 dva-yKdJuv . . . t(s : 
the inevitable question which llie 
world stubbornly puts in answer 



to its wise men. when they will 
.solve the riddle of the universe 
by naming the process instead of 
the cause of the process, whether 
the name l)e 'AvdyKt], Tv)(r], Po- 
tent Matter, Evolution, Force, or 
Topsy's "Just Growed." 

380. atO^pios Aivos : not quite 
the modern Evolution, but the an- 
cient theory of an original Revo- 
lution, or Vortex, of the atoms, 
which somehow formed all things 
and was continued in the ctlictuil 
■whirl of sun and stars around the 
earth. The ])hilosophic term was 
usually hivr]\ but Arist. chooses 
hlvo<i as nearer to 810? or Aio?, and 
in |)reparation for the pun to come 
later on ^iios. the name of a deep 
earthenware drinking mug, wiile 
at to]) and running down t(» a 
point, vortex fashion. — 4\«X^0«i : 
just how Zeus could have been 



126 APl2TOct>ANOY2 

6 Zeu? ovK u)V, ahX avT avTov Ati^o? vwl jBoicn- 

Xevojv. 
OLTap ouheu ttco nepl tov Trardyov koX Trj<; ^povTrj<; 

So). ovK r]Kov(jd% jxov, rets Ne(^eXas vSaro? (xzards on 

(j)r][XL 
ejMTrtTTTovcra? dWijXaLcnv iraTaytiv 8ta 7171^ ttvkvo- 

rryra ; 
2t. </)e/3£, Tovrt rw ^(/jt^ TrtcrTeuetf ; So), dno aavTov 

'yd) ere 8t8a^a>. 3^5 

1787/ ^a»/AOt) nai'a^T7^'aiot5 ifJLnXrjcrOeU eV era/act^ ^17 9 
T7)i^ yacrrepa, koI kA.wo9 i^ai^vr]^ avTrjp hueKopKo- 

pvyqcre ; 
St. i^r) rot- 'AttoXXw, Kat heivd iroiel y €vOv<; /Aot, /cat 

TcrapaKTat 
\d)cnr€p ^povTYj TO ^(o/u-tStof TTaTayet Kat 8eti'a 

Ke/cpayei/ 
drpe/ia? TvpwTOv ' TraTrnd^ ' 'TraTTTra^,' KaireiT iirdyei 

' TrarraTra-mrd^,' 39° 

dethroned by Juice (if we may so 386. tiStj : r7vr (346).— navaer]- 

alter his jug) the muddled old man vaCois : a festival when all probably 

could hardly have told. But Ura- over-ate themselves, a prototype 

nus had yielded to Cronus, Cronus of our Christmas. — elTo : i/ir/i, 

to Zeus; why not Zeus to AIvo?? z.^'. under the circumstances in- 

382. ouStv irw . . . eSiStt^as : dicated by the partic. preceding. 

Streps, is indeed i-mXijn-fxtDv. 387- kXovos : a fine war-word 

385. T«i: = TLvi by what C7n- of ihe /had ; din^ tuntwil, tumult, 

detice. — diro o-avToii : an applica- 388. 8eivd -iroui : acts {carries 

tion both of Socrates' favourite Ofi) dreadfully. 

motto, yvwBi auvTov. and of his 389. ^"H-'Siov : luce bit of broth. 

method of teaching by proceeding 390. €ir-d-y€i : eVi- with the 

from tlic known to the unknown. a/?^r-sense it has in e7r-a)8r/, eVt- 



NE*EAAI 127 

^(orav X^'^^' KoixiSy /Spovra TraTraTraTnra^, axnrep 
iKeluau. 
2(0 . (TKeifjat Toivvv oltto yafTT/atStoi; tvuvovtovl ola Treirop- 
Sa?- 
Tov 8' \\epa Tovh'y oW airepavTOj/, irwq ovk et/co? 
fieya ^povTav ; 
Sr. TavT dpa kclI TajvofxaT dkkrjkoLU, ^povTrj koX TTopSrj, 

OfJiOLO). 

dXX' 6 Kepavvo<i irodev av (^eperat kdixvoju TTvpC, 

TovTO 8t8a^o^', 395 

Koi KaTa(f)pV'y€L /3dX\cjp "qfJid^;, tov<; he ^wi/ra? nept- 

TovTOv yap Srj ^avepio<; 6 Zeu? tr^cr' eVi rou*; eVi- 

2a>. Kat TTCtJ?, oi pcjpe crv /cat Kpovioiv ot,o)v Kat f^eKKe- 



Aoyo?. cTTi'-yovo? : hence here ctt- 
dyctv to add or sit/ijoot. Or the 
verb may be used as in military 
matters : to bring on or Av/r/ up 
troops. 

392. •yao-TpiBCou : tiimiiiykiii. — 
Tuvv-ouTou-C : huni Doric tdvvo? 
( — fUKpo^) and ovto? ; ////.» small, 
with a f(estiir(!. Cp. tant-illi(s. 

394. ravT apa : 319 n. — 
PpovT'fi . . . Trop8f| : Streixsy is a 
true ancient in iioldinj^ to a close 
connection between thinj^s and 
their names; and if thinj^s are 
alike their names must be alike- 
though the resemblance here re- 



minds one of the proposed deriva- 
tion of Middletown from iMoses. by 
dropping -oses and suffixing -id- 
dletown. 

395. aij : marks the transit to 
lightning. 

396. Tovs 8^ : while others ; as 
if Tov<i [i.iv had preceded in place 
of rjixas- 

398. Kal TTws : pray ho7v ? — 
Kpovlwv : Cronus reigned I)ef()re 
Zeus. To smell of his times is to 
smell of wigs and knee-breeches 
nowadays, to l)e old-fashioned, 
antcililuvian, palaeozoic. — ^ckkc- 
o-tXiivf : aborii^inal, or contempo- 



128 



API2T0<I>AN0Y2 



ecnep /3aXXet tov<; i7n6pKov<;, SrJT ov^l ^ijxoiv' 

iveirpiqcrev 
ov8e ^sXeo)vvixov ouSe ^eotpov ,• Kairoi a(f)6Spa y 

eicr' iiTiopKOL ' 400 

dWct TW avTov ye veoiv ySaXXet /cat 'Zovviov ' aKpov 

Kat Ta<; opv'? xa? p-eydXa^ • rt fxa$(^p ; ov yap Si) 
8/3V? y' iiTLopKel. 
St. ovk oto' ■ drap eu av Xeyecu (jtaiveL. tl yap icmv 

SrjO' 6 Kepavvo^ ; 
2(1). orav et? ravra? av€.p.o<; $r)po<; ixeTeoipLddel^ /cara- 
/cXetcr^iy, 
evooBev avrct? cocnrep kvcttiv (f)vcra, /cdVet^' vtt' 
dvdyKTjq 405 



rary with the ancient Phrygians 
whose name for bread, ficKKOi;, 
was thought by some to be the 
oldest in the world (Hdt. 2. 2) ; 
or as old as the Arcadians who 
boasted of being pre-lunar (tt/oo- 
creXrivoi) . Hence (itKKeaeXrjvo'i. 

399. 8fjTa : uncommonly dis- 
tant from the interr. tto)?. — 
SCpiwva . . . KXcwvvfiov : the butts of 
351, 353. are now joined by ^etopo'i, 
probably some state official, who 
escapes oblivion solely through 
Aristophanes. 

400. tr^6Bpa: with liriopKoi = 
iiriopKOTaToi desperately per- 
jured. 

401. aKpov 'A0T)vfo)v : a Ho- 



meric phrase (^Od. 3. 278); hence 
long a in aKpov (335 n.) and Ionic 

-€MV. 

402. t( |ia6wv : why? Cp. ri 
7ra6u)v; in 340. — ^dp 8^ : /or 
surely. 

403. ovK ol8a: Poor Strepsy! 
He is not the first nor the last to 
forget to put in a " plea to the 
jurisdiction " before the bar of 
reason. — eo-riv : "What is light- 
ning really ? " 

405. W dvd'yKT)s : viro with gen. 
rather than 8ta with ace. makes 
dmyKT^s a personal agent, as we 
create by capital letters our mod- 
ern deities Nature, Force, Evolu- 
tion. 



NE<I>EAAI 



129 



p't]$a<; avra? e^w (peperaL (TofBapo^ 8ta Tr)v ttvk- 

VOTTjTa, 

imo Tov poC/BSov Kol Trj<; pvfJirj<i awro? iavTou Kara- 

KaidiV. 

St. vr) Ai", eyw yovv aTC\voi<^ eiraOov tovtl ttotc Ata- 

(TLOLCTLV ■ 

otttCjv yaarepa rot? avyyevecnv, Kar ovk ecr^wi' 

7} 8' a/D* i(f)V(raT, eir i^aL(f)pr)(; StaXaKyjaacra Trpo<; 
avTOj 410 

T0)(f)daXfJi(O jXOV TTpOCr€TtXy](T€U Kol KaT€KaV(T€V TO 

irpocroiTTOv. 
Xo. o) Tyj<; fj.€ya.Xr}<; eVt^ti/xT^cra? cro^ia? cjvdpoiTre Trap' 

&j<; evhaifxoiv iv \\0rjuaLOL<; /cai rot? 'EXXr/cri yeurjcreL, 



407. poip&ov : a rare word, = 
pol^o^ ; perhaps hurtling instead 
of the prose whirr or whistling. — 
jlii(M]S : rush, current ; cp. pw-ats, 
pud/xds, pt'w. 

408. Streps, is gettin<( on ; he 
can furnish his own illustration. 
— drcxvus : exactly. — AiacCoio-i : 
a festival old fashioned and deca- 
dent at this time, sacred to Zei? 
MttAi'xios and marked by family 
gather! nj^s : cp. 864. 

409. Y*<'"r«pa : a |;auM( ii fillod 
with fat and blood, which was 
kept turninj^ as it roasted before 
the fire (Horn. Od. 20. 25) — much 
like the Scotch haggis. Kal tlra: 

AKISTOl'HA.NKS — 9 



connecting partic. and finite verb, 
is dropped in English ; so ctVa 
386, lirtiTa 1042, Kai tveiTa 624. 
— 'i<r\u)v : fr^aw = cr^a^oi 1 07. 
" To slacken " is " to slit " ; often 
used of vein-cuttir^g and blood- 
letting. 

410. 8ia-XaKT|<ra<ra : Xiktko), a 
dear word of Euripides, is often 
maliciously borrowed by Aristoph- 
anes. 

412 ff. The KOf)v<f>aio<; is as 
p()m])ous as at first (358) : O Mor- 
tal t/iiit hdst thirsted after, etc. 

413. Kai: broadens the hori/on 
to include all (Greece; >cui " aug- 
mentative.'' 



I30 API2T0*AN0Y2 

et fxvrjfjicoi' el Kai (f)povTLcrTrj<i, /cat to raXaiVoipov 

eV€(TTLl> 

ev Tji ^vxii- Xf^'^ l^V KOifxveL<; fJ^^jO' ecrroj? ixtfre 

[XTjTe plyoju d^Oei Xtau fJLrJT dpiarTav i-m- 

^UjLtet?, 
OLPOv T (XTre^et /cat yvixvaa'toiv /cat twv aXXwiv duoij- 

T(t)P, 

/cat ^e\TL(TTOv TovTO voixit,ei<i, oirep €Iko<? Se^Lov 

duSpa, 
viKav TTpdrTcop /cat ^ovkeviov /cat rrj yXcorrrj ttoXe- 

p,it,oiv. 
St. aXX' ovveKd ye i/zv^rj? areppd'^ SvctkoXokoltov re 

pLepiixvrj^ 420 

/cat (fietScoXov /cat Tpvcrcfiiov ■yacrrpo? /cat Ovjxfipe- 

TnSeLTTPOV, 



416. (i.TiT€ pi-yuv : for long re bition, Success in Public Life 

before p, see 344 n. /xT/re in place {vikuv TrpaTTwv). 

of ju->;8i is perhaps intentionally 419. irpaxTwy : a word much 

grandiose, after the manner of used of jjublic activity in courts, 

poets. — Here a bit of tlie real senate, and assembly ; cp. ttoAi- 

Socrates seems to be introduced; revofxat. — y\u>rTr\: TovroyapoTrXov 

in Plato's 6/////^^w/V/w are lecorded pr/Topo<; (schol.). — iro\e|i.i]^cov : t/t>- 

instances of his endurance, ;n'7'i'r iiii^ battle; heroic for TroAe/Aoiv. 

wearying, ivliether staiutiiig, walk- 420. oiiveKa : quod attiiiet ad, 

ing, or freezing. as for — . — (lepijxviis : a rather 

417 ff. A reversion again to the elevated word for <^povTi8os of 

un-Socratic qualities of the hard- 229, 233. 

studying rhetorician, the water- 421. t^m<t\.-^'\.o'o. stingy, \\\.. life- 

drinker, the pale-face ('"XP'J? 103)^ wearing. — ev(A(3p-€iri-8€iTrvov : in 

who shuns gymnasia and .sacri- English we may generalize ^r/x^pu 

fices even health to the new am- {savoury) 2iX\{S.X.xdin'^\2i\.<tvegetarian. 



NE:I>EAAI 



131 



dueXet, Bapp^v ovueKa tovtoju im^aXKeveLu nape- 

XOLIX OLV. 

2(0. aWo TL ^rJT ov uofXLel'^ rjorj Oeou ovoeva Tr\rjv dnep 

TO Xcto? Toxrrl Koi Ta<? Nec^eXa? Kat Tr)P ykcoTTav, 

rpia TavTt; 

St. ouS' au hiaXe^^OeLrji^ y oLTe-^uioq rot? aXXot?, ouS' ai^ 

airai^TMu' 425 

ovh' av OvaaLfiy ovS' au cttt tiaaipi^, ouS' eTTide'vTqv 

Xi^avojTov. 

Xo. Xeye i/vi^ T7//-ri^ o rt <Tot opiojxev Oappojv, co? ouk 

dTV;(T7(T€t<s 

r)ixa<; Tip-Mv koX 9avixdt,0)V /cat l^rfTcov 8e^to<? eivaL. 
St. o) Seo-TTOti^at, heofxac Toivvv vp.cov tovtI nduv puKpov, 
Toiv 'EkXfjvojv elvai [xe keyetu CKarou aTaSiOLcnu 
dpLdTov. 430 



422. d|i€Xei : imv., /ini>c no care, 
no fear, ncTcr mind. — Oappuv : 
141 n. — irapc'xoifii : sc. ifuiv- 
rw. Tliey can pound on his 
"economical stomach" as they 
will ; he will stand the test there. 
In Aeschylus' J'ersians 51 two 
warriors are called Aoyx^?? a/c/xoi/es 
anvils for the spear. 

423. aWo Ti : sc. €(TTtv 17 ; a 
mere intern nonne, or the 
French ojjcninjj n^est-ce pas que — 
S. 1542, HA. 1015 /a (J. 1604. 
Will you not iniiecii (Or/Td) refuse 
to believe {ov vo\Liix%) he nee forth in 



any god? ov'^iva. after Q^ov merely 
repeats the oi; before vo/aicis- 

424. In 264 f. the divinities 
were Air, Aether, and Clouds ; 
here, Vacuum, Clouds, and 
Tongue ; in 627 they will be Res- 
piration, Vacuum, and Air. 

425. Strepsy is thoroughgo- 
ing, like all quick converts. He 
will cut his old friends dead, if 
he meets them (aTrai/TttOj) . 

426. €irt-0€(iiv: .rr. on the altar. 

427. 8puj(i«v : sul)juiicti\e. 

428. 6avp.dl^uv : I'meratinff. 
430. Xt-yttv : with dpuTTov. 



132 API2TO<t>ANOY2 



Xo. dXX' ecTTat crot tovto nap' tjixcju ' ware to Kolttou 

y aTTO TOVOL 

iv TM ^TJfJi'M ypcofxa^ ovSet? viKrjaei irXeiova^ rj crv. 
2t. fxr) 'fxoL ye Xeyeiu yvoiyia^ fxeydka<;' ov yap tovtoju 

dXX' 6a ifjiavTM aTpexjjoSiKrjcraL Kal tov<; ^rjaras 

oCoXLcrOelp. 

Xo. Tev^eL To'ivvv wv tjaeipet? * ov yap fxeyakoiv eTTt^v/Aet?. 

dXXd (jeavTov dappcou vrapdoos rot? r)fX€Tepois npo- 

TToXotcrt. 436 

2t. Spdao) ravd" vpXv TncTTevaas' rj yap dvayKT] fxe 

StCt TOV<i ITTTTOV? TOV<? KOTTTTaTta? KaL TOV ydfXOV O? 

fx eVerpti/ze. 
vvv ovv (tovto)) ^prjorOcov dT€)^vQ)<s 
6 TL ^ovXovTaL ' 

431. TO Xoiirov "y* diro tov8£: 435. i\idpn.s : yearn ; the prose 

imposing pleonasm ; hereafter word is itriQv\)M. 

from this present moment. 436. irpoiroXoio-i : ministrants, 

432. ev Tw 8t)[j.(u : i.e. rfj IkkXt)- temple servants, i.e. Socrates and 
c-ia. — "yvwjias vikt|o-€i : shall put his sciiolars. Tiie new divinities 
through bills, carry propositions ; talce over old terms and rites, the 
inner ace, as in 99. parody of initiation is still kept up. 

433. Y.i\ '(loC -yc : sc. eiTrr/re. — 437. dva^Kii : the goddess of 
Xe'-yciv 7vw|j.as : a parliamentary vv. 377 and 405 has now clutched 
phrase ; to propose or fjiake mo- poor Strepsiades. 

tions. 439-56. Anapaestic hyperme- 

434. oo-a : with inf. = enough ter or " system," to be read in one 
to = ToaovTtDv i-mOvfjiw ware. breath and hence named Trvtyos, a 
S. 1241, GMT. 759. — (rrpt\\io- choker, or jxaKpov. Strepsiades has 
8iKf)o-ai : the omen of his notnen. caught the spirit of long-winded 
He desired only a shifty education, speech. See Introd. § 132 y'. 
now called "practical." 439. tovtw: /.^. Streps. himself. 



NE$EAAI 133 

tovtI to y i/xov aojfx' avTolaiv 44° 

TTapd\(ii, TVTTTeiv TreLurjp htxprju 

av^ixdv piyoiv olctkou oeCpeiv, 

etirep to. XP^^ 8ta(^eu^ou/xat, 

Toi? T dvOpcoTTOiq elvai So^co 

Opacrix; evyXcoTToq ToXp.rjpo'^ 1x17? 445 

^he\vpo<i \jj€vh(ou crvyKoXkr)Tr}<; 

evpr](TLe7rr]<; TrepLTptfXfxa Slkcov 

KVp^i<i KpOTokoV /CtVaSo? TpVfJLTJ 

IJid(Tdkrj<? eipojv yXoto? aXat^cov 

Kevrpoiv p-iapoq (TTp6(f)L<i dpyaXeos 45° 

jxaTTVoXoLXO^ ' 
TavT et p,€ Kakova dnaPTcovTe^f 



440. yt : restrictive and expli- 
cative, like ydfj (y dpa) and yoiji' 
(ye ovv) ; so in 484, 1 180. 

441. TviTTtiv : Greek active 
where English uses passive or a 
substantive substitute ; /or beat- 
ittfT, hunger, thirst, dirt, etc. 

442. avxiiciv : one is au^/Ar/po? 
when his skin is rough and hard 
from lack of oil, and his hair needs 

X oil or water. — pi^wv : inf., not 
jj^t***^ parti c, as in 416. — do-Kov 8cCp€iv: 
to flay into a luine-skin is to flay 
one and use his skin as a wine- 
bottle, the Greek equiv. of "skin- 
ning alive." 

443. itfTtp : if indeed. — 8ia- 
<^(u|ov|i,ai : — fitXXd) witli hit. 
inf. : S. 13;/), GMT. 407. 



445-51. One of our poet's 
clima-xes — this ambition to be 
reputed a brazen, glib-t onioned, 
impudent hiistler (ittjs), a stink- 
ing concocter of lies, a phrase- 
making lawsuit sharper, a zualking 
statute book, a rattling {KporaXov) 
foxy ^' slick'''' one, a supple, dis- 
sembling, oily bragi^art, a branded, 
low, shifty, troublesome, dessert- 
Hiker. Could the goddess FAcottu 
desire a more asjMring worship|K'r? 

451. p.aTTvo-Xoix<5s : this last 
to remind us that the parasite- 
.sophists frequented the tables of 
the rich — of Callias, for example 
— with tongues equally clever at 
fl.ittcry and al [ilicasanls. 

452. dTravT<ivT€S : oi air. 



134 API2TO«I>ANOY2 

opoiVTOiv are^z^ws o rt ^prjl^ovcnv., 

Kel ^ovXouTat 
VTj Tr)v ATJfirjTp' e/c fiov -)(opSr)v 455 

TOt? (f)povTtcrTal<; TrapaddvTOiv. 

Xo. Xrjpa jxep rrdpea-TL rwSe y' 

ovK aToXfxov dXX' eroL/jLov. lctOl 8' w^ 
ravra fxaOwv Trap" ifxov /cXeo? ovpai'6ixy)Ke<; 
Iv ^poToicriv e^ei9. 460 

St. Tt ireLcrofxaL ; Xo. roi' ndivTa )^p6vov per ip.ov 

l,'r]Xa)T6TaTOP (3loi> duOpcoTroju Sta^et?. 
St. dpd ye tovt dp' iyd) ttot 465 

oxjjopaL ; Xo. dxTTe ye crov ttoXXou? eVi ratcrt 

6vpai<; de\ KadrjaOaL, 
^ov\opevov<i dvaKoivovaOai re Kai e? Xoyoi' iXOelv 
irpdypara Kavnypaffid'? ttoWcjv TokdvTOiv 

453. SpwvTwv: iniv., as 7ra- the eiSai/tiovta promised to all in- 

padivTwv in 456. itiates into mysteries. 

455- X°pS^'' • '^o dedication 464. avQpunroiv. in tJie WL^'ld. 

could be more complete ! — Sid^eis : if with the Clouds, pre- 

457-75- Song and dance by sumably in " castles in the air." 
the chorus. See Introd. § 135 for 465. apa . . . eipa : the intern 

the rhythm, and note the elevated and inferential forms in one and 

diction : Xrjfjui for (ftpovrjfjia or cfiv- the same clause, said to appear 

(Tis (meU/e, perhaps, for spirit^ ; only here in Attic literature. 
/cAe'o? for Sti^a, with oupavo/x7//c£s, 466. 6t(/o|iai : the rites of initia- 

making a Homeric phrase; /tfpo- tion are being parodied through- 

To? for ^j/Tyro?. out: after instruction in the new 

457. TwSe: i-f. Strepsiades. theology (250 ff.), renunciation of 

458. to-Bi : addressing him. the old belief (425), and dedica- 

459. Trap" €jiov : with efti?. tion to the phrontists (455 f.\ 
461 ff. Probably a parody on there follows assurance of perfect 



KE<&EAAI 135 

d^La crrj (fypevL crvfxjSovXevcroiJievov^; fxera crov. 475 

aXX' iy^elpei. tov TTpea-^vTTjv o Tt irep /xeWet? irpo- 

StoacTKett', 
Kol 8ta/ctVet Tov vovv avTov /cat rrj<^ yvaiixTf^ dno- 

7T€LpC0. 



480 



Sto- aye 817 KOLTenre fxoL av top cravTov rponov, 
Iv avTou etSoj? 6(TTi<; icrrl p.rj^avd'^ 
■qSr} Vt TovTOL<; TT/ao? ere /catfct? 7rpo(T(f)epco. 

St. Ti 8e ; T€L)(^Ofxa)(elv jxol hiavotl irpos tcou decou ; 

Sa>. ou/c, dWoL ^pa^ea crov nvdeaOaL /B >uXo/xai. 

rj p.vr)puOVLKo^ ei : St. Suo Tpono), vtj tov Ata 



bliss (464), and the vision (ctto- 
TTTCta) that the lawyers of all ages 
long for — a crowd of clients at 
their doors (469 f.). — cio-re -yt : 
aye, so that. — o-ov: on its posi- 
tion (normal) see 257 n. 

470. dvaKoivovo-Oai : reaches 
over to TTfjayfuiTd and ai'Tiypa<f>d<;. 

471. irpd-yiiaTa : actions at laiv. 
— • dvTiYpa<j>ds : the ^i'^^/za'j' against 
such actions. — raXdvTwv : gen. 
of the value involved. 

475. d|ia o-fi 4)p€v£ : luort/iy of 
tliy^uit; not<- tin- poetic word and 
the poetic omission of t/; hefcire rn;. 

476-509. Transition scene : en- 
trance examination. 

476 f. Chaiit( (1 l)\ K<>i)v<f)iiio<; 
to Socrates. — irpto-pvT'nv : not to 
Ik- construed witii iyxuptu which 
reciuires dat. or inf, l)Ut as ob- 



ject of Trpo^iSdfTKCiv. — irpo- : Jirst 
(in point of time). 

477. 8ia-KCv6i : bestir. — -yvio- 
(XTIS : tiativc iint, natural capacity. 

478. The spf)ken dialogue is 
resumed. — KaTciire : (hsclosc, not 
merely tell. — Tpoirov : turn, bent. 

480. i-n\ TovTots : thereupon, 
next : cp. 390 n. 

481. Tile military piirase fir]- 
;(«i'ai; Trpoa(f>efji.Lv to brin\^ to bear 
eni^ines (of war) alarms Streps., 
unaware of its transferenc- to 
pedagogic methods of attack. 

483. TJ : is a mere interr. 
mark, like apa, sensil^ly put at the 
beginning like the inverted Span- 
ish interr. (^ ) to warn one what 
tone of thought and voice is to 
come. — p,vi]|jioviK6s : — /i.rr///,fi)i' in 
484. Tile formation of adjs. in 



136 



API2T04>ANOY2 



485 



rjv fxev y oc^eiXryrat rt jU.ot, fxi>y]fxcoi> iravv • 
eav 8' 6(f)€L\(D, cr^^erXto?, eTnXijcrixojv ttclvv. 

So). euecTTL SrJTa croc \eyeiv iu ttj cfivcrei, ; 

2t. Xeyeip fxeu ovk evecrr, dnoo'Tepeii^ 8' eut. 

2a>. TTMs oxjv hvvrjaei ixavSdveiv ; 2t. d/Me'X.et, KaXaJs- 

Sw. aye vvv ottio<;, oTav tl TrpofidXo) <TOi (TO(f)ou 

nepl TMv fxerecopcou, evBe(i)<^ v(f>ap7roi(T€L. 49° 

St. tl oaC : Kw-qSov rrfv (TO^iav crirrfcro^at ; 

2o). dvOpaiTro<; dixaOrj^ ovTocrl /cat ^dp^apo^. 
oeooLKd cr', w npecr^vTa, p.-q nXrjywu 8eei. 
^e]p' tSw, rt Spa?, 19 v ri? ere TvirTj) ,- St. TVTrTOjxaL^ 
KaneLT eVtcr^^wi' oXiyov eVt/xa/arupo/xat, 495 



-iKo? was an affectation of the New 
Rhetoric ; cp. 728. Streps, soon 
catches it, as in 747. 821, 11 72 f., 
1258. Cp. the craze for substan- 
tives in -crts (318 n.) and the 
modern one for verbs in -ize and 
for all words introduced by the 
Evolution-theory, as " survival," 
" adaptation," " environment." — 
8vo Tpoirti* : " yes and no." 

484. -ye : explicative, as in 440. 

485 . o-x<tXios : ill-fated man ; 
a tragic yowl of self-pity, much af- 
fected by Euripides. iiwv irdw : 

identity of sound with 484 height- 
ens the contrast in sense. 

487. The joke, if any, must be 
the pun in Xiyeiv and its fut. heard 
in a.TTO(TT-eptiv: to hold forth and 
to with-hold. This is incredibly 
bad ; but Strepsy's valour has run 



as low as that of Bob Acres at 
prospect of his duel, and he may 
be excusable in keeping up his 
spirits on any poor crutch of a joke. 

48S. dfjL«\€i : 422 n. 

489. oira>s : with fut. mid. 
{i<^-ap7racr£i ; 257 n. — irpo-paXw : 
Streps, goes down again on this 
pedagogic metaphor. He has 
' thrown forth " food to his dogs 
all his life ; but he did not know 
that at schools men " snapped up 
wisdom dog-fashion" (491). 

491. t£ 8a£ : = rt Se, but 
emotionalized into a long-drawn 
w-h-a-a-a-t ! or why s-o ? 

493. <re : prolepsis ; 95 n 

495 . eiri-o-xwv : holding on, 
waiting. So frequently €7ri-cr;^cs 
hold on! — €iri|iapTvp. : viz. to the 

fact TVTTTO/Xai. 



NE<t>EAAI 



137 



Sto. Wi uvu, Karddov OolfxaTiov. St. rjhiKrjKa. tl ; 

So). ovK, aXXa yvfxvov; eLCTLeuaL vofxil^eTaL. 
St. aXX' ov^t (f)ojpd<TO)v eycoy eltrep^ofjiai. 
So). KardOov. tl Xr^pet? ; St. etTre 07^ vvu fxot • 

Sco. TO TL ; 500 

St. '^i' eVt/xeXr^9 w /cat Trpo^O/xoj? ixavdduco, 

TO) T(x)v [xadr)T(ou ifji(f)epr)<i yevvjcroyiai; 
Sa>. ouoei/ oiotcret? Xacpecfiwi'TO'; T7)v (fyvaiv. 
St. OLfxoL KaKooaLjxcov, rjiii,9prj<; yevqcropiaL. 
Sa>. ov /;n^ XakrjcreL^, dXX' dKo\ovOrj(Tei<^ ifjiol 505 

ai'VO'a? Tt 8€u/9t doLTTOv. St. et? toj X'upe vvv 



496. 8iKd^o|xai : like any true 
Athenian. Note the recurrent 
-ofmi, delivered in thoughtful, 
measured fashion. 

497. 101 : that last word 8iKa- 
^o/xai has proved the new pupil's 
capacity. — TiSUifKa ti : the order 
to lay aside cloak bodes ill. 

498. Toenter certain initiatory 
rites without i^Itlov {i.e. yvfxv6%) 
was, in truth, the custom (vofxi- 
^€Tai) ; later Streps, will lose his 
shoes also (719. X58). 

499. ({xupdo-ctfv : "Every man 
his own constable " in Athens. 
Not only must the accuser person- 
ally serve upon the accused the 
summons to court (1221), but he 
must personally search for alleged 
stolen goods, entering the prem- 
ises, however, yi'/xi'os, lest he carry 



articles in under his cloak and 
then pretend to find them. 

500. Kard-Gov : here Streps, 
gives up cloak, and shoes as well, 
forever. Socrates requires the 
OvfxaTiov of an i/xaTioi/, as we saw 
in 179. 

503. ()>v(riv : Socrates uses it in 
the sen.se of 486 ; Strepsiades 
takes it as in 276. 

504. T||Ai-OvT)s : for Chaere- 
phon's " nature," pale and blood- 
less, see n. on 104. 

505. ow (i'^ : with fut. indie, to 
express prohibition ; 296 n. 

506. dvvo-as : l8l n. — Gdrrov : 
pleonastic after di/jjo-us. N.B. The 
comparative degree means, not 
"more quickly,' but "(rather) 
t/ithkly'''' (than slowly). .Such is 
the .sense of our " rather " with 



u^ 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



S6<? fJiOL jxeXLTovTTav nporepou ' &)? ScSolk' iyo) 
eicrct) KaTa^aivoiV ojcnrep et? Tpofftcjviov. 
So). \(opei' Ti KfTrra^etg e)((ou nepl ttjv dvpav ; 



Xo. 



dXX' lOi ^aipoiv Trj<; dvSpeias 

evTvyioL yevoiTO tolu- 
6pa)7r(o, otI TrpotJKCDU 



510 



any adj.; as in "rather pretty" 
(than ugly). 

507. iydt : for viy part. 

508 f . els Tpo<}>a)vioii : sc. avTpov. 
High above a deep gorge in the 
wild mountain-scenery of Boeotia, 
the ancients for a thousand years 
visited the dream-oracle of Tro- 
phonius, entering by narrow aper- 
ture a subterranean cave of various 
chambers, full of horrors — among 
them serpents which had to be 
appeased with honey-cakes (/i,eXt- 
TovTTiu). Well might Streps, ^eep 
pottering {KVTTTdi^tLv) about the 
door of the Cogitatorium, if its 
looks boded such an interior. — 
€x««>v : 131 n. 

riAPABASIS 510-626 
On the Parabasis in the come- 
dies of Arist. note the following 
essentials: that (i) its name is 
derived from the coming forward 
(7rapa-(iatv€Lv) of the chorus ; 
(2) it is delivered during the 
absence of the actors from the 



scene ; (3) is sung in part by 
the chorus, in part chanted by the 
Kopv(f)aio<i or Kopvf^iuoi ; (4) is 
composed in a set scheme of seven 
parts in fixed order, though rarely 
are all the parts to be found in any 
one parabasis ; (5) is commonly a 
digression from the plot, concern- 
ing itself with the personal affairs 
of poet or chorus, with politics, or 
with direct abuse of some social 
noteworthy of the day. The parts 
are named below as they occur. 

510-17. Ko|X|JLdTLOV {I'ffle 
ait) : chanted or sung by the Kopv- 
<^atos as the actors depart and the 
chorus march or dance into position 
for the elaborate dal/et to follow. 
See Introd. § 136 for the rhythm. 

510. i!6i x.ttipwv : '' Go and God 
bless you '' : the usual formula for 
speeding the actor's exit. — dv- 
Speias: ironical, after his "potter- 
ing." 

513. oTi irpo- : for the long 
syllable i-irp cp. 277, 301, 313, 
320,335- 



NE$EAAI 



^39 



pe(DTepoL<; Trjv (^vatv av- 515 

Tov rrpdyixaaLv ^pojTit^erai 
Koi cro(f)Lav inacTKeL. 
o) OecoixeuoL, Karepco Trpo<s v/xa? iXevdepcof; 
TOikrjdrj, vrj tov Alovvctov tov iKdpexpavToi fxe. 
ovTco vlKTJcraLjXL T iyo) Kai vop.it,oip.riv aoc^o^, 520 

Kol Ta-UTTjV (JO(\i(xyTaT €)(€LV TMV ipLlOV Ka)fJi(x)OL(t)V, 

7r/DoJrov<? rj^LCja dvayevcr^ vfxd<;, rj irapea^e jxol 



515. v€<i)T€pots : 7'ather yoiit/i- 
/)// (than elderly) activities {-irpdy- 
fjufTi) ; tlie adj. is made em- 
phatic by isolation, in contrast to 
/us oix))i proper nature. 

518-62. IlapdPao-LS proper : 
chanted by the Koij}(lnto<;. This 
present parabasis was written 
probably some five years after the 
failure of the play in 423 B.C. (see 
Hypoth. fS' ad fin. and n. on 553, 
558). ICmpIoying the first person 
c'yoj tlirou<(hout, it seems as if 
Arist. intended to take the part of 
the Ko/juc^aio? himself and saucily 
give the Athenians a piece of his 
mind. On the rhvthin sec Iiitrod. 

518. Kar-cpu) : ?.'/// A// you up 
attti tloii'iu as we say. Cp. 478. 

519. Ai6vu<rov : an oath by the 
god of Comedy " to tell the truth "^ 
is, as it were: " .So lielp me, IJlar- 
ney," or '• \',s the Father of Lies " 
t/iat ream/ ine. 



520 f . ovTw . . . «lbs : lit. in pro- 
portion may I win the prize as; 
an affirmative wish-formula where 
English prefers a negative : May I 
not win the prize if I did not — . — 
(ro(|>6s : clever, witty. — Stgiovs : = 
o-o</)ous ; the blarney begins. 

522. <ro<j>MTaTa ex*"'" • sdv. with 
intr. €X^tv = corresponding adj. 
with e?vai. 

523. irpuTovs : in emphatic po- 
sition : a truly American and comic 
" bluff" — as if, forsooth, after win- 
ning victories from the start in the 
capital city, he could have thought 
for a moment of producing his 
comedy elsewiiere. for e.\am|)le, at 
tlic Rural Dionysia, or at Piraeus, 
or in Aegina ! Translate from 520 : 
"May I lose the ])ri7.e and be 
deemed a Icxil, if I did not be- 
cause thinking yon a public of 
clever wit and this the cleverest 
of mv comedies - make you for 
lliat reason its first tasters." — 



140 



API2T0*AN0Y2 



epyov 7rXel(TTOv ' elr dve^copovv vn avhpoiv <^opTL- 

K(i)V 524 

rjTT7}0ei<i, ovK a^to9 atu ' TavT ovp vpXv p.4p.^ofxai 
T0t9 (TO(f)ol<;, wv ovveK eyoi ravT iTrpayp.arev6p.iqv. 
dW ovc)' o)? vpcov TToff" iKcou TrpoSaxra) TOv<i 

e^ OTOV yap ivOdS^ vtt dvSpcjp, of? rj^v Kal Xeyeuv, 
o (Tco(f)paji> T€ ^ai KaranVyajp dpicTT rjKovcrdTrjp, 
Kaydt, iTap6evo<; yap ex' rjv, kovk i^rji> tto) poi TCKeiv, 
i^€07}Ka, TTat? 3' irepa rt? \a/3ova dueiXeTo, 531 
vpel<i o' i^eOpexfjare yevvaioi'i Kdiraihevcrare ' 
€K TOVTOV p.OL TTLcrrd Trap' vpwv yvc6p7]<i eaO' opKia- 



dva-Y€vo-ai : can hardly differ from 
the simple ytvcrai. 

524. dv-€x<opovv : withdrew 
from the field; a military term. 
— dvSpwv 4>opTi,Kwv : indgarians. 
All competitors of our poet were 
" low fellows," as he always takes 
pains to tell us; see Introd. § 98 
and note thereto. 

526. Tois (ro<j)ois : Cflnnoisse2(rs. 

528. ii, oTou : ever since, viz. 
since 427 B.C., the date of his first 
play, the Banqueters. — cvOdSc : 
here, in this theatre. — ols tiSi Kal 
Xc'yciv : whojH it is delightful even 
to address, though winning no 
prize ; again flattery. 

529. <r<ia4>p(i)v . . . KaTairvYov : 
the names of the two brothers in 
the Banqueters contrasted as the 
products of the Old and the New 



Education ; Moralitee and De- 
baucliee. — apio-r T|Kov<rdTtjv : pur- 
poseful slip of the memory ; the 
play took second prize, hence was 
not '■'■most highly spoken of" 
(aKov'w as passive of Ae'yto, S. 1075, 
HA. 820, G. 1241). 

530. irap0€vos : what fact lies 
back of the figure of speech is not 
certain — probably that he was a 
mere child in theatrical expe- 
rience. — TCKciv : metaphorical for 
8t8ttcrK£iv, to "bring out" a 
drama. 

531. (|eOi]Ka: the 710X propria 
for exposing undesirable infants, 
as Oedipus was. — -irais crcpa : i.e. 
the actor or poet who brought out 
the Banqueters. 

533. €K TOVTOV : resumes i^orov 
of 528. 



NE<I>EAAI 



141 



IpqTova rj\6\ r]v ttov ^iriTu^rj ^edrac'? ovtcd aocpolf; ' 
yv(i)(T€TaL yoip, TjVTTep rSry, Taoe\(^ov top l36crTpv)(oi>. 
0)9 8e a'(o(f)pcoi> e'crrl (f>vcreL crKei/zacr^' ' 17719 irpcoTa 

ixeu 537 

ovSeu rj\6e paijjafxevr] ctkvtlou KaOeLjjieuou 
ipvdpov i^ OLKpov Tra^i;, TOt9 7ratotot9 tV r) ye\ct;9 ' 
ouS' eaKCjifje tou9 </)aXaK/3ou9, ouSe Ko/aSa;^' 

etX/cvcrei/, 540 

ouSc irpecr^vTrjs o Xeycjv Tairy) tyj ^aKTrjpia 



534. vvv : i.e. at the time of 
this second (proposed) production 
of the play. — Kara : after the 
manner of. — kKiLvT\v : the famous, 
viz. the Electra in Aeschylus' 
Choepharae, 164 IT. ; cp. 180 and 
the use of the article in Italian : 
// Tasso, la Patti. In the Choeph. 
Electra, on going to the tomb of 
her father, Agamemnon, to offer 
libation, finds fresh laid thereon 
a lock of hair ((i6(TTpvxo<i), which 
her hopes recognize as that of 
Orestes, her long-absent brother. 
— rfit : i.e. this revised play, which 
shall contain a new scene (889- 
II04) where AiKaio? Aoyos and 
*A8iKos Aoyo9 are duplicates of 
^<u<f>pii>v and KaraTriryoji/ in the 
Banqueters ; sfc Hypoth. (i at/ 
fin. 

536. Td8€X.<j>ov Tov PocTTpvxov : 
her brother\s lock is jjerhaps the 
applause that greeted the kindred 



play in 427 ; but this is matter of 
dispute. 

537-43- The poet's Miss 
Comedy here purses her demure 
lips and proves her •' native mod- 
esty" by setting forth tlie many 
flat stock jokes she has abstained 
from, though in fact all are intro- 
duced into this very play ; see 653, 
734, 1 206-1 2 14 (/copSo^), 1297, 
1490, 1493, and Introd. § 98 and 
note. 

538. o-Kvxiov : the leathern 
phallus worn by the comic actors, 
on which see Introd. § 95 and 
note, and Haigh Attic Theatrc- 
289 ff. 

540. <|>aXaKpovs : Arist. liini- 
self was ijald, and Eujjolis was so 
imrefined as to twit him on it in 
his HrxTTTiu. «i\kuo-€ : the tox 
propria for dancing a certain pas, 
but just hoiv is not now certain. 

541. \Tr't\: verses. 



142 



APi:STO$ANOY2 



TUTTTCt Tou TTapovT , at^avit^oiv TTOvrjpa CTKcoixfiaTa, 
ovS' elcrrj^e SaSa? e^ovcr', ovo' lov lov /Soct, 
dXy avTTj Koi Tol<; eneacp TriaTevova iXyjkvdeu. 
Kayoj jxkv TOLOvro^; avrjp lov TroirjTr]<; ov KOfxu), 545 
oti8' ti/xa? C,y]T(o '^aTraTav otg /cat rpts tclvt 

elcrdycop, 
aXX' act Kati'tt'? toea? el(T(f)€pcDv (TO(\)it,op.ai^ 
ovSeu dXXijkaLaLv oyaota? Kat TraVa? 8e^ta? ' 
09 peyLCTTOv ovTOi KXewv' eVatcr' ets tt^v yacrrepa, 
KovK iTokprfcr avdi^; i7rep7T7]Srja avT<o /cet/xeVw. 550 



542. d<{>avi^tov : tryiiif^ to con- 
ceal. 

543. €to--fj|e : gnomic aor., 
arroj (dt'o"(raj), going back to i^rt? 
i" 537 for its subject. 

545. oi) Ko^St : do not wear long 
hair means am not proud, put on 
no {k)airs — making necessity a 
virtue. 

546. tl«T--dYwv : i.e. into the 
play ; very saucy, because even 
now he is refurbishing the first 
Clouds and re-using the ideas of 
the Banqueters. 

547. Kaivds : anything but true. 
as just noted. — tSeas : ideas ; not 
here as in 289. 

549. OS : causal ; for I. — (i€- 
Yio-Tov ovra : Cleon was /;/ tlie 
height of his glory after the cap- 
ture of Sphacteria in 425 B.C. — 
rirai<ra : i.e. in the most savage 
of all his plays, the Knights. 

550. If van Leeuwen's conten- 



tion is true that Arist., being of 
foreign blood, had exhibited the 
Knights in his own name illegally, 
and was hence prosecuted by 
Cleon and debarred from ever 
again exhibiting (see Introd. § 6), 
then it was not Cleon who was 
laid low (KELfx-ivw), but the poet; 
and the reason why he " did not 
have the heart to jump on Cleon 
again"' was not lest he might re- 
peat himself, but because he did 
not dare {oik eToKfjnqa^ix) to do so. 
The comic impudence of the claim 
certainly fits well with van Leeu- 
wen's theory. True or not. how- 
ever, the comic impudence is still 
present in saying that he never 
"jumped on Cleon" again; for 
he plays upon him as from a 
masked battery throughout the 
Wasps and ridicules his memory 
for twenty years after his death 
(in Frogs, v. 564, 405 B.C.). 



NE^EAAI 



143 



ovTOL 8'. o)? aira^ -rrapeScoKep Xa^r]v 'Tnep^oko^, 
TovTOv oeikaiov KoXer pojcr ael Ka\ ttjv ixrjTepa. 
EvTroA-t? [x€u rov ^apiKav TrpMncTTov Trapei\Kvcrev 
e/co'r/3ev//a<; tov<^ rjfxerepov^ iTTTrea? KaKo<; /ca/ca»?, 
Trpocr0el<; avTco ypavv peOvcrrjv rov KopSaKo^; ovi^e^', 

17^' 555 

(t>pVvL)^o'? TTokai ireTToirj^^ rju to ktjto^ TjcrdLev. 



551. ovToi : those dull rival 
poets. — 'Yire'pPoXos : first a lamp- 
seller, then, after some lessons in 
rhetoric (v. 876), a (rvvriyopo<; 
{i.e. a '• friend " whom you could 
hire to speak for you in the law- 
courts) ; successful in this, he next 
aspires to office (v. 623). After 
the death of Cleon he emerges as 
TrpooraTT/s tov hr\\t.ov, " champion 
of the people." Later on. in 
417 B.C., he will be ostracized and 
in 411 assassinated. So ran the 
life of ancient pettifogger-dema- 
gogues. — \apT|v : what particular 
handle for atla'l; is not known. 

552. Ko\cTpu(ri : \u trample oil 
■=■ e/xTT'/^oa'ij. 

553. ''Eupolis atque Cratinus 
Aristophanescjue poetae " (I lor. 
Sat. 1.4. i) were the three great- 
est comic poets of the fifth century 
H.c. Ku]K)lis liscd about 446- 
411 !'..(. MapiKcLv : a comedy 
playefl 421 i;.( ; hence this pa- 
rabasis was written after 421. — 
-irpioTio-Tov : i.e. was the first at- 
tack.— irop-tCXKvorc : liii^i^ed in, not 
Trup-rjyiiyi />ri\'>'/e,l. because the 



Maricas was such a heavy, awk- 
ward imitation of the Knights'. 

554. €K-<rTpe«|/as : 88 n. To 
this charge of plagiarism Eupolis 
retorted, the schol. tells us, in his 
ne.xt play the BttTrrai, claiming to 
have " collaborated the Knights 
and presented it to this bald 
head." Such sallies were mere 
good-natured banter often paral- 
lelled in modern after-dinner 
speeches. We need not believe 
that their rivalry for the prize led 
to an actual breach of friendship, 
as is sometimes stated. .See In- 
trod. §98. 

555. irpoo-Otls ktI. : for the pur- 
pose, the schol. says, of represent- 
ing the mother of Hyberbolus. 
Comedy spared no one; see In- 
trod. §97. 

556. 4>p«vixos : another con- 
temporary poet, who had traves- 
tied the story of Andromeda. In 
place of this beauteous princess — 
chained to a rock to be devoured 
by a sea-monster, but delivered by 
the hero Perseus — he had substi- 
tuted a " drunken old haji whom 



144 



APISTO^ANOYS 



eW^ E/o/xtTTTTO? avOif; iTToirja-ep el<; 'Tirep^oXov, 
aXXoL T rjSr] ndpTe^ ipetSovaiv £ts 'TTrep/Bokoi', 
Ta<s elKovq tiov iy^eXewu ret? e/Aol? fiLixovfievoL. 559 
o(rTL<i ovv TOVTOLCTL yeXct, Tol'^ e/xot? ixrj ^aiperoi ' 
rju 8' ifxol Koi Tolcriv ifxo2<? ev(f)paLurj(T0^ evprnxaaiv, 
€19 ret? a>pa<; ra? erepa? ev (f)popelp SoKyjcrere. 



the whale ate " ?<;/-delivered. Eu- 
polis had made ofif with her too, 
if we may trust the badinage of 
Aristophanes. 

557. iiTolr\a-( : composed, (a 
comedy), as in 335, 556. This 
was probably the 'A/aroTrwAtSes. 

558. oXXoi irdvTes : Arist. neg- 
lects to tell us that he himself was 
the first to imitate Eupolis in 
" pressing hard on Hyperbolus", 
viz. in the Peace (vv. 681, 921, 
1 319) brought out 421 B.C. at the 
Dionysia only a few months after 
the Maricas, which had been pre- 
sented at the Lenaea. He con- 
tinues the sport also in this play ; 
vv. 623, 876, 1065. — iiStj : first 
Eupolis (v. 553), then Hermippus 
(557), and naw (rj^rj). As Hyper- 
bolus was banished early in the 
year 417 never to return, this 
parabasis was probably written in 
418. Note the iteration of ets 
'YiripfioXov to make us feel the 
iteration of these parrot-poets. 

559. cIkovs : = ciKoi/tt?, from 
eiKw = ciKwv In the Knights, 



864 ff., Arist. had drawn an 
odious comparison between Cleon 
and eel-catchers, who roil the wa- 
ter the better to catch. Clearly 
these uninventive rivals had been 
applying his eel-comparisons to 
Hyperbolas, i.e. not merely imi- 
tating the Knigfits as a whole in 
its concentrated attack upon one 
demagogue, but even " turning it 
inside out " to appropriate its 
clever details of phraseology 
(Ae'^et?, as the schol. says). 

561. €V(j>paivTjo-9€ : not an every- 
day word ; perhaps = to joy. 

562. tls Ttts cipas KT€. : //// next 
year or season, when your taste 
will be tested again ; for a year 
anyhow they will enjoy the repu- 
tation of good sense, wpa? plural 
is regular. — tv ({>pov€iv : echoes 
the sound of evcjipaivrjaOe. — 
8oK^<r€T€ : a poetic form for 86$eTe. 
— After the Uapafiaa-t? proper 
follows usually a Trviyos as in 439- 
56. Here it is omitted, perhaps 
because never written. 

563-74. 'Ol6f| : probably sung 



NE^EAAI 



M5 



Zrjpa Tvpavvov et? ^opov 

npoJTa [xeyau kikXtjctko)' 565 

Tov re fxeyacrOevri rpiaivriq TafXLav, 
yrjf; re /cat aXfxvpa<? dakdcray]'; aypiov fjio^XevTiju' 

/cat fjLeyaXatPVfxop 77/xeVepov narep 
Aldepa crejjLuoTaToi' ^io6pkp.piOva TravTOiv' 570 

TOV 6' LTTTroucoiMau, 69 vrrep- 
XdfXTTpoi^i olktIctlu Karex^L 
yrj^ Treoov, p.€ya<; iv Oeol<; 
iv dvrjTolai re SaifMOJU. 

u) (jo(f)(oTaTOL dedTaC, Sevpo tov vovv Trpocre'^ere. 
-qhiKfjixevai yap vjxlv iJLeix(j)6pea6^ ivavTLOU ■ 57^ 

TrXetcrra yap deojv aTrdvTcov ojcfteXovaaL ttjv tto\iv, 



by a half-chorus, while the other 
half danced. The parabasis beini( 
a digression, the Clouds may ignore 
their own new-made divinity and 
summon orthodox gods to their 
dance according to parabasis 
custom, adding only their Father 
Aether to Zeus, Poseidon (566), 
and Helios (571). Here, as in the 
parodos, the poet passes readily 
from gay to grave, from jjarody to 
poetry, as if composing an antith- 
esis with ixkv . . . 8e. There is 
no jocularity in tiie prayer. Kfniiul 
in a tragedy, we should admire its 
gravity ; found where it is, it ex- 
plains why the Clreeks flattered 
themselves that Comedy was part 
of a religious rite. — The student 
will note poetic words, as vipifxt- 

AKISIDf'MANI'S — 10 



SovTtt, KtKXycTKw; poetic forms, 
as Z^m, TTt'Sov; poetic order, as 
vijjifiiSovTa and /leyav, widely sepa- 
rated from Tvpavvov ; poetic meta- 
phor, as TUfJitav and /noxAe urr/i/. 
For the rhythm see Introd. § 137. 

575-94. 'E-TTippTllia : an A/- 
terword (cp. eVt-Aoyo?, ctt-wS?;) 
chanted by the Kopv(f)aio<;. while the 
chorus, or a half-chorus, danced. 
'VjTnfjfjy'ifJMTa always consist of 8, 
16, or 20 tetrameters, i.e. of some 
multiple of 4; and the avr-evippy'i- 
IxuTu are always exact counterparts. 
For the trochaic tetrameter here, 
see Introd. § 132 c'- Whether 
this piece of the parabasis was in 
the original play or not is a de- 
bated questii)n. 

576. ivavrLov : f(U'i' to /(lie. 



146 



APl2TO<t»ANOY2 



haiixoviov rjixlv ixovai^i ov Over ovSe crnepSeTe, 
auTLve^ TTjpovixev v/xa?. r)v yap fj rt? e^oSo? 
fjL-qBevl ^vv uco, tot tj ^povTcop^ev rj xjjaKoil^oixei'. 580 
eha Tov deolcrtv i^dpov ^vp(To^€.\\ir)v Ila(f)Xay6i>a 
yjPLX l^p^^crOe crTpaT-qyov, tol^; 6(f)pv<; crvprjyofxeu 
KaTroLOVjxev SeLi>d, ' f^povTr] 8' ippdyr] Sl daTpaTrrjq- 
Tj creXyjvr) 8' i^iXenre Ta<^ 6^ov<^, 6 8' 751X109, 
TYjv OpvaXXidi' et? iavTOP ev^eiw? ^vve\Kvcra<^, 5^5 
ov (f)avelp e(f)a(TKeu vp-lu, el (XTpaTrjyijcreL Kkecou. 



578. Tiiiiv: we should expect 
Ty/xeTs in agreement with ox^eAou- 
aai; but the nom. proving un- 
suitable is changed ; as not infre- 
quently. 

579. €^o8os : expedition. 

580. PpovTW|x€v KT€. : the an- 
cients believed bad weather to be 
one of divinity's direct expressions 
of disfavour. Hence those who 
studied to. ixtTeoipa with a view to 
physical explanation were regarded 
as atheists. Perhaps some such 
demonstration of the weather had 
indeed occurred some five months 
before the first Clouds, when the 
Athenians set forth on their disas- 
trous expedition against Delium 
(Nov., 424 B.C.). 

581. ctra : secondly. — tov 
deouriv ktI. : the accursed Paph- 
lagonian tanner is Cleon, the 
demagogue, son of a tanner, 
presented in the Knights as a 
slave from Paphlagonia, whose 
oratory was of the ebullient sort, 



as if from 7ra</>Aa^etv to boil and 
froth. 

582. TJpcio-Oe : imperfect; '•'■were 
for electing," probably at the spring 
elections of 423, shortly before the 
Clouds was presented. 

583. PpovTTi KT€. : quoted from 
Sophocles. In Ach. Arist. has 
the eKKXrja-La of the people dis- 
missed for a mere drop of rain — 
which need not be a comic exag- 
geration, for ancient superstition 
was very crass. 

584. l^eXeiire : imperfect, as if 
only a '' conative " eclipse. The 
sun, too, only threatened one 
(ec^ao-Kc), contracting his wick 
(585). Here again may be an 
allusion to actual bad weather, 
compelling postponement of the 
election to the next meeting of the 
eK«Ar/crta. 

586. o-TpaniY^o-fi : the mina- 
tory use of the fut. indie, in a con- 
ditional clause; S. 1410, GMT. 
447, infra 1278. 



NE^EAAI 



147 



dXX' o/xo)? eiXecrde tovtov. (ftacrl yap hvcr^ovXCav 
TrjSe TTj TToXeL -npocrelvai, ravra fieuTOu roi)? 6eov<;, 
OLTT oiv vfxei'^ i^afxdpTrjT, e-m to /Sekriou Tpdireiv. 
0)9 8e Kai TovTO ^vvoicr^i, paotoj? SLod^ofxei' ' 59° 
rjv Kkecova, tou Xapof, hwpoiv iX6vTe<; /cat KXoTrrj<;, 
elra (filfxojcrrjTe tovtov toj ^vXco top av)(^epa, 
av6i^ €19 Tapy^aiov vplv, et rt Ka^iQixoipTeTe, 
inl TO /BeXTLOu to Trpdyixa rrj iroXeL avvoicreTai. 



dfx(f)i. fxoL avre, $ot^' dva^. 



[dvTu)8'^ 



587. <}>ao-i: Athens was often 
spoken of as the darling of the 
gods and a fool for luck. 

588. irpoo-eivai : the regular verb 
for any quality that is attached to, 
or inherent in, or belongs to a 
thing. — [icvToi : adversat., as if 
jxiv stood after hv(T fiovXiav . 

590. Kttl toOto : even this Cleon- 
election. — ^uv-oi<r€i : ii^iKr](T(.i 
(schol.). 

591. Swpwv : = oMf>o-t)nK\n^ re- 
ception of i^ifts. — tXovres : in its 
legal sense ; co)ivict. 

592. tlra : after jjartic. as in 
386. — <|>i(iw(rT)Tt : the usual verb for 
binding in the stocks is huv ; Init 
if the culprit is a voracious gull 
(Aapoi), the poet thinks muzzling 
{f\>HLovv) would best sto]) his guz- 
zling. — TovTow : out of its usual 
(attributive) jjosition, perhaps for 
emphasis. — rif |\»X«j» : a neck-pil- 
lory. Tile complete stocks for 



neck, both hands, and feet, was 
called the ■m.vrt-uvpiy^ov ^vXov. 

593. tls rdpxaiov : in the old 
fashion, as of yore ; cp. et? ra;^os = 
Tax^wi- — ^(Aiv : yoii luill fi)id. — 
tCri Ktti : Ktd admits the fact ; even 
if you did err a bit. 

594. o-vv-oi<r£Tai : (if the text is 
right) = crvi/oto-et of 590 ; will turn 
out. 

595-606. 'Avt-wSt) : sung by 
the second half-chorus, a hymn to 
Phoebus Apollo, Ephesian Arte- 
mis, Athene, and Dionysus. 
Again the diction l)ecomes ele- 
vated and religious ; note ava^, 
fxaKaifKi, fitydXox;, (TtXiiyei, as well 
as the epithets applied to the 
divinities. 

595. d(i4>( |ioi auT€ : the first 
words of a famous strain to Apollo 
by the poet Terpander in hexame- 
ters : a/x<^t fioi avTi ava)(0 fKiiTti- 
fioKov a£t8 , <T) (f>fn]v "Sing mc 



148 



API2TO$ANOY2 



Ai^'Xte, Kvi^Oiau ey^MV 596 

vxpLKepdra ireTpav, 
rj T 'E(f)€(Tov fxaKaipa Trdy^pvaov exet? 
oIkov, iu (p Kopat ere Av^mu /xeyaXw? (refiovaLU, 
r; T iTn)(^(x)pLo<; rjfxeTepa ^ed?, 601 

Ylapvaaaiav 0' 69 KaTe^oiv 
irirpav crvv irevKai^ treXayet, 
BttK^ai? AeX^tcrtt' ifXTrpeTrcov, 605 

Kcop.a(TTy]<; Al6uv(T0<;. 



yfvi^ r)piel<; Sevp^ d(pop[jia(T0aL napecTKevdcriJLeda, 



again, O my Soul, of the Lord, 
the Far-darter of arrows." This 
aiJi<j>i-dvaKTa opening was so much 
used by the dithyrambic poets that 
the verb a.fx.^iavaKTit,etv was formed 
for them, and they were comically 
named the dfxcf)idvaKT€s Hallelu- 
jah-tics, or Halle-lunatics. Arist. 
seems here to be outdoing their 
propensity for soaring sentences, 
wherein verbs were postponed to 
the end, and words belonging 
together were widely severed ; for 
observe that the verb aetSe or 
equivalent he never reaches at all, 
and d/u.<^i and /Aot are left stranded. 
— avTc : epic word used also in 
tragedy. 

596. Kvv6iav irtTpav : the Cyn- 
thian rock on the island of Delos, 
sometimes called Mt. Cynthus, 
boasts a lofty horn only by author- 



ity of the poets. Its real height 
is some 400 feet. 

598. |xdKaipa : attracted into 
the relative clause, instead of 
(TV T€, fjiaKaipa, -q — . 

599. oIkov : the famous temple 
afterwards burned, 356 B.C., on the 
night Alexander the Great was 
born. "Great is Uiana of the 
Ephesians." 

601. €irix«pios : forgetting they 
are vagabonds, the Clouds become 
Athenians. 

604. irtvKais : the prose torch 
is Au//7ra? or 8/?. — o-eXa-yei : 2d 
sing. mid., art aflame ; poetic, 285. 

605. €|i-irp€ir(ov : the reveller 
Dionysus is conspicuous ''mid his 
Delphic bacchanals in their orgi- 
astic night-and-nature worship, as 
Nausicaa /xer-eVptTre among her 
afJi<f>LiroXoL (^Od. 6. 109). 



NE<I>EAAI 



149 



7) (T€\T]vr]jCrvuTv)(^ova 'f)jxlv, ineaTeLXeu (fjpdcraL, 
Tr/Dwra jxeu "^aipeiv \\6rjvaioL(rL /cat rot? ^vya/Act- 



eXra Bvjxa'Lveiv €(f)a(TKe ■ Setpa yap TT^TTOvdevai, 610 
axpeXovcr' v/mo.? anavTa^ ov Xoyoi<; dXX. eyLK^ai^oJ?, 
Trpcora jxev tov p,rjvo^ ei? oao ovk eXaTTOu rj Opa^- 

cjCTTe Kal Xeyetu a7TaPTa<;, i^iovTa^ kcnrepa^, 
' fxrj TTpir), TTttt, 8aS', iireLSr) <^ai<> SeXrjvaLrj^; KaXov. 
dXXa T ev Spdp (f)r}cnv, vp,a<i 8' ovk dyeiv Td<; 
r)fi€pa<; <Ji5 



607-27. ^A\n-iTripp'r]\ia -. 
corresponds in length (20 vv.), in 
delivery (probably by Kopv<f)aLo<; 
of second half-chorus), in rhythm, 
and in dance to the cTrtp/jry/xa. 

608. <T-vvTvxov<ra : = CTrtTv^oD- 
cra ; cp. 195. 

609. x^'P*''" ■ depends on (ftpii- 
(Tai; to present i^reetini^s (lit. to 
bid rejoice). — ^u^iptaxois : added 
because of their presence at the 
Dionysia. 

610. Ou(ia£v€iv : jjoetic for ^^uAe- 

TTH.ivi.lV- 

612. TOV (iT)v6s : disfrii)utive. 
— cts : y^';-. - 8pax(i^v : internal 
aCC. with ojc^tAorfra. 

614. ScXT]va[T|s : (reAr/Mf/'; : the 
ending -r;? after i is an lonisni ; 
cp. TpiToyei/tu; 989. 

615. a"y«iv : observe^ keep. 
The basis of ancient religious 
calendars was the lunar niunlh (jf 



about 29I days. Twelve such 
months fell about 1 1 days short of 
the solar year. To remedy the 
discrepance, the Athenians since 
the time of Solon had used a com- 
plicated system of intercalary 
months and days which was far 
from perfect and needed frequent 
adjustment. At the time of this 
play the adjustment had been so 
long neglected tliat Hecatombaeon 
1st (the Athenian New Year's 
Day) now fell often in August 
instead of June or early July. 
Hence the confusion not only ot 
the gods' fast-days, and feast-davs, 
as they here complain, but in 
civil matters as well. Revenues 
came in late, and military officers 
for tlie new year entered on their 
duties when the fighting sea.son 
was half over. Relief was appar- 
ently e.\pected this year from the 



ISO 



API2TOcI>ANOY2 



ovoev 6p0a)<i, dXX' aVo) re /cat Karoj KuSotSoTraf • 
cocTT aTTeCkelv (^y)aiv avrfj tov<; deov<; eKacTTOTe, 
y^v'iK av ^evcrOcocTL EecTTi'ov, KaTrioi(TLv ot/caSe, 
T^9 iopTrjf; firj rv^^oi/re? /caret Xoyov twv rjfxepwu. 
Kad\ oTOiV Oveiv Ser), cTTpe^XovTe /cat Si/ca^ere- 620 
TToXA.a/ct'i o rjfJLfop ayovTOJV Tiov Beoiv OLTracrTiav, 
TfPLK au Trevd(op.€v rj rov M.ep.vov' rj XapirrfSoua, 
cnrepSeO^ vfxel<; kol yeXar ■ av0' S)v Xa^wi' 'Tnep- 
ySoXo? 623 

TrJTe<; iepop,vrip,ovelv, KdneuO' vcf)' rj/xcov tmv dewv 
Tou (TTe^avov dcfiypeBrj • jxdXXoi' yap ovt(o<; etcrerat 
Kara ^eXyjprjv w? dy^iv )(prj tov ^lov ra? 'r)[xepa<;. 



Amphictyonic League, which had 
advisory powers on the calendar. 
But Hyperbolus, the upofi.vr'jfj.Mv 
or delegate appointed thereto, had 
returned, it would seem, without 
remedy (624). 

620. o-TpspXovTc : are applyijig 
torture to slaves to extract evi- 
dence — a concrete way of saying 
that the Athenians were holding 
court, we might say, on Sunday. 

621. Vice versa, fast-day in 
Olympus fell on a week-day in 
Athens. — dirao-ria : an Epic for- 
mation for the prose viqanuu used 
here because Epic personages are 
mentioned. 

622. Memnon son of Eos and 
Sarpedon son of Zeus were slain 
in the Trojan War. 

623. vfieis : in contrast with 
Tjiio^v. — dv6' wv : ivlierejore. 



624. Kaireira : after a partic, 
superfluous ; cp. etra in 386. 

625. (rTe({>avov d(f>T)pEOT] : the 

regular phrase for deposition from 
office. The Clouds take it liter- 
ally, as if a rainstorm had carried 
off his official wreath. Perhaps it 
was as tepo/xvr//i.ojv that Hyperbolus 
offered the " handle " for attack 
mentioned in 551. 

626. Kara S€Xt|vt]v : to base 
the year on the moon again is 
truly orthodox and old-fashioned 
advice for the Clouds to give, 
showing how entirely the paraba- 
sis falls out of the plot. End 
of the Para basis. 

627-813. An eTT-eto-oStov {epi- 
sode, or (7/?6'r-en trance) in the 
court of Socrates" house. Enter 
Socrates, then Strepsiades. After 
the entrance examination and ma- 



NE<t>EAAI 



15- 



2o). fxa TTjP 'Ai/aTTVoT^t', ixa to Xcto?, fxa tov 'Aepa, 627 
ovK eioov ovT(o<; avop' aypoiKov ovoiva 
ovS' OLTTopov ovoe CTKatoy ou8' iTTikrjcrixova ■ 
oaTL<; aKaXaOvpfxaTL arra ixLKpa piavddvoyv, 630 
ravT i.TTike\ri<jTai Trpiv fxaOelv o/li&j? ye prjv 
avTov Kokw Ovpa^e oevpl 7Tpo<? to (jno^. 
7TOV STpexjji.dST^'; ; e^et tou daKavTrfv Xa^oiv : 

It. dXX' OVK ioicri p,' i^eueyKetv ol Kopei^;. 

ScD. dvv(ja<; tl KaTcLOov, Kal Trpocre^^e tou vovv. 

2t. Ihov. 635 

Sa>. aye 87^', tl ^ovXet npciiTa vvvl pavudveiv 

(x)u OVK eStSct^^T^? TTo'iTTOT ovodv : elne pot. 
TTOTepou nepl peTpoju rj pvBpcov 17 irepi inoiv ; 

St. rrepl tow peTpow eyojy ■ ei^ay^o? yap noTe 

vn d\(f)LTapoLfiov TrapeKOTTrfv ol-^olulkco. 640 



tiiculation of vv. 478-509. there 
now comes elementary instruction 
lookinjj to ultimate Rhetoric (627- 
93), then an unha|)in' attempt at 
Orijijinal Research (694-782) end- 
ing in exj)ulsi()n. 

627. 'Avairvo^v : Respiration ', 
a novel do^^ma of Diogenes of 
Apollonia. Sec notes on 229 and 
424. 

630. <rKaXa6up(idTia : "Kinder- 
garten games "" ; dOffjim toy. — 
arra : — Tii^a ) ( utti, 2 5 I . 

632. avTov : /;/ person ; em- 
phatic jxisitiun. as in 197. — Ka\<i : 
fut. — irpos TO <|)(iis : si'e 1 98 n. 
The interiors of tlie houses of ihc 



])oor were ill-lighted, as to this 
day, in Greece and Italy. 

633- '^-i^ : 2d sing, of the fut. 
e$-€LfXL. — do-KdvTTiv : is the sacred 
(TKi'/XTrov's of 254. 

635. Obtaining |>ermission of 
the Kopeis, the initiate brings forth 
his (rKt/ATTODs, probably throws over 
it the sheepskin (see Frontispiece 
and V. 730). then scats himself, a 
true gymnosophist. barefoot and 
niglitgowncd. 

638. The "mysteries" of Me- 
tre, Rhythm, and (Grammar are 
now to be revealed: Metre. 641, 
Rhythm.s, 647, inrj. 658. 

640 81x011 iKw: dat. of meas- 



15: 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



2co. ov TovT ipwTM (t\ dXX' o Tt kolWicttov [xerpov 
rjyel- Trorepov to rpip^eTpov r) to TeTpajxeTpov ; 

St. lyo) jxeu ovSep TrpoTepov y]p,ieKT€ov. 

Sw. ov^ev Xeyet?, Mudpcoire. St. TrepiSov vvv ifxoC, 

el fJLT] TeTpdpieTpov icTTLU rjfJiLeKTeov. 645 

Sco. 69 KopaKaq, w? dypoLKo<; el /cat SvcrixaOrj';. 
Ta)(v y dv Svvato puavOdveiv irepl pvOpiOiv. 

St. Tt he fx a)(f)eXy](Tov(r ol pvO/jiol 77/369 raXc^tra ; 

S(o. TTpo)Tov fxeu eTpaL kojx^ov ev (rvpovcna, 

eirdiovO' OTTOtd? ecrrt rwv pvdixwu 650 

Kar' eVoTrXtov, ^wttoio? av Kara SdKTvXov. 



ure ; he was cheated to the amount 
of two quarts. 

643. irpoTepov : preferable to. 
— Tiixi-eKTeov : the name Terpd- 
fj.(.Tpov, Streps, thinks, must be 
new for the 4-choenix measure 
commonly called ri[XLCKTcv<;, lit. 
semi-sixth of a /AeSt/avos- 

644. ovSev \€-y€is : nonsense! 
The opposite is tv or KaXws Ae- 
■yei5 = ^^w^/ notion ! well said I 
(1092, 1289). — irepi-Sou «(i.oi : is, 
in Eng., a question : " what will 
you bet me?" (But why the em- 
phatic €/U.Ot ?) 

646. €S KopttKas : 123, 133; 
perhaps in Athens the impreca- 
tion referred to the pit, or ySapa- 
Qpov (1449 n.), outside the walls. 
where buzzards fed on the bodies 
of executed but unburied crimi- 
nals ; to the dump/ni^ ground or 
garbage heap. Of course the butt 



of the rural joke in the eyes of the 
poet is Socrates, not Strepsy. 

648. a\4>iTo : again the key- 
tone of the Practical Education is 
heard — Victuals. 

649. K0|j.v|/6v KT€. : in sharp con- 
trast comes here one at least of 
the keytones of the sophistic edu- 
cation — to be refined, elegant, 
witty, blase, precieux. 

650. €ir-a£ovTtt : itself a word 
of higher culture : to be au fait, 
a connoisseur in any matter. 

651. Kar cvo-irXiov : this rhythm 
in the march style {Alia Marcia, 
or Alia Cap-a-pie) was the ana- 
paestic tripody. while the Kara 
haKTvXov consisted of dactyls, the 
two differing thus : 



J 

J n\ J 



r: 



NEcl>EAAI 



153 



St. /caret SclktvXov ; vr) tou Ai", ctXX' otS'. So). etTre 
St. Tt9 aXXo? at^rt rourovi roO SaKTvXov; 

TVpO TOV fJbeVy €T ifJLOV TTatSo? OVTO^ OVTOOri, 

So). oiypelo<; el koI cr/caids. St. ou yctp, w^upe' 655 

rovrojt' iTnBvfxoi) fxapOdueiu ovoev. Sco. rt oat; 

St. eKelu' iKelvo, top dSi/cwrarof Xoyoi^. 
So). aXX' erepa Set ere irporepa tovtov p^avBdveiv ' 

Tojv TeTpaTToSoiv (XTT ioTiv 6p6oi<; dppeva. 
St. aXX' olo eywye Toippev', el fxrj pLaivofxai ' 660 

/cpto<?, Tpdyo<;, Tavpo<;, kvcov, dkeKTpvatu. 
S(o. 6/3a<? 6 TTCicr^et? ,■ rT^V re drjkeLau KaXetg 

dXeKTpvova kol ravTO kol tov appeua. 
St. TToi? 817, (f)^pe, 770*9 ; Sco. dXeKr/avwi^ KokeKTpviov. 
St. i^t) roi^ llocretSoj. wi^ 8e ttw? /^e ^^17 KaXeti^ ; 665 



Both were used to march by ; hut 
in one you probably began with 
the left foot, in the other with the 
right. For Arist. this amounted 
to Tweedle-dum and Twcedlc-dee. 

653 f. Accom|janic(l with some 
indecent gesture. — dvrC: but, or 
if not. 

655- avpcios : = dyfHO<; 349, 
nypoiKos 646. — ■y'^P • because. — 
<j>(vp^ : (I) ol^vpe. 

656. tC 8aC : 491 n. 

659 ff. Instruc tii)ii in Inr) or 
opdo-eirtui, the correct use of 
words, the sjjecial subject of Pro- 
tagoras and Prodicus. — opBws : the 
usual promise of science, pseudo- 



or otherwise. — appcva : the con- 
fusion of grammatical gender 
(y«V?/, genera, classes) and natural 
sex is for many a stumbling-block 
to this day. 

661. dXcKTpuwv : a "double- 
barrelled " joke — not only on the 
farmer for putting the cock among 
TCTpa-TroSes, but on the pedant 
Socrates, who passes over that 
error to magnify one of the Attic 
dialect. Other dialects had the 
form dAtKTopt? for /le/t. 

662. irdo-xtis : 234 n.; cp. 708. 
816. 

663. Ka( . . . Ka( : ii//tf . . . 
a/so. 



154 



API2T0<I>AN0Y2 



So) dXcKTpvaLuap, tou 8' erepou dkeKTopa. 
St. dXeKTpvaiuau ; ev ye, vrj tov 'Aepa' 

0)(TT dvTl TOVTOV TOV 8lOay/XaT09 fJiOUOV 

SiaXcjiLTcocroj crov /cukXoj ttju KapooiTOv. 

Sco. tSou pa}C av6i<i rovO^ erepou ' rr^v KapooTTOu 670 
dppeva /caXets, OrjXeiav ovcrav. St. tw rpoTTOJ \ 
dppeva KaXd) 'yw KapSoirov ; Sw. jxakia-Ta ye, 
M(T7rep ye /cat KXewwixov. St. ttcus 017 ; (ppdaov. 

So). TavTOv SvuaTaL croi Kapooiro^ KXecow/jtai. 

St. aXX' ojyd6^ ovS' tjv KapSoiro^; Kkecovvfxo), 675 

dXX' eV dveia arpoyyvXrj y dvefxaTTero. 
drdp TO XoLTTou ttox; fxe XPV KaXelv ; So), otto)? ,■ 
7171^ KaphoTTTjv, (ocrirep KaXei? tt^i' %0)aTpaTr]v. 



666. dXcKTpvaivav : proposed 
on the analogy of Xiaiva from 
Ae'wi', Oepdiraiva from depaTrwv. — 
dXcKTopa : this not only marks the 
gender but is the poetic form ; as 
if some modern language-reformer 
should propose chicken' and chick- 
ress, and banish chicken. 

667. VT] TOV 'Ae'pa : Streps, can 
already swear in Sophistese. 

669. 8ia- : in composition is 
here thoroiigJily. — kvkXw : ad- 
verbial use. 

670. (idXa : strengthens av^is : 
a second time ae^ain. — tovto : sc. 
€(7Ti'. — TTjv KapSoTTov : feminine 
substantives in -09 are indeed an 
anomalous nuisance ; cp. t] oho'i, 
vocros< t/f^c^os, ttAiV^o?, etc. S. 
200, HA. 152, G. 194. 



674. " KapSoTTOS, you think 
(croi), amounts to the same thing 
(SuVarai to avrov) as Cleonymus " 

(353)- 

675 f. The old man, still un- 
used to the ways of schools, sup- 
poses his teacher is talking about 
things, not names. He is sure 
he does not identify kneading- 
trough and Cleonymus (big-bellied 
though he was) ; for Cleonymus 
never even owned one — dining 
out when he could, or if he must 
knead bread, "needing" it (to 
suggest a substitute for the ancient 
joke) in a mortar (Oveia, a vessel 
small and unfit for the purpose). 

678. /.e. change -os to -7;, and 
say trouf^hy, as you do Susy, Polly, 
Sostraty. 



NE4>EAAI 155 

St. ttjp Kap^onrjv OTJkeLav ; 2(o. opdux; yap Xeyet?. 
St. eKclpo 8' rju av, Kap^oirrj, KXeoji^v/xry. 680 

So), e.i' €TL ye nepl to)v ouoixdrcov fxadelv ere oei, 

arr' dppev ecmV, arra S' avTwv drjXea. 
St. aXX' otS' eycoy' a. Brjke icrriv. Sw etTre oi). 

St. AucrtXXa, OtXti^i^a, KXetrayo/aa, Ar]fxr)TpLa. 
ScD dppeva 8e 77ota rwi^ ovopidrcov ; St. p-vpia ■ 

<l>tXd^ei^o?, MeXr^crta?, 'A/xvi^ta?. 686 

Sco. dXX', a> TTovTjpe, raura y' e'crr' ou/c appeva. 
St. oti/c dppev vjxIp eariv : So. ovoafxa)^ y\ iirei 

TTux; av Ka\e(Teia<; ivTv^uiv \\p.vvia : 
St. ottw? ai' ; &>St • ' hevpo, Sevp\ 'AfjLVi^ia.' 690 

So). 6pa<? ,• yui^atKa tt^i^ ^ ApLVviav /caXei?. 
St. ovkovu 8i/cata)<j, T^'rt? ov CTTpareveTai ; 

drdp TL Tav0\ a Trai^re? Lcrfxeu, fxaudduo) ; 

679. opeis : again '• scientifi- the same stripe as Amynias(C/rv/rt'y 
cally,'' before everything else. 31 and 1259 ff.) ; hence probably 

680. TJv av : ivould be. — KXtw- Melesias too — all TraiSe? dytVeioi 
vv|Mi : this is what popular educa- {beardless), devoted to the turf. 
tion leads to! Cp. the modern 688. v|*lv : in your jiidi^nieiit. 
"Anybody's else" (for "anyl)ody 689. €v-tvx<ov : = irvv-Tv^wv 
else's") and •■ Uon'tt eeyou ?" (for 608 = l-ni-Tv\Mv 195. 

" don't you? "). 690. 'Afiuvia : the vocative 

681. First came the grammati- does give him the air of a ladylike 
cal gender of animals 659. ne.xt gentleman. 

of things 670, now of people. 692. tins: causal; "a'lioi slic. 

684. AvtriXXa kt€. : women — ou o-TpartviTat : an inlormal 

who were jjerhaps more " talked charge of a-nr^MTtii. \ or perhaps 

about among men " than Pericles he has just got his mission as 

would have liked (Tluic. 2. 45. ambassador to Thessaly {Wasps 

2). '271) and hence is exempt from 

686. We know from Wasps 74 military service, 
and 1267 that IMiiloxenus was of 693. tI ; l<> what end ? 



156 



API2T04)ANOY2 



Sto. ovhev, fxa Ai', dXXa. /caraKXii^el? Sevpl — St. tl 

Spo) ; 
Sa>. eKcfipovTLcrou tl tojv aeavrov 7rpayfxa.T0)u. 695 

St. fXY) Sr}6\ lK€T€vct}, 'pTavdd y ' dW el-nep ye XRl^ 

■^ajxai IX eacrou avrd ravT i K(f)p opt icr at. 
So). ovK ecTTi irapd raur' dkXa. St. KaKohai^oiv eyo), 

olav SiKrjp TOL<s Kopeac Swcrto Tyjfiepop. 

Xo. (f)p6vTL^€ 8^ /cat SiddpeL, TrdvTa Tponov re cravTov 

(TTp6(3€L TTVKvdiCra^. 702 

Ta^v9 S', oral' et? diropov Trecrys, 



694. ovSe'v : fo no end; the 
impatient question gets an exas- 
perated answer. Socrates is done 
with him. — dWd : still, he will 
allow Strepsy one more trial. — 
8€vpC : i.e. on the do-Kavrr;?. 

694-726. First experiment in 
Original Research : vitiated by 
bedbugs. 

697. xafial : in emphatic posi- 
tion. — avrd TttvTa : the same must 
refer to his own irpdyiJiaTa of 695 ; 
or could the phrase be adverbial 
(just this way) ? Socrates' re- 
sponse fits well to this meaning, 
viz., There is no other way but this 
(698). 

699. otav: excl. — Socrates 
here either withdraws or falls into 
one of his long fits of abstrac- 
tion. 



700-05. An ode addressed to 
Streps. For the rhythm see Introd. 
§ 138. Comparison with the avr- 
(uSt; 804-10 shows that two lines 
are lacking. 

700. <l)p6vTt5€ Stj : now think 
away (pres . not aor.) ; a comic 
take-oflf on all <^povTi(JTy]pva.. 

701. (ravTov irvKvwo-as : concen- 
trating yourself. He probably 
executed the other commands 
(htddpti, (TTp6(iti, irrjha.) bodily, 
not mentally, to the delight of the 
audience. Here too, however, as 
in 661. the real satire lies deeper, 
viz. on Socrates' desultory logic 
in word-fencing. Anywhere in 
Plato's dialogues we find him, "if 
landed in perplexity." leaping else- 
where. 

703. raxvs : in prose Ta;(€a>s. 



NE<1>EAAI 157 

vorjfxa (fjpevo^ ' utti^o? S' dTrecrraj y\vKvdvfxo<? 6/x- 
IxaTwv. 7°5 



St. oTTaToi, aTrarat. 

Xo. Tt 7racr;(€t<? ; rt /cot/xi/et? ; 

St. (XTToXXv/xat SetXato? • e'/c tou crKiixTToho^ 

haKvovdi fx i^4pTrovT€.<; 01 Kop — ivdioi, 710 

Koi T(X9 7rXev/5a9 haphaTTTOvcnv 

/cat Ti^i' i/zu^ryt' iKTTLvovaiu 

Kol Tov'i 6p)^eL<; e^eXKovcriv 

KOI TOV TVpOiKTOV OLOpvTTOV<TiU, 

/cat /x' ctTToXoOrrti^. 7'5 

Xo. /XT7 i^f 1/ ySa/3eco9 aXyet Xtai/. 

St. /cat TTOKj ; ore /xou 

(ppovha TOi ^(^pyjfxaTa, cfypovor] ^potct, 



705. Highly poetic : <^p7;v,yXt^ K6p-ei<; ; as if Bed-ouins . As chief 
Ki;^i7/i.o9, o/i,/i«. The irony is hard instigators of the war. the Co- 
on poor Strepsy, as he "twists rinthians were in truth the plague 
anfl bounds."' of Athens. 

707 f. Tragic rhythms from 711 ff. Lugubrious anapaests, 

the prostrate and covered form : made more so by the dull, hope- 

dTTaral makes a Cretic foot less iteration of the same verse- 

(i . *^*)' ''' ^'i'^X"« ^ ending ; they parody the anapaes- 
tic laments of tragedy. — 8ap8d- 
Hacchius ( / I J ^), repeated ^^^^^ . .^,^ ^^-^ ^^^^^ . f,, ^^o,-^, 

or devour raTOioits/y- 



in TL Kdfxvw;. As if: "what 



712. »|»vx^v : life-blood. 



grief now | afflea-cts thee?" 717. Kal iris: pray /unv car\ I 

709. ScCXaios : tragic, as in 12 grieve overmuch (Awiv) ? — &t€ : 
and always. iitnu that (causal). 

710. Kop-£v9ioi; instead of 7188. A wicked parody on the 



158 



API2T04)AN0Y2 



(fipovSr] i//v^T7, cf)povhr] 8' ifx^d<; ' 

/cat 77/009 TOVTOiS €Tt TOiCTL KaKOtS, 

(f)povpa<; aocjv 

oXiyov cl)povSo<; yeyevrjixai. 



720 



Sod. ovto<;, tl Trotetg ; ov'^l (j)povTil,ei<^ ; St. eyoj ; 

VT) TOP ITocretSw. Sw. koI ri hrjT i(j)p6pTi(ra<; ; 

St. vtto t(x)v Kopeojv el fjiov tl 7repLX€i(f)0T]a€Tai. 725 

Sco. dnoXel kcIklctt. St. dXX', aryoi0\ diroXcoX' apTia»9. 
Sco. ou fxaXOaKicnd^, aXXct TrepiKaXvirrda. 

i^€vpeTeo<; yap pov<; d7TOcrTepy]TLKo<; 

KdiraLoXrjiJL. St. OLfxoL ' rt? dv SrJT evrt/SaXot 



sorrows of Hecuba in Euripides : 
<f)pov6o'i Trpzcr/Svi, <f>pov8oL TratSes 
(Hec. 161), she too probably pros- 
trate on the earth with covered 
head. 

719. €p.pds : he has become dv- 
vTTo^rjTos, like the rest of this bare- 
foot brotherhood (103). 

721. <{>povpds : gen. of time; 
cp. vvKTOs, x^M'^i'OSj ttt^pta? (371 )• 
There is also sound-play with 
<^/3oJ}8os. His singing on sentinel 
ditty is not wholly voluntary, in 
view of the "Bedouins."' 

722. 0X170V : almost. — Socrates 
returns. 

723. ovTos : /^^r^ ; English pre- 
fers dem. adv. to dem. adj. 

726. The order Hegone comes 
too late : Strepsy has just been 
bug-on- ed. 



727-34. Second bout at Origi- 
nal Research, with nugatory re- 
sult. 

728. Streps, must exercise the 
faculty of philosophers and thieves 
— abstraction ; he must find for 
him.self his (s)peculative notion. 
On adj. formation in -t/cds see 
483 n. — vovs : = vorffxa (705, 743), 
or yvwfxr] (73°) • 

729. dir-ai6\t]|xa : tragic for 
aTroLTr]. — Socrates again abstracts 
himself. — t£s av : a common 
tragic way of expressing a wish ; 
would that some one — . — «iri- 
pdXoi : Socrates had just thrown 
over him the sheepskin (Atos 
KwStW) used in purificatory rites. 
(The Frontispiece shows the horns 
of the ram between the proselyte's 
feet. Who can say how ancient 



NE<|)EAAI 



So). 



730 



(f)€pe vvv ddpijaoj irpioTov, o tl Spa, tovtovL 
ovTO<;, /ca^evSei? ; St. fxa tov 'AttoXXw, yoj fxev 

ov. 
e^et? Tt ,• St. fxa At", ov Srjr eycay . Sw. ovoev 

TTOLVV ; 



ovK iyKa\v\pdfxevo<; ra^^eiw? tl <^povTiei<; ; 735 

St. TTC/al TOV ; av yap jxoi tovto (f>pda'ov, d> ^w/cpare?. 
S(o. avTo<; 6 tl ^ov\ei 7rpaJ70<? i^evpcou Xeye. 
St. dKyJKoa<? \xvpidKL<i dym /BovkofxaL, 

7T€pl TOiv tokcjv, ottw? cti^ diTohcj fjirjoeuL. 
S(o. lOl vvv KaXvTTTOv, /cat (T\dcra^ T-qv ^povTtha 74° 



is the joke (or the reality) of 
"riding the goat" in initiations?) 
Because of this literal " throwing 
on " of the aiirvpa. Streps, uses 
iiri-lidXkM. instead of the usual 
ifji-fidWoi or vTru-fidKXoi to sug- 
gest. 

730. ii, dpvaKtSuv : froj/i the 
lambskins ; willi a jjiay on i^ufjvr)- 
TiKU}V (1 172 : cp. (^(ifjvu^ 1230, and 
f$apvf.i<Tdai to de?iy) — hence the 
need for the tragic omission of 
the article tojv. Out of the fleeces 
he sighs for some fleecing scheme ; 
ox out of the skins some skin-flint 
plan. — diro-crTtpt]Tpt8a ; lie fails 
to catch the new adj. in -ikos 
(728), hut has not forgotten his 
grammar lesson in genders, .so 
forms a special feminine on 



analogy of dpvaKt's- — Silence. 
Long Pause. Socrates abstracted. 

731. d.ep'/jo-w : subjv. after <^€pe; 
cp. ^ip t'Soi 21, (iMT. 257. 

735-47- Third essay at Origi- 
nal Research with encouraging 
results — at first. 

736. irepl TOV : what about ' 

737. avTos . . . TTpwTOs : this is 
the pedagogic doctrine of the real 
Socrates, that initiative must come 
from within; see 137 n. 

740. KaXviTTov : the pedagogue 
tends tiiroughout to elevated dic- 
tion ; plain prose here would use 
a compound as in 735, 727. — 
<rx<i<ras ktI. : ease off your mind 
to rarity (lit. .w as to be subtle) ; 
c|j. 107. 409 for <7xu^w. and 229 
for the kinship of ^/joi/ti<; and api]p. 



i6o 



APl2TOcl>ANOY2 



XeTTTT^i^ Kara [xiKpov 7repL(f)p6veL ra npayfJiaTa, 
6p6a}<; hiaipojv koi (tkottojv. St. olfjioi 

TctXa?. 
ex OLTpcfxa ' Kav a7roprj<; tl tcop vorjjjLaTcov, 
d(f)€L<; aTreXde, Kara rfj yvMjxr) ndkiu 
KLvrj(TOv av0L<i avTo koi t,vy(jJdpi(TOv. 745 

ft> '^(oKpaTiSiOP ^ikTarov. Sco. rt, a> yepov ; 

e^O) TOKOV yVCOfJirjU OLTTOCTTeprjTLKlju . 

2(1). eTTiBeL^ov avTTjv. 2t. etTre 817 vvi> (jlol — 

Sco. totl; 
yvuoLKa (fyapixaKiS' el TrpLdfjLevo<; %eTTa\rjv^ 
KaoeXoipLi vvKTOip tyjp creXyjurji', elra S17 750 

avTTjp Kadeip^aiix e? ko(f)elop arpoyyvkov, 



So) 



St 
St 



St 



741. irpd^fjiaTa: troubles. 

742. opOios Si-aipwv : wit/i sci- 
entific analysis; again tlie catch- 
words of the day. ht-aipdv was 
the technical method alike of 
Socrates and of the sophists. — 
otjxoi rdXas : a tragedy is going on. 

743. airopfjs: construed with 
Tl, not with i/07//xaTa)i/ ; are in a 
quandary orer. 

745- tvYM0pio-ov : perpend; the 
genealogy of the word is probably 
t,vy6v {yoke of a balance), S^vyow, 
^vywOpov, ^vywdpii^o). — Silence. 
Long Pause. Then Streps, shows 
his head from beneath the cov- 
erlet. 

747. He at last has caught the 
-tKos adj. 



748. TO t£ : namely, what? 
French lequel? 

749. ()>ap(iaK(Sa : Thessalian 
witches were recognized masters 
of magic, even to deducing the 
moon from heaven. Tliessalian 
drugs and incantation still held 
their repute in Horace's time 
{Epode 5. 21 and 45); his Cani- 
dia boasts polo deripere lunam 
Tocibis meis (^Epode 17. "]"]) — 
unless indeed Horace is merely 
adapting from old Greek sources. 
— cl : is our familiar supposing. — 
irpid|i,cvos : may mean only to pur- 
chase the services of. 

751. avPTTiv : bodily; in em- 
phatic ]30sition. — Xo<j>eiov : prop- 
erly a case for a crest (Ao<^os) ; 



NE<I>EAAI 



i6i 



(ocnrep KaTOiTTpov, Kara Tripoirfv e^cuv — 
So). TL hrjra tovt av oi^ekiqcreidv cr ; St. o tl ; 

el ixr)K€T duareWoL aekrjvrj fxiqhajxov, 

ovK av aTTohoLrjp tov<; t6kov<;. So>. 67117 ^'- ^V '< 

2t. ortT^ /caro. fxrjua Tapyvpiov Sai^et^erai. 75^ 

2(1). €.1) y • aXX' erepop av crot npo^aXa) tl Se^Lou. 

et (TOL ypd(f)OLTO irevTeTokavTO'^ rt? 81x17, 

OTTO)? ai^ avTTjV a.(f)avL(reLa<;, eine poL. 
St. oVo)? ; 6Vaj<? ; ovk otS' " dxa/a liqT-qTeov. 7^ 

Sw. yai7 j^vt" Treyat cravrov etXXe 7171^ yva)pr)v det, 



then for any round article, as 
KaTOTTTpov, and . . . the moon. 




(irerk Mirror. 
ARISTOPHANES - 



755. oTiTj t( 8t| : becmise why f 

756. Kara jifjva : cp. the old 
word fx.y]vr] tnoon. 

757. «vi -ye: bravo I Sarcastic, 
as we see by the issue in 781 ; 
l^ut taken seriously by poor Streps., 
pleased and proud of his first 81- 
-uipeo-is and his first ascension 
among to. fitriwpa. (If tv ye Ije 
spoken not ironically, but sin- 
cerely, then Arist. means to ridi- 
cule both for fools.) — irpoPoXu : 
489 n. 

758. •Ypd<|)oiTo : registered, sc. 
on the waxen tablet of the court 
calendar. 

759. dit>av(o-(ias : in the legal 
%cnsi- flit/ 1 Kis/i ; but the pupil takes 
it literally lo cause to disappear. 

760. In his halting perplexity 
Streps, allows four feet of the 
versf fo fall apart. 

761 f. There must be no coop- 
int; lift of the intillcct, no concen- 



l62 



API2TO$ANOY2 



aW aTTO^aXa rrju (^povTio et? tov depa/ 
XivooeTou (ocnrep ixrjXokovdiqv tov ttoSo?. 

St. rjvpr)K a(f)di>Lcni> 717? 81^179 crocfyajTciTrfv, 

(ocTT avTov ojxoXoyeiv ere fxoi. So>. TToiav tlvo. ; 

St. r^OTj napd rolci (f)apixaK07ro)Xai'; Tr)v \idov 766 

ravTqv eopa/ca?, tt^i^ KaXrjv, r-qv Staffiavyj, 
d(f> 179 TO TTvp diTTOvcn; Sa>. tt)!^ vakov Xeyet?; 

St. eywye. <^e/3e ri 8177' ai/, et TavTiqv Xa^cov, 

OTTOTe ypdijioiTO ttjv hiKiqv 6 ypap.piaTev<^, 77° 

OLTTajTepo) crTa9 o)Se npos top -qXiov 

TO, ypdfxixaT iKTuj^aLixL rr}? e/i,T79 Si/c?]? ; 

So). Gro(f)(t)q ye, vrj ret? Xapira?. St. oijLt' w? y^ooixai, 
OTL TTevTerdXavTO'; SiayeypaTTTai fxoL Slkt]. 

Sa>. aye Sr) ra^ew? rourt ^wdprraaou. St. to ti ; 



tration ; a cloud-worshipper should 
have a rarefied mind. 

763. |iT)Xo\6v6i]v : cockchafer. 
Little beetles thread-tied by the 
foot are still found in the tropics, 
worn by young ladies as orna- 
ments. — Silence. Pause. 

764. r]vpT)Ka : Eureka ! Why 
should not Streps, have the credit 
for this famous exclamation rather 
than Archimedes two hundred 
years later ? 

766. tiSt) : e7/er (346) . — 4>ap|xa- 
KOTTioXais : besides his drugs and 
burning-glasses, the pharmacist 
sold magic rings and other rari- 
ties. Cp. the apothecary's shop 
in Shakespeare's Ro>neo and Juliet 
5. I. 



768. aTTTOvcri : cp. 1 8 aim. 
\v^ov. — Xe'^tis : do yon mean ? 

769. tC B-qT' av : cp. 154. 

770. 6 "Ypap.. : the clerk of the 
court. 

771. "irpos TOV TiXiov : cp. 198. 

772. €K-TT||ai(j[.i : to melt out 
the letters would indeed be an 
a.^a.vicTi'i of the suit. 

773- vTj Tois XdpiTa? : an un- 
common oath, but appropriate to 
the graceful wit of Strepsy's 
scheme, which is a second practi- 
cal application of science to the 
moral problems of life. Ironical 
probably ; but see n. on 757. 

774 f . Sia-YCYpaTTTai : stricken 
through, cancelled. — Iwdpir : dif- 
fers from vcf)apTru^oi 490. 



NE<I>EAAI 163 

So). OTTO*? aTTO<jTpd\\iai av olutlolkwu. olktjv 776 

IxekXoju 6(f)krjcreLP, fjcr) irapovTOiV fxapTvpcju. 

St. cfiavKoTara koI pacTT. 2a). eiTre hrj. St. koI 
orj \eyoi. 
€t Trpoadev en /uta? iveaTMarj^ 81^179, 
Trpti^ TT^i/ e/xi7i^ Ka\e2(T0\ airay^aipiqv rpe^oiv. 780 

So). ouSei^ Xeyctg. St. 1^17 rou? deov'? eywy', eVet, 

otioe't9 /car' ejU.oi} Tedpe(oTO<? elcrd^eL oiktiv. 

So). vdXeL<;' dnepp', ovk dp SiSd^aLfx dv cr ert. 

St. ortr) ri ; vol irpo^ to)v Oewu, o) Sd)KpaTe<;. 

So). aA.X' €v9v<; eTTiXrjdei crv y\ arr dv Koi p.ddri'^' 785 
eVei Tt vvv\ npcoTov eStSct^^T^s ; Xeye. 

St. (f)€p^ rSo), Tt fievTOi irpwrov tjv ; tl npcoTov rjv ; 
ri<s -qv iv Tf pLarrofxeda pevTOL TaX(f)LTa ; 
ot/xot, T19 -^v : 2o). OVK e? /cd/aa/cag dnorfidepel, 

tTTLk-qcrpoTaTov Koi cTKaioTaTOv yepovrtov ; 79° 

776. dvTiSiKwv : partic. ; if dc- — Undone, but unrealizing it, 
fendant. — 8iktiv : witli avoarpi- .Streps, talks back: "By the gods 
i/'aio. but I i/o'' talk sense. 

777. 64>X.T|(rtiv : see 34 n. 784. vat: •' O do;'"' tragically, 

778. <j>*^^°'''aTa : as easy as for the blow has fallen. 

lyini(. He waxes proud; but 785. iiriXTiOti: iirLXavOdva is 

al.is. •• Pride gocth l)etorc a fall.'" the prose form. — KaC : before the 

— Kal 8-^ : - rf^i) at once. \ crb often means emphasis on the 

779. irpoaOcv : i.e. before mine. l*-ng. auxiliary; "whatever you 

— iv €<rT(uo-T]s : pcnditii^. t^/rHearn." 

780. KoXcio-Oai : i.e. by the 787. (livroi : really., indeed. 
court crier. — dira-Y|a£(niv : this is 789. d-rro-4)9€pti : = aTret <^Qt- 
Original Researcli (ew/jcm?) with ^joi'/xfi'os- 

a vengeance! IJut the satire is 790. iiriXTjo-ndraTov : u.sually 

on the Higher Education as much -fxaviaTuTov. — Socrates turns 

as on tlie rustic. away in high dudgeon or in ab- 

781. otlSiv X^Yiis : nonsense! straction. 



i64 API2T04>AN0Y2 

2t. oiixoL, TL ovv orjd^ 6 KaKoSaLfxcou neCaofJiaL ; 

OLTTO yap oXoVjXaL, fJiT] fXadcDU y\coTTO(TTpO(j)eLU. 

dXX', o) Ne^eXat, ^p-qcxTov tl crvfji/BovXevcraTe. 

Xo. r]fxeL<? jxev, o) Trpecr/BvTa, (TVfxl3ovkevoix€v, 

el croL Tt9 vl6<; icniv e/cTe^/9a^/xeVos, 795 

7re/x7retv eKeivov avrl cravTov p.avddveiv. 

St. aXX' ecrrt p.oi ye vlo<? /caXd? re /caya^o?" 

dW ov/c ediXei yo.p ixavOdveiv., tl iyco ndda) ; 

Xo. (TV 8' eVtrpeVfit? ; St. evcrcofxaTel yap /cat 

o-(/)/3tya, 
KacTT eK yvvaiKwv evftTTepoiv rcop Koio"v/)a9. 8oo 

drct/) peTeipil y avTov r)p 8e /x-]^ ^deXjj, 
ovK ecrd' OTTw? ou/c i^eXo) V r^? otKia?. 
aXX eTravap,eLv6v p oXiyov elcrekddiv )(^p6vou. 

Xo. d^' alcrOdvei TTkelcrra ol r]pd<; dydd* avrC)^ 

egOiV [dvTwSTJ 

792. diTo . . . o\ov|iai : tmesis. 800. ck : of origin ; = descend- 

— 'YXa)TTo-(rTpo<j)eiv : to ply the ant, scion of. — ev-irTtpwv : a word 
tongue. of high diction, hence " of the 

794 £f. Spoken by the Kopv- elite'"' rather than our scornful 

(^aios in measured tragic trim- " high-flyers." — twv Koio-vpas : 

eters, i.e. with no "resolutions" daughters of — ; see 48 n. 
of long syllables into two shorts. 802. ovk ««r9' oirws ovk : most 

797. €<rTi : emphatic by posi- certainly; so in 1307. 

tion and by ye ; "I //<^7'^ a son, it 803. Addressed to Socrates, 

is true." — KaXos t* Kd^aGos : loi n. Streps, hastens from the avX-q 

798. yi-p: since. — t( €70* irdew : across the street into his own 
" what am / to do ? " house. 

799. fvo-ufxaTci : is brawny- 804-13. As Socrates retires 
bodied; prose would be eiipwo-ro? (ao-eX^wi/ 803), the chorus address 
Tw crwfuiri or to o-ai/oa, or the like. him, as in the wSt; they had 

— o-<{>pi.Yqi: is lusty ; also poetic. sung to Streps. (700-05). 



NE<I>EAAI 



165 
806 



lxova<; ueciiv : oj? 

€TOLlJiO<i 08' icTTLU OLTTaVTa opOLV, 

OCT av KeXevYjs. 
cri) 8' a.i'hpo<; iKireTrXrjyixei'ov Kat (^ave/aw? eTrrjp- 
jxevov Sio 

ypov<; (ZTToXai/zet? o tl TrXelcTTOv ovuacraL, 
Ttt^^eoi? • (^tXei yap ttw? to. Totavd' irepa Tpenecrdai,. 



St. ovtol, fxa ttjv 'OixL)(\r}i', er' ivravdoi p.€ve2<S' 
dXX' ecr^t' ik6o)u tov':; Meya/cXeov? Kiova^. 

^€. w 8a(/xdt'i€, Tl ^prjp.a Tracr^ei?, a> TraTep ; 
ovK ev (jipoi'elq, fxa top Aia TOt" 'OXvixttlov. 



815 



810. dv8p<Ss: since the refer- 
ence is definitely to Streps., the 
omission of article is poetic. — 
lKir(irXT|Y. : dazed, perhaps with 
admiration of Socrates, as the 
schol. says (cTrcui/ovvTo?). — einip- 
(iivou : excited, eager; 42, i^S?- 

811. diroXd4'(i.s : fut. indie, as 
imv. ; AaTTToj to lap, u.sed of 
wolves and dogs, is easily trans- 
ferred to human creatures of prey. 

812. rax^ws : by position is a 
vol a bene postscript ; and qithkly. 

— ^iX«i : is apl. — ^^p<^ : adv. 

— h.xil .Socrates. 

At about the middle point of 
many Greek dramas a new central 
character or theme is assumed. 
Here the new-schooling of the old 
generation is dropped as hopeless, 
that of young Pheidippides is es- 
sayed, with complete success. 



814-88. Another eTr-tio-oStov, 
introductory to this second tiieme. 
Streps, issues, leading his brawny 
hopeful. 

814. |i.d TT]v 'OfiCxXiiv : by Fog\ 
swearing in terms of the New Re- 
ligion is as far as the befogged 
Strepsy can get in it — which often 
happens. — 4vTau9oi : sometimes 
= ivTtxvBu. ; it was not inelegant, 
as is the corresponding Eng. " he 
was not lo home.'" 

815. The command to *-go 
and eat the pillars of his great- 
uncle Megacles " (124) may mean 
only wild rage in Streps, or may 
be "biting" irony for the historic 
Megacles (see v. 46). if the scho- 
liast's story is true that only the 
pillars of his house remained after 
a spendthrift life. 

817. ouK €u (|>povcis : you are 



i66 API2T0'I>AN0Y5 

St. loov y i8ov, 'At' 'OXi;/u,7rtoi/' • ttJ? //.wpta?, 

Tov Ata voy^il^^iv^ ovra TrjXiKovTovL 
#€. rt 8e rovr' eyeXacra? eVeoi' ,• St. iudvixov/xefo^ 

OTi TTaiodpiov el /cat ^povei^ ap^auKa. 821 

6ixoj<? ye ixTjv TrpocreXO', tV etSrJ? TrXeto^'a, 

/cat (TOL (fipdcra} 7rpdyix\ 6 crv fxaOcov dvrjp ecrei. 

OTTOJ? oe TovTO fJLrj StSafr^? fjLrjSeva. 
$€. loov • TL ecTTLu ; St. cj/xocra? i^ui't Ata. 825 

#e. eyojy . St. opct? ovf o)? dyadoi> to p,av0dveLV ; 

ovK ecTTiv, d) (J>eiSt7r7ri8T7, Zev?. $€. aXXa rt? ,• 

St. Ati^o? /3acrtXei;et, rov At" e^eXi^Xa/coj?. 
$c. at/3ot rt Xr^^et? ; St. tcr^t rou^' ovrw? e^ov. 

$€. rt? (jjrjo'L Tavra ; St. SioKparr)'; 6 Mi^Xto? 830 

/cat \aLpeff)a)u, 09 otSe ra xjjvWo^v iX^V- 
#€. cru o' et? roc^oi}TO^' rait' jxai^LCJu iXyj^vda^, 

not in your right mind; a frequent Stress Triumphant, as when Archi- 
phrase. medes said : So? /Aot ttoD o-toi, kui 

818. ISoti : " Hsten to that." — kivw tt;v y^i'. 

TTjs (xwptas : gen., as in 153. 824. oirws nif| : with aor. subjv. 

819. vopLi|^€iv : exclamatory inf. ; to express prohibition; S. iigr, 
268 — TTiXiKovTovC : cp. 799. G. 1354, GMT. 283. Cp. ottcds 

820. c-yeXao-as: present in with fut. ihdic. v. 257. Streps. 
Eng. ; 174. has caiiglit the "mysteries" from 

821. Here is topsy-turvydom the /Aa^y^rr;? in v. 143. 

truly Aristophanic: a little old 827. Confidentially and per- 

man with new-fashioned notions haps a little fearfully. 

vs. a strapping young man with 828. Aivos : 380. 

old-fashioned ones. — Owap^CiKo. 829. aipoi : 102. 

see 483 n. 830. 6Mt|Xios: the best-known 

822. o(i«s 7€ (iT|v: = dAX' atheist of the day came from the 
o/xws: 631. island of Melos, viz. Diagoras. 

823. o |i,aOb>v ktI. : "that will The joke is as if Streps., some 
make a tnan of you " ; with the twenty-five years ago, had said 



NE<I>EAAI 



107 



cjCTT dpSpdatv TTeiOei •)^o\wcnu ; St. evarofxet 

/cat firjhei^ eLirrj^ (fikavpop aVSpa? 0€^lov<; 

Koi uovp e\ovTa^ ' ojv vtto Trj<; (fyetSajkia^ 835 

dneKeLpaT ovSet? ttmttot ovh^ -qXeLxpaTO, 

ouS' ei? ^akaveZov -qkOe kov(T6(xepo<; ' crv oe 

wcnrep TeSvewTO^; /caraXouet, yiov top ^iov. 

dXX' a)<s Tct^tcrr' iXOwp vnep ifxov fjidpdape. 

^e. TL 8' ai^ Trap' iKeiPOjp /cat fxddoL ^prjcTTOv Tt9 ai' ; 

St. dXr]Oe<; : ocranep ecrr ip dp0pc6TTOL<; croc^a • 841 

ypioaet Se cravTOP w? dp.adrj<; el /cat vra^v?. 
aXX' inapdixetpop fx oXiyov ipTavOoi )(^p6vov. 

#6. OLp.01, TL hpdcroi, irapacfipopovvTO'? Tov Trarpos ; 



" Robert G. Socrates," the audi- 
ence expectinL( •• Ingersoll." 

833- x**^"*'"'' ■ X'''^'^'' ~ /xeAuy- 
XoKav = iJMii'tadiu = ■Kai)<t<^j}Ovttv 
= ovK tv (jif)ov€Li'. — €v<rT6fiti : cp. 
tvff)r]fxiiv 263; lii<ili-s(Hindin<; for 
fTuInra of 105, and followed by a 
"tragic" trimeter (794 n.). 

835. vir6 TT^s <|>ciS<»X(a$ : from 
their thrift, not Ijccause they were 
low fellows (TTourjpoi'). as Pheidip. 
thought (v. 102). Satire, of course, 
as the l)ath-fee was only two coj)- 
pers ()^<i\Kov<i). Tlie fling at Sr)c- 
rates as sjjaring of ointment and 
bath is true ; even his pupil Plato 
has him bathed and sandalled 
only on grand occasions {Syinf). 
174 <r.). 

838. wo-ircp TcOvcwros : this is 
the regular |>osilioii for a oKmif)- 



clause. viz. before the main word 
(here fj.ov). not after, as in Eng. 
— Kara-Xovti : 2d sing, mid., and 
ov short, as often ot in vouXv. 
Kara- {down) in Greek verbs often 
= up with Eng. verbs, as in to 
finish up, to clean up, wash tip, 
pack up, i.e. thoroughly. Here to 
bathe up a property (fiiov) is to 
squander it, to pour it out like 
7uatcr. So in Latin c-laTo, e-luo. 

839. W^p: cp. fli/Tt 796. 

840. KaC : see n. on 7.S5. 

841. aXufOcs : exclamation, dis- 
tinct from a\.y]Bi.'i\ so, really mnv, 
iiiiieed ( ironical ) . — Iv AvOpcoirois : 
/// the world. 

842. 'file commonest of (ireek 
proverbs was yy(i>6i cravTov- — 
■rraxvs : ////rX'-headed./r7/-witted. 

843 /ixit .Streps. 



i68 API2T04>ANOY2 

TTOTepou TTapavoia<i avTou elaayaycou eXw, 845 

7] rot? cropoTTrjyol^ ttjv fxaviav avrov cfipdcroj ; 
2t. (f>€p^ too), cru TovTOul tl vop,it,€.L^ ; etTie jotot. 
<^€. dXeKTpvoua. St. /caXw? ye. ravrT^i^l 8e rt; 

#€. dXeKTpvou . St. afxcfxo ravTou : /carayeXacrros el. 

/xry i^uv TO XotTTov, dXXa rrji'Se p.kv Kokelv 850 

dXeKTpvaiPav, toi/tovl S' dXeKTopa. 
$€. dXeKTpvaivav ; tovt e/xa^e? to, Se^to. 

etcrw TTapekOoiv dpn Trapd tov<; yrjyevei^; : 
St. \arepd ye ttoXX' • aXX' o rt ixdOoLfi iKaaroTe, 

iTrekavdavofX'qv av evdvs vno ttXtjOov^ Itwv. 855 
#€. diet ravra St) Kat OoiixaTiOv aTTwXecra? ; 
St. dXX' ouK- dTToX&jXe/c', dXXo, KaTa7re(f)p6vTLKa. 
#€, TO,? o' e'/x^ctoa? ttoi reVpoc^as, wz^or^re cru ; 
St. axTTvep Ilept/cXer;? et? to Seoi^ dTTwXecra. 

dXX' t^t jSdSt^', Lcofxev • elra tm Trarpl 860 

Tn66fMevo<; i^dfxapre • Kdyoi tol. 7tot€ 

845. -n-apavoCas : gen. of the 855. dv : iterative, as in 54. 
charge. — elcraYaYuv : sc. eis to 856. Ootjidriov : "sacrificed" 
8iKa(TTT]pLov. at V. 500. 

846. o-opTTTi-yois : Lva TTOLrjautatv 857. KaTa-ir€<(>p6vTiKa : xara- 
avT(S aopov StjXovoti eyyus ovti as in 838. Streps, has 7aorH out 
Oavdrov (schol.). — Re-enter Xsx?, zotX by thinking — the reason, 
Streps, with cock and hen. perhaps, for its disappearance 

850. KttXtlv : infinitive for im- among modern college men. 
perative. 858. T€Tpo<|)as : rpeVw. 

853. 7tj-'y€v€is : regular epithet 859. «£$ to Sc'ov : see Introd. 

of the earth-sprung giants who § 48. Pericles' entry of the sum 

once stormed Olympus to unseat he spent was eis to Sc'ov dvi^Xoxra. 

the gods, as now these sophist- Poor Strepsy's variant is dirwAcaa! 
giants proposed to replace Zeus by 861. €|-d(iapT€ : be as bad as 

"Juice" (Aivos). you like {i^-}- 



NEctEAAI 



169 



olh^ i^€TeL croL rpavXicrauTL m06^evo<s ' 

OV TTpO)TOV o/SoXoU eXttySot" rjkLaCTTLKOl', 

TovTov 'TTpidfxrju aoL Atafrtot? afxa^ioa. 

§6. ^ fJLTjl^ (TV TOVTOL<; TO) ^poVOi TTOT OL^^OdcTei. 865 

2t. eu y otl i'rTeL(Tdr}<;. — devpo h€vp\ d) SwKpare?, 
c^eX^'- ayoj yap ctol tou vlou tovtovi 
aKOVT dpa.7rei.craq. Sw. ur]7TVTL0<; yap i(TT ert, 

Kttt Toju KpefxddpMu OV Tpi^oiv TcJv ivudoe. 

4»€. avTo<; Tpifiwv el-r)<i du, el Kpifxaio ye. 870 



862. TpavXio-avTi : Alcibiades, 
in part tlie original of Piieidip. 
(see n. on 46), must have kept his 
baby-lisp through Hfe as seen in 
Wasps 44 ff. See also on 872 
infra . 

863. 6poX.6v : this antecedent 
of OV has been incorporated into 
the oi/-clause and attracted into 
the of-case ; in the next verse it 
recovers its proper case (gen. of 
price with eVpta/xT^v) in its proxy 

TOVTOV. 

864. Aia<r£ois : 408 n. and In- 
trod. §§51. 59- — aixa^iSa: a toy 
chariot, or it may be a gingerbread 
one. Sonny's "horse-complaint"" 
hiifl set in early. 

865. I'heidip. yields ; but, with 
the irony so common in tragedy, 
he. his father"s only hope, is made 
here the first to give unheeded 
warning that he will prove his 
father's curse. — tJ ji^v : regular 
initial ]»hras(,- of a serious oath. — 
Tvf fijfAvta Kvri : some day. 



867. e^eXOt : Socrates issues. 

868. vTiirvTios : a childling', 
Ejiic dim. of vt/ttio? (105)- 
Socrates uses it iVa KaTairXyjir] tov 
vf.MTf.pov (schol.). — -ydp : that's 
because ; gives the reason for the 
unwillingness (aKovTa) of Pheidip. 

869. KpcpiaOpuv : the poetic 
lengthening of a before 6p in comic 
iambic trimeter (see n. on 513) 
must be meant as an affected ele- 
gance on the part of Frofes.sor 
Socrates. So also seems to be 
Tpi/iMv in the especially Euripidean 
sense of Tersed in (with gen.). — 
Tptp«v: if KpeixdOpa is translated 
//a;/i;///i; basket (218 n.). we may 
then use for Tpi/iwv our phrase /a 
/laTC the /larn:; of a thing, for the 
sake (if the joke in the next verse. 

870. TpCPwv : an old i/jUxtioi/ 
that had often gone to the fuller's 
to be suspended and '• flogged " 
(TpifSo)) in cleaning was tailed 
Tpi'fiittv — we might ;;ay a scri/b or 
knock-about. The impudent an- 



lyo 



API2TO*ANOY2 



St. ovk e? Kopa/ca? ; Karapa crv toj 8t8acr/ca\a> ; 
So). ISov ' Kpe/xaL, w? r^Xidiov icjyOdy^aro 

Koi TOiCTi ^^eikecTiu oieppvrjKocnv. 

7ra)<; au fxdOoL ttoO' ovto'^ d7T6(f)€v^LU Slk7)<; 

rj KXrjaiu rj ^avvcuaiv dvaTreLcrTiqpiav .• 

KaiToi ye TokdvTov tovt efxaOev 'TnepfioXo^;. 
2t. a/ixeXet, oiSacTKe- 6vp6cro(f)6<; idTLv (p-ucret' 

evdv<; ye tol iraihapLOv ov tvvvovtovI 



875 



swer of Pheidip. is therefore : 
" you would /uiTe the liang of a 
scrub yourself, if you were sus- 
pended."' 

872. t8ow ' Kp€|Jiaio \ listen to 
your ^' Kpifxato'' I It is not the 
youth's impudence that offends 
Socrates (that was a hopeful sign 
in "Young Athens"), but his 
broad pronunciation of -ai-, 
whereas cultured Athenians had 
begun to shorten such words as 
K\atw to KAaoj, Kxio) to (caw. Phei- 
dip., being a sort of Tony Lump- 
kin, had said h-i-g-h-sted for 
hoisted ; cp. the colloquial 8at for 
8rj, viu for vrj. Or possibly Phei- 
dip. lisped his p (see n. on 862), 
as Alcibiades does in Wasps 45 
(oXfis for 6pa?, KoAaxos for Kopa- 

KO<i). 

873. 8t€ppvTiK6o-i : w/^/e apart 
(lit. /lowi/ii; apart). Quintilian 
warns against this in Instit. Or. 
1 . 1 1 . 9 : " Observandum erit etiam, 
ut recta sit facies dicentis, ne 



labra distorqueantur, ne immodi- 
cus hiatus rictum discindat." 

874 f. As in 318, a string of 
rhetorical abstracts in -crts, the 
last one probably a novelty of 
Arist. Dropping the literal mean- 
ings (which should be noted), 
we may translate " the arts of ex- 
oneration, citation, and persuasive 
quash-ation," these belonging to 
defendant, plaintiff, and advocate 
respectively, ■)^a.vv6^^i is to make 
porous, spongy {•^avvo'i) ; hence to 
make light of your opponent's 
argument. 

876. Katroi -yt : " and yet " ; 
spoken n.usingly. — raXavTow : a 
hit at Hyperbolas and a hint for 
Strepsiades. If Hyperbolus suc- 
ceeded, there is hope for — the 
rich-enough. 

877. 6v^6(ro({>os : of clever wit ', 
€v<f>vy)<;, €K Tov I8i0v Ov/xov cro<f>6<; 
(schol.). 

878. TVVVOVTOVI : teeny-weeny j 
with a gesture, as in 392. 



NE^EAAI 



171 



eTrXaTTev evSou OLKia^ pav<^ t €y\v(f>ev, 
d/aa^iSa? re cru/ctVa? rjpyd^eTO, 880 

KaK Ta)p (TtStwt' jBaTpd^ov<i eVoiet ttoj? ooKCt?. 
OTTai<i 8' e/c€tVa» ro) Xdyw [xadrjcreTaL, 

TOV KpeiTTOv', OCTTt? CCTTt, /Cat TO^' r)TTova, 

6g raSt/ca \iyojv dvarpeTreL top Kpe'iTTova ' 
idv he p.T], TOP yovp doiKOP Trdcrrj T€)(pr). 885 

2co. auTO? ixadijaeTaL Trap* avToip toIp koyoLP. 

iyoj 8' dneaofxaL. St. toGto ^'u^' pejxpr](T , oTraj? 

Trpo? TrdpTa ra StVai' ai^rtXeyeti^ 8L'i^7/crerat. 

Xopds 



AiKaios 
^wpet Sevpi, Sel^op aavTOP 
TolcTL 0eaTal<;, Kai-rrep dpaavf; ojp. 



890 



879. tv8ov : (// home. 

881. iriis 8oK(is : once a real 
question the phrase had become a 
mere adverb ; you can't think hinu 
nicely. 

882. oirus : witli fut. indie, as 
in 257. 

885. €dv St |iT| : i.e. if not botli. 
— Trdo-T) Te\v[i : hy all means. 

887. dirt<ro(i,ai : u7r-£t/Ai; exit 
Socrates, Stn ps. tailing after him. 

888. rd 8Uaia : cp. 131 5. 1339. 

What the orij^inal play con- 
tained in place of 889-1 114 it is 
now idle to speculate. The pres- 
ent verses are a substitution, as 
we learned from Hypolli- // If 



tlie Ravennas manuscript presents 
the te.\t here as Arist. finally left 
it, he must have intended to write 
a song for the chorus but got no 
further than liie title. 

889. Tiie Just and Unjust Ar- 
guments now appear before Phei- 
dip. (and Streps. ?) to present their 
respective methods of education, 
the old and the new. The schol. 
says they were costumed as fight- 
ing cocks and brought out in 
wicker cages. This seems fantas- 
tical to us. but is probably the 
truth. [n Athens at that timo^ 
bird costumes and cockfights were 
popular. The rhythm fur 889- 



172 



APl2TOcI>ANOY2 



At. 

A8. 

A8. 
Ai. 

At. 
Ai. 



A5. 
A6. 



"ASiKos 
W* OTTOL ^pT^^et?. TToXv yap fxaWov O" 
iv Tol<; TToXXotcrt \eyoiv arroXu). 
aTToXet? (TV ," Ti9 oiv ; A5. \6yo<i. Ai. '^ttojv 



> V 

y (Of. 



dXXa cre I'tKoi top ifxov KpeiTTco 

(fxxcTKOuT eivat. Ai. ri cro(f)ov ttolcjv ; 895 

yv(inxa<i KaLva<^ i^evpCcTKcov. 

TavTa yocp dvdel olol tovtovctI 

Tov^ dporjTov'?. A8. ovk, aXXa (to^ov<;. 

drroko) ere /caKw?. A8. eiTre, ri iroicou ; 

TO. SiKaca Xiyoiv. A8. aXX' dvaTpexjjo) 9°° 

TavT dvTiXeyojv ' ovSe yap eivat 

Trai^u (^T7jat hiKrjv. Ai. ou/c etj^at (^179 ; 

<^e/3€ yap ttov 'ottlv ; Ai. irapd Tolcri deol^. 

TTw? S^ra SiKrjq ovctt)^ 6 Zev? 



948 is anapaestic dimeter or mo- 
nometer. 

891. W biroi xPTl?*''? • even the 
initial words of "ASikos Aoyos are 
quoted, the schol. says, from the 
poet of the New Learning, Euripi- 
des. There are reasons for suppos- 
ing that the whole scene parodies 
some situation in his Te/e^/ius, as 
does Ac/i. 430 ff. The word XPjK*^ 
is poetic. 

892. €v : 2 ft the presence of; 
*A8i/<o? feels no stage fright. 

895 . <t>a(rKovTa : pretending. 

896. "yvwfias Kaivds : see n. on 
317. These new yvQifxai were to 
replace the golden ones taught in 



olden times from Homer, Solon, 
Theognis, and others. 

897. TovTovo-C : pointing to the 
audience. Athens then, as always, 
loving novelty. 'AOrjvaloL ... £15 
ovbev erepov rjvKaipovv r/ Aeyeiv Ti rj 
oLKoveLv Ti Kaivorepov {Acts of Apos- 
tles 17. 21). 

902. 8(kt]v : not so muchyV/j/ZiC^ 
(St/catocrvV?/) as Justice, the god- 
dess. 

903. irapd Toio-i 6*015 : with a 
solemn gesture perhaps. 

904. The quibbling begins. 
The story of Cronus' dethrone- 
ment by Zeus goes back to 
Homer. 



NE^EAAI 



A8. 
Ai. 
A8. 
A6. 
A8. 
Ai. 
A8. 
Ai. 
Ai. 



A8. 



173 

905 



ovK anoKajXeu rov narep avTov 

oyjaas; At. at/3ot, tovtI koI Si^ 

')(u)pel TO KaKov ^oTe fxoL KeKciu-qu. 

Tixpoyepaju el Ka.vdpp.ocrTO^. 

KaTanvyoju el Ka.vaia")(yvTO^. 

/odSa /x' elprjKa^. At. koX ^cofxo\6)(o<;. 910 

KpivecTL aTe(jiauoL<;. Ai. Kat Trar/aaXoias. 

^pvcroi TrarTojv p. ov yiyvcocTKei'^. 

ov SrJTa npo rov y\ aWa. poXv/SSco. 

vvv he ye Kocrpo^ tovt ecrrlu epoi 

6pa(Tv<i el TToXXov. A8. crv Se y* dp^ato?. 

Ota ere oe (potTau ovSet? idekei 916 

TCJU peLpaKLoju • 
Kat yucoadrjcreL, ttot ' Xdiqvaioi^s 
Ota St8ao'/cei9 tou? ai^OT^Vov?. 
av;)(/Ltet9 al(T)(pa)'^. At. crv 8e y ev TT/JctTret?. 
KairoL -npoTepov y eVrw^^eueg, 921 



905. auTov : position as in 515. 

906. Tourt : here; see n. on 
723. — Kal hi\: = Tj^rj. He rec- 
ognizes this stock objection at 
once and it makes him sick — 
much as one feels when youn<^- 
sters reject the whole Bible because 
of Jr)nah and the Whale. 

908. dv dppioo-Tos : a >ifl-/it ; in 
modern pertness •• aback number." 

910. •• Your epithets are roses." 
Younj( Littlcwit has in all ages 
dclightef! in being thought rakish. 

911. a-Tt^avois: the verb in 
-6w. 



912. irdTToiv : cp. )(pv(T6-TTa(T- 
To<; (of cloth s/iot or sprinkled with 
gold) and /caTtt-;^pvo-da> {to (^ild). 

913. -irpi Tov : as in V. 5. Such 
epithets as KaTinrvyuiv would not 
heretofore have given a golden 
reputation, but rather one as base 
as lead (fi6\vf38os)- 

914. vvv 8^ -yc : sec n. on i6g; 
/1071' times have changed. 

915. iroXXov : — Trdvv: C|). oAi- 
yov 722. 

916. <|>oiTdv : to ^0 to school. 
920. Ill irpd-rrcis : are a threat 

success, in good case. 



174 



APISTO^ANOYS 



A8. 
A5. 



A8. 

Ai. 

A5. 
Ai. 
Xo. 



TrfXe^o? eluat Mucro? (f)oicrK(ov, 

Ik TrrjpLOLOv 
ypcoixa^ Tpfjjyoiv Ilai^SeXeTeiov?. 
WjLtot cro<f>ia<; — Ai. cofxoL /xai^ta? — 925 

-)79 iixvTjcrOri^ — Ai. T179 (Ttj^, TrdXecu? 0' 

tJtLS CTc Tp€(f)eL 

\vixaiv6ixevov rot? /u.etpaK'iot?. 

ov\l SiSa^etg tovtov Kpot^o? wi/. 

ELTrep y avTou crcodTJvaL Xpr) 93° 

/cat /XT^ XaA.tat' fxovou daKrjcrau 

oevp 101, TOVTOV o ea jxaive(T0ai. 

KkavcreL, ttjv X^lp" rjv eTn^dWrj^. 

Trav<Ta(T0e fxa^r]^ kol XotSopia?. 

dXX' eVtSet^at crv re tov^; vpoTepov^ 935 

arr' eStSacrKe?, crv re ri^i/ Kaivr^v 



922 ff. 4>ao-K<DV : as in 895. — 
A sententious, ragged beggar in 
Euripides' Telephiis turns out to 
be Telephus himself, the king of 
Mysia. So, Arist. thinks, this ras- 
cally New Learning, this spruce 
Success, had formerly the ill repute 
of a beggar munching his scraps 
of pettifogger's wisdom. 

924. IlavSeXtTttovs : the schol. 
says : 6 nfii'0£Aeros toii/ ttc/di to. 

SlKH(TTrjpui i<TTI, SiriTplf^OVTWV. 8lk(l- 
(TTWV r] KOL aVKOcfiUl'TWV T^yovv 6 

e^iAoot/catos kol yfjd(f><j)v <j>r}<^t- 
a/MLTa. 

925. u|xoi : is, for "ASiko?. a 
sigh of admiration for the " clever- 



ness ■'' of the Telephus ; for AtKaios, 
it is a groan of indignation. 

929. tovtov: Pheidip. — Kpo- 
vos: n. on 398. 

930. eltrep -ye : if indeed. Sup- 
ply 8i8a^w before it. 

932. i:Oi : to Pheidip. — ea : 
scan as one syllable, by (Tvv-'it,-t](ji<i ; 
S. 50, HA. 42, G. 47. 

933. KXavo-€i : fut. mid. of 
KXttt'w ; Eng. idiom is "you'll 
catch it." — tiriPa\XT)s : conative 
present. 

935. €ir(S€i|ai, : the mid. is to 
give an exhibition of oneself or of 
his powers ; the active is to show 
(748). 



NE^EAAI 



175 



Ai. 
Xo. 
A5. 



TTaiSevcTLP, 67rco<; av a/covcra? cr(f)(i)u 
dvTiXeyovTOLv Kpiva^ (f)OLTa. 
Spav TavT idekco. A6. Kayayy id4\(o. 

(f>€pe St] 7r6Tepo<; Xe^et irporepoq ; 94° 

/car' eV tovtcov, Stv av ke^y, 
pr)piaTLOLcnv KaLUol<; avTou 
Kal OLavoLaL<; KaTaTO^evcro). 

TO TeXexrralou o\ rju avaypvl^r], 945 

TO TTpocroiTTOv aiTav Kal TCJ(f)daXfX(o 
KeuTovfJi€vo<;, cocnrep vn avOprjviov, 
vTTo TOiv yvoip,(iiv airoXeirai. 



940. X€^ti : ivill speak his 
speech ; not eptl. 

942. kK TovTwv KT€. : to be shot 
down by material from one's own 
quiver would be humiliation in- 
deed, as in the case of the eagle 
shot by a pinion from his own 
wing. 

943 f . pTi|iaT[oia-i : phraselets, 
smart turns of speech. — SiavoCais : 
conceits. 

945. dva-7pvt'n : "if he try to 
say lidd,'" i.e. a sitiLCIf syllable. 

ATHN 949 1 1 04 

As Athens at this period de- 
lighted in contests between 
athletes, musicians, triremes, legal 
disputants, fighting cocks and so 
on, not to mention her 27-years' 



war with Sparta, so also in most 
comedies a contest in words was 
offered. This debate took place 
in a form fairly fixed though ad- 
mitting considerable freedom, viz. 
(i) a song by the chorus, (2) a 
summons to the combat two lines 
long from the Kopv<f>j.LO^, (3) the 
first speech (the chorus probably 
standing and not dancing), (4) an 
antistropiiic song, (5) the anti- 
strophic summons to the second 
speaker, (6) the .second speech, 
and finally in some cases (7) a 
decision or award to the victor 
(K/jiVris). — In this play the alter- 
cation in anapaests just concluded 
has been merely a wordy skir- 
mish comparable to that between 
Homer's heroes before the real 
fray began (iMazon). 



176 API2T04>ANOY2 

Xo. vvp Sei^eroi/ toj Tnavvoi [w8^ 

rot? TTepiSe^LOLaL 950 

Xoyotcrt Kat (f)popTL(TL Kat 

yvojixoTviroL'^ fjL€pLfjLvaL<;, 
OTr6T€po<; avTolv Xeyoju 
d.fj.eipcji' ^avrjcreTai. 
vvv yap OLTTd^ ivddhe. klv- 955 

ovi^o<; dveLTat cro<^ia9, 
17? nepL To2<i e/Aot9 (^tXoi? 

idTiv d.y(i)v p.€yLcrTO<;. 

aX\ , oj TToXXot? Tov^ 7Tpe(r/3vT€pov<; rjdecri, XPV' 

(TTot? aTe<f)apd>cra<;, 
prj^op (fxoprjv fjTLVL ^aipet?, Kat ttjv avrov (l)vcrLV 

elne. 960 

At. Xe^w Totvvv TTjP dp^aiav TratSeiW, o)? SieWfiro, 

OT iyoi TO. SiKaia Xeycop rjpSovp koI aui^pocrvPT) 

'vePOfXLCTTO. 

949-58. For the rhythm see shows the same grandiloquence 

Introd. § 139. as in 358 and 412. His formulaic 

949. 8c(^€Tov: 3d dual.^Tu two lines always set the metre for 

■mo-vrvw : ^Aese believers in., cham- the disputant who follows — here 

pious of; the prose word is anapaestic tetrameter (Introd. 

7ri(rT€uovT£s. § 132 /8'). 

951 f. See notes on loi, 317, 960. pfj|ov 4>wv^v : cp. 357, and 

420. rnmpere vocem, to utter forth. — 

956. dv-€iTai : is let loose (J-qyn), avrov : = (rtavrov, as often, 
as if KtVSwo? were some savage 961-1023. Right Logic sets 

b«ast. forth the old-time schooling of the 

959 f . First exhortation (Kara- heroes of Marathon, or, we might 

KcXeuCT/xos)- The Kopv<^iuo<; is a say, of Bunker Hill, 
sort of Master of the Tourney, and 962. (-yea: emphatic. — <r(i>i|>po- 



NE^EAAI 



177 



OLKova-aL' 
€LTa ySaSt^eti/ iu Toicriv b^oi<i eura/cTaj? et? KiBapi- 

(TTOV 

rot"? KO)fXT]Ta<; yvfivov^; dOpoov^, Kel KpcfxPcoSr] 

KaraueicfyoL. 965 

€17 av TrpofxaOelp dcr[x' iSiSacTKev, tcj fjLrjpo) jxr) 

•^ ' IlaXXaSa irepo'dTroXiv ^eivdv ' 7) ' T-qXeiropov tl 

ivTeLvajxeuovi rr^v dpyLOviav, rju ol Trarepe? rrape- 
ouiKav. 



<rvvt] : sobriety, moderation, con- 
tinence, mens sana. — €v€v6(ii<rTo : 
■was the rule and custom, was cur- 
rent. 

963. Ypv^avTOs : cp. 945. 

964. fv-raKTus : because walk- 
ing ^//i--orderly in the streets be- 
tokened the slave, as the comic 
poet Alexis tells us. — els Ki9api- 
jTTov : i.e. to his house; S. 870, 
HA. 730 a. From about ten to 
twelve years of age the ijoys had 
already learned reading and writ- 
ing eV yfiuiJ-iJiaTiirTo?'. 

965. Tous Kwjj.T|Ta9 : those of 
the same villnye or of the same 
ward {KMivq) in Alliens. — 
YV|ivo<i9 : i e. in tunic only, not 
wrapiicd ii|) as now (987). — 
KaTav(C(|>oi ; vii(f)(j), not viffio), seems 
to be proved the correct spelling. 

AKISTUl'HANtS — 12 



To "snow barley meal-like" is 
our ''raining cats and dogs." 

966. irpo-fiaOsiv : to learn be- 
times or early ; cp. 476. — ri> \ii\poi 
KTi. : without holding thighs to- 
gether — an unseemly posture. 

967. IlaWdSa kt€. : the first 
words of two old national liymns : 
" Pallas the Sacker of Cities dread " 
and " A far-faring Strain." The 
words ircpcTciroXi'i and Tr^AeVo/uos 
(and fioufjui ?) were quaint and 
poetic in Aristophanes' time. 

968. 4vT€tvaji^vovs KT€. : pitch- 
ing or setting them to the hey. 
ap/iovMii/ seems to be the " inter- 
nal " object of the verb. The 
apfJiovui " handed down by the 
fathers " was the Dorian, the three 
others (Phrygian, Lydian, Ionian) 
being im])or(ed from Asia. 



178 



APl2TO$ANOY2 



el 8e Tt9 avroiv jSco/xoXo^eufratr', ^ KdfjLxjjetev Tiva 

KafXTTTJv, 969 

Ota? ol vvv Ttts /caret ^pvviv TavTa<; ras hvaKoXo- 

iTreTpC/S^TO TVTTTOjxevo^ TToXXct?, &)? ra? Movcra? 



ouS' avekecrdai ^€lttvovvt i^yjv Ke^dKaiov Trjf; 

pa(fiaplho<;, 981 

ovo' avvr^dov T(i)v Trpecr/SxrrepcDv, apird^eLV ovoe 

creXii^ov, 
ovS^ 6xl)0(f)ayelu, ovSe /ct^Xi^eti', ov8' la^eiv toj 

TToS' iuakXd^. 
A5. dp^aZd ye /cat AttTToXtoiSr^ /cat reTTiyajv dud/xeaTa 



969. Pw(io\ox€vo-aiTO : played 
the fool. — Ka|xirT)v : a turn, >/iusi- 
cal flou7'ish. 

971. <I>piiviv : this Phrynis, a 
player and singer of nomes (one of 
the grave and ancient forms of 
Greek song), had taken over from 
the dithyrambists {aa-fxaTO-Kafx- 
TTTttt 333) trills and twists so d////- 
cult to turn that only expert musi- 
cians were equal to them. 

972. iroXXds : sc. irXxp/as;. 

981. dv-eXeo-9at : to help him- 
self to (mid.). — K€<|)d\aiov : the 
head, i.e. the bulb. — The article 
T^s accompanies i')uct>avi8o^ be- 
cause the radish was a regular 
relish : cp. " the salt," " the but- 
ter." 



982. dvvTjOov : ajiise Tixid pars- 
ley (creAivoi') illustrate the simple 
old-time fare. — irpeo-puTspuv : gen. 
of separation, as if the verb were 
d<^-ap7ra^etv- 

983. 6\|/o-<t>a7£iv : in modern 
parlance to nuike his dinner off the 
relishes and sweets. Also tittering 
{Ki^it^tLv^ and holding the legs 
(tw TToSe) crossed have survived, 
as children have. 

984. The Dipolia was a bloody 
old festival to Zcw? IloAieiJS, other- 
wise called Bou</)wtu from its cliief 
ceremony, the slaughter of an 
o.x. AuTToAi-ioSj/s would be for us 
'•Candlemas-ish " or •• Shrove- 
Tuesday-ish." — TtTxil (grass- 
hopper or tree-cricket) was the 



NE^EAAI 



179 



/cat KrjSeihov /cat Bov(f)OPLwv. Ai. dXX' ovv 

Tavr' iaTLu e/ceti/a, 985 

e^ oju duhpaq Ma/aa^wi'o/act^a? 17/^17 Tratosvcrt? 
edpexjjei'. 

(TV Se Tou? i^vi^ ev^v9 eV t/xartotcrt 8t5acr/cet? iurerxj- 

axTTe fx' aTTcty^eo"^', orai^, 6p)(eL(r0ai Hauad-qvaCou'; 
Seof avTovq, 



name given to some ornament — 
a golden spiral or frontlet or what- 
not — used by men of the Mara- 
thon period to fasten up their long 
hair. It was as much out of fash- 
ion at Athens in 423 B.C. as are 
wigs with us. 

985. Kt]8ci8ov : thrown in with 
these antiquities, comes suddenly 
the name of this contemporary 
dithyrambic poet — a comic way 
of putting him too out of date. 
But an inscription of about 415 B.C. 
shows that he survived the gibe 
and was still composing dithy- 
rambs. — dXX' ovv : well, anylunu ; 
cp. 8'ow3+3. 




987. tv-TtTvXtxOtti : lf> go bun- 
dled up (perf.). ri'AtTTtu from 
Tv\r\ a cushion. 

988 f . dftr-dYx*'''^*'' • ''" choke, 
i.e. with rage. — 6px«io"8at : at the 
Panathenaic festival young men 
danced the famous Pyrrhic war 
dance, naked and armed only with 
helmet and shield. But the youth 
who had always been '• coddled " 
in cloaks found his shield more 
useful to keep his abdomen warm 
than to brandish in warrior-fash- 
ion. This was neglectful of the 
honour of Athena the war-godde.ss 
TpiToyej/tti;. For the form of this 
last see n. on 614. 



■' !7 




^ 



I'vRKiuc Dance. 



i8o APl2TOcI>ANOY2 

TTju dcrTTtSa Trj<; kojXtJ'^ Trpoe^oiv dfxeXrj rrjq TpcTO- 

npos TavT , CO ixetpaKiou, Oappojv ip^e tov KpevTTUi 

\oyov alpov. 99° 

KaTTKJTrjcrei piaelv ayopav Kai ^a\avei(ov dne- 

Kai Tol<i al(T\pol<^ ai(T)(vu€(r9ai, kolu cTKcoirTrj rt? 

(xe, (f)Keyea0 ai • 
KOL Toiv daKOJV Tot9 Trp€a/3vTepoL<^ vTraviaTaaOai 

TrpoaiovcTi, 
Kai pr) nepl tov<^ cravTov yovea^; crKaiovpyelu, aXXo 

re prjSeu 
al(j\pov TTOielv, otl Trj<; aiSov? /aeXXet? rdyaXp' 

dvankaTTeiv ■ 995 

prjo el<; op^^rjCTTpihoq elcraTTeiv, Iva prf TTpo<; ravra 

Ke^r}ua}<; 
pyjXo) ^Xr)0ei<; vtto Tropvihiov rrp; eu/cXetas diro- 
dpav(T0rj<; • 

ggo. irpbs ravra: //i view of a goddess). TrAao-crw, whence 

this. TrXao-TtKOs. owr plastic art. 

992. (|>X€7eo-0ai. : to bitrn \n ihe. 996. €ls : with gen., as in 964. 
cheeks, to blush ; or perhaps to The opxrjrrTpL'; would be the mod- 
(^/tzs'e? //^ with resentment. ern ballet girl. — irpos ravra : sc. 

993. 6dK<i>v : 6aKo<i is rather to. TrpdyfixiTa or to. yvvaia wenches. 
poetic for eSpa or ^pdvos. 997. (iriXw PXtjOsCs : to be 

994. o-Kaiovp-y€tv : to be a a Kai- struck playfully with an apple was 
ovpyo'i, a doer of crKaia. or loutish. the sign of being favoured in love, 
ill-mannered acts. So Verg. Eel. 3. 64: /nalo me 

995. rf)s al8ovs ra^aXjia Krl. : Galatea petit, lasciva puella. — 
to tnould or model the ideal of diro-Opavo-Ofjs : avrl tov iKiria-rj'i 
modesty in your heart (lit. the (schol.) ; i.e. as if one's tvKXtia 
image or statue of modesty, as of were a chariot. 



NE^EAAI 



iSl 



/LtT^S' avTenrelv t(o narpl /xr^SeV, /xryS' ^lanerou KaXe- 

aavTa 
fxvrjCTLKaKrjcraL ttjv rjXLKiav i^ 179 iveoTTOTpo(f)T]0r]<;. 
A8. €t Tavr, oj fxecpciKLOu, ireicrei tovtco, vtj tov Atd^'fcro^', 
Tot9 'imroKpaTov^ vlecnu et^et?, /cai ere /caXoucrt /3Xt- 

TOfxdpfjLau. 1001 

Ai. dXX ovi^ XiTTa/ad? ye Kat evavdrjq iu yvfXPacTLOLS 

otar/3a//et9, 
ov CTTOiix-uWoiv Kara ttjv ayopav TpL/BoXeKTpanek , 

olaTTep ol vvv, 
ovS' ikKOfxevoq irepl irpayfiaTLOv yXicr^pavTikoye- 

^enLTptTTTOV 



998. dvT-€iir€iv : to talk back. 
— 'lairtTov : lapetus was an elder 
brother of Cronus, hence even 
more antiquated. 

999. |iV'i]o-i-KaKfi(rai kt€. : i.e. 
by calling him ■• Methuselah '' to 
call to his viitid maliciously /lis 
own (long-past) /r^/////./>7;w ivliicli 
you were nested. vcottos is a 
nestlim^ bird. 

looi. This Hippocrates, 
nephew of Pericles, and brave sol- 
dier, had lost his life in the battle 
at Delium six months l)efore the 
first Clouds was given. IJut his 
.sons were the butt of many jokes 
for their swinishness {vi^v'ui). — 
vUo-iv : = vlois, with a pun on 
the Epic vtcTfTLv from vs, as if they 
were the swi-ens of Hippocrates 
in.stead of scions. — «t^«is : fut. of 
(the virtually present) ioiku. — 



pXiTO-|id^.|j,av : a Jioney-ina7n7na ; 
i.e. a spoiled child that begged 
"Honey, Mamma."' Greek honey 
being our sugar. (3\lto- = fxi- 
Xltto-. Cp. (TVKo-ix6.iifx.a<i, " Figs, 
Mamma." 

1002. dXX' ouv : 9^5.' — Xiira- 
pos : from open-air life and the 
use of ointment after gymnas- 
tics. 

1003. orTa>(Aij\X(i)v : rrroyuu gives 
(TTwixvXo^ iiioutliy, hence o-rtD- 
\i.vX\.u) to babble, chatter. Modern 
slang fixes on the chin or the jaw, 
from which to form its verbs of 
like import. — rpiPoX-cKTpdiriXa : 
biirry-oddities ; we might say 
thorny fyrobleins. 

1004. cXk6)i(vos : /.<?. into court. 
— -irpa-yiiaTlov kt€. : a tri/lin^ ac- 
tionatdaio of an obstinatious-dis- 
pK til till If s-niinatioiis sort . 



1 82 APl2T04>ANOY2 

dXX' et9 'A/caSr^/xftat' Karioiv vtto rat? /AOyotat? 

OLTTodpe^ei 1005 

(TT€(f)avo}(Ta.fxei'0^ /caXct/xw XefKw, /aera cro)(j)povo(; 

rfXcKLCOTOV, 

/AtXa/co? o^ojz^ Acat aTrpayixocrvviq^ koX XevKr}<; 

(f)vXXo^oXovaT]<;, 
^po<; eV w/3a ^aipoiv, oiroTav TrXaravo? TrreXea 

"^i^ ravTa ttoitJ? dyw (^pat^ui, 

KoX TTpo? roirrot? 7rpoa€^r}<i lov vovv, loio 

eget? act 
aTTJOoq XiTTapov, ^poiav Xafxirpdv, 
w/xov? /xeydXov?, yXwrrai^ f^aiav. 

rjv 8' (XTre/a ot t'ut' iTTLTrjSevr)'?, 1015 

■npoiTa pev e^et? 
^poiav oi^pdv, a>pov<; pLKpov<;, 

1005. The ^fflrt'^/z/y was at that we might substitute " morning- 
time a gymnasium, famous for the glory."" — d-irpa^iioo-uv^s : is Hsted 
grove and shady walks and race- between smilax and silver poplar, 
courses provided by Cimon's lib- as Kedeides was among the an- 
erality, but later to be made forever tiquities (985); translate by sa/is- 
famous by the teaching there of soul/ or lazy-daisy or idle-hearVs 
Plato. The sacred olive-trees ease. — <j>w\Xo-PoXovo-»is : perhaps 
(fjiopLUL) had been propagated from means shootiiii^ or putting forth 
the one in the acropolis planted its leaves ; but editors disagree, 
by Athena herself. 1008. H'Ae// plane-tree whis- 

1006. KaXd)jiu : in honour of pers to elm. Again we hear the 
the Dioscuri, patron saints of lyric poet from behind the comic 
knighthood. mask. 

1007. /xiXaf was an ivy-like 1013. ^aidv : slender, spare; 
vine with white lily-like flowers ; the prose is fjuKpdv- 



NE^EAAI 183 

crT7Jdo<; XeTTTou, yKoJTTau fJLeydX'qu, 

\l)TJ(f)L(TiJia fxaKpov, Kai cr avamicrei 

TO fxev al(r)(pou arrav Kokov yjyelcrdai, 1020 

TO KaXou 8' aL(T)(p6i>, 
Koi 7rpo<; tovtol<; Trj<; ' \uTLixd)(^ov 

KaTarrvyo(Twy)<; cr' dvaTrXrjcrei. 

Xo. u) KaWiTTvpyov cro^iav [dvTiaSTj 

KkeivoTOiTrjv eVaa'/cwi', 1025 

0)9 Tjhv crov TolcTL Xoyots 
(TOijipov ETTecTTiv avdo'i. 

\ evoaip.ove<; S' rjcrau dp^ ol 

l,wvTe<; TOT eVt 

Twv npoTepcou t * 

Trpof; ovp raS', w 1030 

1019. t|/T|<t>i(r|ia (iaKpov : a 'Ayo'ji/. Note the poetic kuWi- 

comic surprise. Tiie orator will irvpyov fair-toivcriHi^ or lofty and 

present himself before the £/cKA.r;(Tta KAeii'orar/;!/ cffuli^cnt or the like; 

with a thin iliest, a loud toii^KC, also the distance of 1781; from its 

and (we might say) a long substantive. 
/nil. — dva-irtuTfi : sc. "ASiko? 1025. tTrao-Kuv : 517. 

Aoyos. 1027. o-(I>4)pov . . . av0os : = 

1022. 'AvTi(idx.ou : utterly fame- (TuxftfHXTvi'r)'; di'Oo'i- 

less save for tliis mention and 1028 f. Antistr()i)hc here fails 

perhaps ,.V/r. 1150. to match strophe in 953, and dai^- 

1023. KaTa-irvYo o-uvi^s : the gers are set to warn of a corrupt 
gen. with a verb of /i/l/ng. As text. — apa : t/irn, as it seems; 
Mnemosyne is formed from /xi/17- S. 1 102. (iMT. 39, ////>v/ 1301. — 
fjLo>v, .so Catapygosyne (A^t'c/z/wv) iirL: in the time of . 

from KuTaTriryo)!/ (529. 909). 1030 f. -irpos raSt : Trpo? 

1024-33. The antistropliic tuvti. 990. - Koiivl/o-irptTrfj : ko^l- 
song o]K"ns the .second half of the {pcnqTi Tr/MVoi'irur ; 649 n. 



i84 



APl2T04>ANOY2 



KOfjLxjJOTTpeTTrj fjiovcrau e^oiv, 
Set o"e \4yeiv tl Kaivov, w? 
rjvSoKLixrjKep aurjp. 

oeivcov Se crot ^ovXevixdroiv eoLKe helu Trpo? avTov, 
eiuep Tov duSp' vnep^aXel kol jxr) yeXayr ot^Xrycrec?. 
A8. Koi p-qv TToKai ^yoi 'nuLyoprju rd cnrXdy^ua, Kane- 
dvpiovv 1036 

diravTa TavT ivavTiai^ yvwpaiai avvTapd^ai. 
iyo) yap rJTTcop pep Xoyo^; oC avTO tovt^ iKXyjOrjv 
iu TolcTL cjipopTLO-Taia'LP, OTL TTp(i)Ti(TTo<^ ineporjcTa 
Tolcriv v6poi<i Kav rat? 8i/cats TavavrC dvTiXe^ai. 
/cat TovTo irXelv r) pvp'nov ear d^iov crTaTTJpoiV, 
alpovp.epou tov<; T]TTOua<; Xoyov; eneuTa vlkuv. 1042 



1032 f. a-i: Wrong Logic — 
dvT|p : Right Logic. 

1034 f. The Coryphaeus in his 
exhortation to Wrong Logic em- 
ploys, and so prescribes for the 
following speaker, iambic tetram- 
eter, a more impudent jog-trot 
rhythm than that used by Right 
Logic. See Introd. §132 8'. — 
Scivuv : emphatic ; why ? 

1035. cllirep: {/" indeed; 86, 
227, 251, 341, 356, 399, 443, and 
often. 

1036. Kal (jiTJv : yea verily ; 
4. — tirvi76p.T|v : imperf., while 
Right Logic was speaking. — rd 
o-irXaYX"* : in prose, rrjv Kaphiav ; 
ace. of specificat. 



1037. airovTa ravra : all this 
(nonsense). 

1038. fic'v: introduces a short 
preliminary on his name rjTTiav 
Aoyos. His real theme, the New 
Education, begins at a-Kiif/at 8i in 
1043. 

1040. KOLv Tttis SiKais : e7'en in 
court trials. — dvTi-\€|ai : to make 
opposing speeches ; avr-cnrtXv is 
merely to speak ai^ainst. So avri- 
Xe'^eis, not di/r-epets in Fro(^s 
998. 

1041. -n-Xeiv y\: an uninflected 
adverbial phrase, outside of the 
construction. 

1042. «Tr€iTa : cp. UTO. 386, 
Ka.Ttf.nu. 624. 



NE^EAAI 185 

(TK€\\)ai 8e TTjv naLSevcTLP, tj TreTTOiOep, o)? eXey^cu, 
ocrns ere depfxaj (jyrjcrL XovcrOai npcoTou ovk iacrecv. 
KaiTOi Tiva yvo)fJir)v e^c^»^' i//eyet9 to, depixa kovrpd ; 

Al. OTLT) KOLKICTTOV icTTL Kol SeiXot* TTOtCt TOU CLVOpa. 

A8. eVtcr^es • evOv'^ yap ere pidcrov e^oi \a/3o)u a(f)VKTOu. 
Kai poL (ppdcrou, TOiv tov Atog iraiocov riv auop 

apiCTTOV 

\jru)(rji> popil^eis, elrre, /cat TrXeicnov'; ttovov^ tto- 
vyjcrat ; 1049 

At. eyo) pel' ovhdv' 'Hpa/cXeov? ^ekTiov dv^pa Kpivoi. 
A5. TTOv \fjv)(^pd SrjTa ttcottot etoe? 'Hpa/cXeta kovrpd : 
KaLTOL TL<i dpSpetoTepo'? rjv ; Ai. tuvt icTTL, ravr' 

eVeti^a, 
a T(i)u veavicTKoju del 8t' i^/xe'pa? XaXoui/rcoi' 
trkrjpe'; to ^akavelov 77otet, /cei^a? Se to.'; irakai- 
crrpa?. 
A6. etr' eV dyopa T-qv hcaTpl^rju v/zeyet? • eyw o' eVatfO). 
et yap nourjpop rjv, "i)prjpo<; ovherrroT av CTTotet 1056 

1043. o-Kct|/ai : turning to Phei- 1051. 4/vxpa : triumphantly em- 
dippides. phatic by long separation from 

1044. 0(p|x<u : sc. vhiiTu refer- its substantive. All natural hot 
ring to 991. springs were called Baths of Her- 

1045. »(/€'Y€ts : turning to AiKato? cules. For him, when weary after 
Afiyo?. his labours. Atliena had produced 

1046. KOiKio-Tov : )/i(ist iiijitri- the famous springs at ("hpfio- 

OIIS. TTvXtU. 

1047. i-ni-a-\t%: hold on ; 495. 1053. 81' Tjfitpas : tlie day 
— (jicrov : /.^.around the waist. — tlirou!t^li. 

a<t>uKTov : either active with fre (jf' 1055. clra : secondly. — «|/«-y«is : 

that yon cannot eudpc), or jjassive viz. in 99! . — ^v dYopq. : emphatic 

with Xafiriv easily supijlied from because not in its normal (attribu- 

KiLJiiDv (a gri|> not to be escaped). live) position. 



1 86 



API2TO*ANOY2 



Tov NeiTTop '' ayopriTrjv' au ouhe tov<; cro(f)OV<; airav- 

ra?. 
aveLfJLi 07]T evTEvOev et? r-qv yXwTTav, rju oSl fxkv 
ov (fjrjai ^prjvai tov<; u€ov<; dcTKelp, eyoi Se (f)r]fjiL. 
Kai (Tco(f)pouelp av (f>r)cri ^pr^vai ■ hvo /ca/cw fxeyia-TO). 
eireL crv oca to crcocfipoi'eli' toj ttci)ttot etSe? rjhri 1061 
ayadov tl yevoixevov ; tppdcroi', Kai fx i^ekey^ou 

Ai. TToXXot?. 6 yovv Yi-q\ev<; eka^e Sta tovto tt^v 

fxdy^aipav. 
A6. ixd^aLpau ; dcTTelou ye /cepoo? eka^eu 6 KaKohaip,(jiv. 
TTT€p/3oko(; o ovK T(x)v kv^vcou Trkelv 7] rdkavTa 
TTokka 1065 



1057. d^opTiTTiv: another so- 
phistic quibble, by appeal to 
"scripture." In Homer the dyo- 
prjTr]<; was an orator before the 
ayopa. or assembly (dyeipw) of the 
people. Here it is cited as if it 
meant marketplace-loafer (dyo- 
patos). 

1058. av-ci.|xi. SfjTa KT€. : i.e. 
speaking of oratory (as if he had 
taken a.yop-qTri<i in its Homeric 
sense), / will now (Br/ra?) ^o back 
from tliat (ei/reu^ei/) to tlie ques- 
tion of the tongue, which he had 
but touched on at first (1038 ff.). 

1059. For Right Logic's repro- 
bation of the tongue see 1003, 
1013, 1018, 931. 

1060. (rw<|>pov«iv : to practise 
continence or chastity; see 962, 
1006. — 8vo KaKco : i.e. the prac- 



tice of chastity and the non-prac- 
tice of tongue. 

1061 . Tw : = tLvi. — irtoiTOT t]8rj : 
370. 

1063. 70VV : proves a statement 
by certainly {ovv) one instance at 
least (ye) . — Peleus had repelled 
the advances of Acastus' wife, and 
the gods had given him his famous 
(r^v) sword, made by Hephaestus, 
but significant for ///;// of only toil 
and battle. 

1064. d,crT€iov : nice, fine; ironi- 
cal like ■^py](TTo% in 8. 

1065. Hyperbolus the lamp- 
man (6 €K ) by paying a talent 

(v. 876) had got the art of the 
orator. What were the rewards 
of chastity compared with those 
of TTOvrjpia ? — 01 X.UXV01. : the latnp- 
market ; so to. opvta, ol i)(6vf.^, to. 



NE«i>EAAI 



1S7 



€1X17(^6 61a TTOvrjpiaVy aXX.' ov fxa Ai" ov ixdy^aLpav. 
Ai. KoX TTju SeTLv y eyr)fjie 8ta to a-o)(f)popelp 6 Ilr)kev<;. 
A6. KaT dTToXLTTOvcrd y clvtou (o)(€t' • 

(TV S' el KpOVLTTTTO^. IO70 

(TKCipaL yap, w fxeLpaKtov, Iv tm croicjipovelv diravTa 
dvecTTLP, rjSovcjp 0^ oacov /xeXXef? diroaTepeiadai, 
iraioutv yvvaiKiov KOTTd/Bcou oxjjcov ttotojv kl^^ict p-wv. 
Kairoi TL (TOL l^rju a^iov, tovtoji' edv crTeprjdrj^ ; 
eleu. Trapetfx ivrevdev et? ra? x^? (^ucreoi? 
dvdyKa^. 1075 

y]papTe<;, r)pdaOr]<;, ipoi^evcrd^ rt, /car' iXT]<f)dr]q ■ 
a.7rdXa>Xa<; " dovuaTo<; yap el Xeyeiv. ip.OL S' opC^Mv 
Xpoj TT) (f)v(TeL, (TKLpTa, yeXa, uopit^e p-qhev alcr\p6v. 



\a.\ava, the bird-, fish-, and vege- 
table-market. — ir\€iv 11 ■iroWd : in 
Eng. we say " more than a few." 

1067. KaC . . . 7€ : yes, and, 
emphasizing Thetis as a prize. 

1068. diro\iirov(ra : Thetis, 
wishing to make immortal her 
babe Achilles, was wont to bap- 
tize him in fire by night and anoint 
liim with ambrosia by day. Peleus 
once watching saw the child over 
the fire and cried out ; whereupon 
Thetis the immortal Nereid left 
both and returned to her sisters 
beneath the sea (ApcjIIodorus 3. 

1070. Kpov-iiriros : either an 
i>ld horse (for Kpoj/os see 39.S n.), 
or a bii^ tuitiuiilwi'iitii (iTnro<; in 
compounds being used for size as 



" horse " in Eng. " horse-radish," 
" horse-chestnut "). 

1071. €v Tu) <r(o<j>povciv : why 
emphat. ? Cp. 1055, 1051. 

1073. KixXio"|Jitt>v : see 983 n. 

1075. (Uv. so far, so good ; a 
transition-expletive (176). — irdp- 
cifii «vTev0€v : luill pass on from 
that ; cp. 1058. 

1076. iifxaprcs kt*. : a condition 
expressed in parataxis ; " suppose 
you have made a mistake." — ti : 
(played the adulterer) a bit. 

1077. dir6X.a»Xas : you are done 
for (perf. ) ; the result of the sup- 
posed case. — i(iol 8' ofiiXiv ktI. : 
now is seen how tongue ])ractice 
jjays, as advocated in 1059. 

1078. xpw T|j 4>va-ci : vou may 
give rein to your natural man . — 



API2TO<I>ANOY2 

fiOL^o<s yap y]v Trj^rj'? aXov'?, raS' di^repet? Trpo? 

avTou, 
ct)9 ovSep rjSLKr]Ka<; ' etr' et? tou At" inaveveyKelv, 
fca/ceit'o? 0)9 rjTTOiv epoiTO^ icm /cat yvvaiKiov ' 1081 
Kairoi (TV, 0vr}To<; o)v, Oeov ttclx; p.ell,ov av ovvaio ; 



Ai. (TLyTJcrofiai. ri 8' aWo ; AS. </>ejpe 817 /^tot (ftpdaov ■ 

(Twr^yopovcnv eV Tivoiv ; 
Ai. e£ evpvnpcoKTcju. AS. TTei6op.ai. 1090 

Tt 8ai,- T/9a'ya;8oG(T' e/c TLvoiv ; 
Ai. e^ evpvnpaiKTOiv. AS. eu Xeyei?. 

SrjfxrjyopovcTi o' eK rivoiv ; 
Ai. e£ evpvTTp(x)KT(Dv. AS. dpa StJt' 

eyv(iiKa<^ co? ov8et' Xeyet? ; 1095 

Kttt rail' 6eaT(ou oirorepoL 



v6|jii^€ p.T)S€v atcrxpov : the motto of aught of shame, they are not gods " 

the New Education, the test of a (Euripides, frg. 294). But the 

mind freed from prejudice. common maft was cordially con- 

1079. avTov : St-, the husband. tent with an adulterous Zeus ; the 

1080. €Tr-av-6V€-yK6iv : imv. use ; old faith was "good enough for 
refer it on back. him." Thus religion in time be- 

1081. (is: repeats the ws of comes ir-religion. 

1080. — Why is /cai ckcivos em- 1089 f. <rvvr]'yopov(ri : lawyers 

phatic ? Cp. 1071. (crwr/yopot) come from the ranks 

1082. The Greeks of Aristoph- (e/c) of the lewd (cvpvTrpu)KToi), 
anes' time saw clearly the dissi- also tragic poets (1091), profes- 
dence between their present stand- sional politicians (1093), and the 
ard of morality and that of the large majority of the audience 
old nature-religion inherited from (1098). No wonder AiVuios ad- 
ancient fathers. Minds truly reli- mils defeat (1102). 

gious revolted ; "if the gods do 1095. ov8«v Xe'^tis : 6440. 



NE*EAAI 189 

TrXetov? (TKOTreL. At. /cat 8ry ctkotio). 

A8. rt 87}^' opas; 

Ai. TToXv TrXeioi^a? V17 tov9 Oeov's 

TOV<; €VpVTT pcOKTOVS ' TOVTOVl 

yovv otS' eyo; KaKeivovi "oo 

Kat rot' KOfnJTTju tovtoul. 
A8. rt 817/ e/aet? ; 

Ai. rjTTijfJieOa ' 

77/309 rwi^ 9e(oi>, Se^acrOe ixov 
doifxaTLOv, ct)9 
i^avToixoXw 7rpo<; v/xa?. 

So), rt 8^ra ; noTepa tovtov OLTrdyecrOaL \a(3o)u "05 

/8ovA.et rot* vtdi^, ^ StSacr/co) crot \4yeiv ; 

2t. 8t8acrK'e Kal K'dXa^e /cat jxeixprfcr ottw? 
ev /Ltot (TTOixojcr€L<; avTou, eVt /xet- Odrepa 
olou 8tK-t8tot9, ri^t* 8' irepau avrov yvdOov 

1103. S^gao-ee KTe. : AtKaios (1105-14) is in place, the oppor- 
knows the entrance-requirements, tunity to "withdraw" his son 
viz. forfeiture of BolyuaTiov (497)- seems to be even yet extended to 
He forfeits without wailing for the Streps., that, when the catastrophe 
hutjiriTT]<i (178). comes, it shall be tragically he, 

1 104. 45avTO|ioX« : / desert. and no one else, who is to blame. 
Exit, meekly follcjwing *A8iko? into 1 106. SiSdo-Ku : subjv. ; (i»t I to 
the (f>fjovTi(TTripLov. teach? 

We should next expect an 1107. yiy-vxyro birws : the con- 
opportunity given to Pheidip. to stniction of verbs of strivinf; (S. 
make his choice of teacher (937). 1352, HA. 885, G. 1372) instead 
But the matter h;is been just de- of the inf. (.S. 1314. HA. 986). 
cided by the voluntary .surrender 1108. iir\ |Afv xd 'tTepa; on the 
of AiK(Uo?. Re-enters Socrates. o)ie side. 

1 105. d-ira-yto-Oai : if this scene 1109. olov : pred. adj. after 



190 



APl2TO<&ANOY2 



(TTOjJuoicrov oiav et? ra fxeit^co irpdyfJiaTa. 
Sco. dfxeXeL, Kofjuel tovtou cro(f)L(TTr)v Se^tdv. 
<^€. o}^pov jxev ovv, olfxai ye, koI KaKoSaifxoua. 



Xo. 



^iopeiT€ vvv. olfxaL 8e crot 
rat)ra fxera}iekrj(reiv. 

rov<; KpLTas a. Kepoauovcnu, r)v tl rouoe top ^opov 
ojcfteXwcr' e'/c tmu SiK-atwi^, ^ovXop-ecrO^ rjixelf; (ftpdcraL. 
TrpcoTa p^ev ydp, rju vedv ^ov\rj<j9' iv (opa tov'^ 



aypov?, 

aToiJiW(TeL<; ; (p!ff oti a arofjui or 
edge) fit or suitable. 

II 12. ykv ovv : nay, rather (71 )• 
Pheidip. "convinced against his 
will is of the same opinion still " 
as in V. 103. 

HAPABASIS AEYTEPA 

H13-30 

The first six of Aristophanes' 
comedies, as preserved to us. have 
two parabases each. But the 
second never contains more 
than four of the seven parts mak- 
ing up the complete scheme ; see 
introd. note to the first parabasis 
510-626. The present one is 
briefer than any of them, perhaps 
because a fragment from the first 
Clouds or because left unfinished 
in the revision for the second. It 
consists of two parts : a KOfifxanov 
of two verses and one i-n-Lpprjixa 
of sixteen. 



1117 

1113 f. Commation chanted by 
the Kopt't^aTos ; see Introd. § 139 
for the rhythm. — x'*P"'''« ^ to the 
departing actors; cp. iOl ;(atp(uv 
510. — o-oi : to Streps., but prob- 
ably after his departure, and heard 
only by the audience. 

1 1 15-30. An i-TTLpprjixa in 
trochaic tetrameter (Introd. 
§ 132 r'), wherein the Clouds en- 
deavor to win the five judges of 
the comic contests by promise 
of material favours and threat 
of material damage, dependent 
upon their decision. 

1 115. Kpirds : emphatic, and 
almost a free ace, though it may 
be construed with (fypdaai (cp. 961 
and 1 148 f.) ; translate as if a 01 
KpLToi Kep8uvovcn. 

1 1 16. €K T«v SiKaCuv : = BiKai- 
(os as they rightly should. — Tip.«is : 
with stress, because a personal 
digression of the Clouds. 

11 1 7 . €v wpa : /';/ good season . 



NE<I>EAAI 191 

varofxev Trpo/roLcrLv v^iiv^ Tolcri o' aXXot? vcnepov. 
eha Tov Kapnov re koX to.^ ajXTriXov^ (^vXa^o/xei^, 
coare firJT av\ixov Tnil,eLV [xtJt ayav eTTOjx^piav. 
r)p 8' oLTLixdcrr) rf? T7/xa? dvrjTo<; oiv ovcra? decL<?, 1121 
77/5ocre^€TCt) Tov uovu, Trpo<; rfjxojv oia TreLcreraL /caKa, 
\ap.^dvoiv ovT oluoi^ ovt^ aXX' ovSev e/c rou ^(npiov. 
TjVLK av yap at r eXaat f^XacTTavoicr at r afXTreXot, 
aTro/ce^oi/zoi/rat ' rotavrai? c^(^e^'8o^'at9 iraLijcroixev. 
rjp he TrkipOevopT^ LSojfjL€i>, vcropev, kol tov Teyov; 
rov Kepajxov avTov ^aXa^atq crrpoyyuXat? crvvrpi- 
xliojxev. 1 127 

Kctiv ycLfxrj TTOT auTo? "^ Twi^ ^vyyevoiv rj tcov ^i\oiv^ 
-uaofxev ttjv vvKTa Trdcrav' coctt tcrcoq ^ovkfjcreTaL 
Kau Iv AtyvTTTOj xf^eti^ a)i^ p.a.Wov rj KpZvai KaKcjq. 



2t. TTepTTTT), rerpa?, rpiTrj. /xera TavTTjv oevrepa, 113' 
et^', 171^ eyoj /xaXicrra iraacov rjfxepiov 
SeSotK'a /cai 7r€(l}pLKa kol ^SeXurro/xat, 

1 122. -TTpos : a tragic usage 1131. Streps, enters with a 

for vTTo. sack of meal (1146 n.), counting 

1 125. (r4icv86vais : /.e. sling- the last days of the month. Tlie 

stones of iiail. — ■rrai'^o-ofitv : a etVaSts or twenties (17) were quite 

rarer form for iraurw. commonly reckoned backward 

1 128. Tttiv |vyy€v(uv : si . tis- from the last day (29th or 30tli 

1129. u<ro(i«v ; and so i)ut (nit alternately); hence 7r«)i7rr»; — 25th 
the torches of the wedding pro- or 26th, rtrpu? — 26th or 27th. <'A. 
cession — a l)ad omen. — to-ws : .So the Romans counted hack 
minatory. from Nones, Ides, and Calends 

1 130. iv Al-yviTTu : where he "SB- Cp. the corresponding 
would get no niin at all. We '/y/s/i's h'ulenilae (Hot. Sal. l. 3. 
might substitute "in (luinea." 87). 



192 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



evdv^ /xera Tavrrjp eaO^ evrj re kol via. 
traq yap ri9 6/xi^u9, 019 6(j)ei\(DV Tvy^dvco, 1135 

0ei<i {XOL npvTaveV aTToXeti' jxe (f)r]cn Ka^okelv, 
ifiov re ixirpia /cat oiVat' airov/xeVov, 
' Ji oatixovie, to jxev tl vvvl fxr) Xdfir)<;, 
TO o dva^a\ov fxoL, to 8' a<^e?,' ov (^acrtV Trore 
ovra>9 aTroXTJxjjecrO, dWd XotSopovcrL jxe 1140 

a»? aOt/co? etjat, Kat oiKaaeaOai (fiacri, fxoL. 
vvv ovv hiKat,ecrdoiv ' okiyov yap /xol jxekei, 
elnep ixeixd0y)Kev eu keyetv 4>e(,8t7r77tST79. 
Ttt^a 8' elcrofxai /coi/;a? to (^povTKJTTjpiov. 
iral, rjfiL, nal, iral. Sw. XTpexpidSiqu dcrndl^oixaL. 
St. Kayojye cr • dkkd tovtoul npwTou Xa/3e " H46 

^^17 y<^P ^TTiOavyidt^eLv tl tov SthdcTKakov. 
Kai fxoL TOV vlov et ^e/xa^r^/ce TOf Xoyov 
iKelvov el(f>\ ov dpTioi^ elcrriyaye's. 



1 134. €vii Kal ve'a : the name of 
the last day of the month ; see L. 
& S. s.v. h'o<i. 

1 1 35. irds Tis : everybody. 
TTus eases the change to plural 
ots. — ojivvs : with <^rj(TL = swears. 

1136. OeCsi^oi. KT«. : on deposit- 
ing court-fees against me ; a nec- 
essary initial step in a lawsuit. — 
dir-oXeiv . . . l^-oXeiv : the latter is the 
stronger. In Eng. we finish one 
off ox up indifferently. 

1 137. (i^rpia KT«. : a moderate 
and Just request indeed ! 

1 139. dva-PaXov . . . d<{>-cs : 
defer . . . remit. 



1 140. d'iro-X'^t|/€<r9ai : recover. 

1 145. T|p.C : /say; cp. ^^ 8' eyw 
said /, rf 8' os said he. — Srp. 
d(r7rd^o|jiai : the formal and elegant 
address of those times. 

1 146. TovTOvC : OvXaKOV avT<jj 
€7ri8t8wcnv d\(f>iTwv (schol.). 

1 147. Iiri-Oaviid^eiv ti : i.e. be- 
side the greeting (eVt) one must 
honour his teacher somewhat with 
an honor ariuvi ; cp. dj.vfjid^o) 
428. 

1 148. TOV viov : object of cittc 
by prolepsis. 

1 149. ov : i.e. TOV vlov. Some 
refer it to Aoyov, viz. tov aSiKov- 



NE<I>EAAI 



193 



"55 



2(0. jxe^xdOiqKev. St. ev y\ 6) Tra/A/SacrtXet' 'ATratdXi) 
2(1). wot' (XTTOc^uyot? ai/ y^vTiv av /BovXy SiKrjv. 1151 

St. /cet ixoipTvpe<; iraprjcrau, 6t ihaveit^ofxiqv ; 
So). TToXXoi ye fxaXXou, Kap Trapwcn ^tXtot. 
St. (3odaofxaL rdpa rav vneprouov 

/Sodu. 1(6, K\deT, oi^okocTTdT ai, 
avTOL re /cat rdp^aZa koX tokol tokcdv ' 
ovSeu yap dv fie (jikavpov ipydcraicrd' €Tl, 
olo<; ifjiol Tpe(f)€TaL 
TOLcrB' eVl 8oj/xacrt Trat?, 
dfJi(f)TjK€L yXcoTTr) XdfjiTrcjv, 
7r/Do/3oXo<; ifx6<;, acoT-qp 8d/xot?, i)(0poL<; ^\dfir), 
\v(javia^ Trarpaxou ixeydXcDU KaKOiv • 



1160 



In this case eto-r/yayt? means in- 
troduced to the audience. 

1 150. *A7rai6\Ti : cp. amaio- 
\t)ijux. 729. Fur TTuixfiaaiXeia cp. 

357- 

1154-64. .Strepsy's joy de- 
mands lyric vent. In a jumble 
of metres he begins, the schol. 
says, with a line from Euripides' 
Peleus. See Introd. § 140. 

1154. ToLpa : Toi upa. The 
vTr(p-Tovo<; jiiMx must have ap- 
proached a very war-shriek in the 
comedy, if not in Euripides. 

1 155. lu : common in tragedy. 
— o^Xo-o-Tdrcu : the hated Shy- 
lock usurers, lit. penny-^weighers, 
from KTT-qfii to weii^/i. 

1 156 f. Iambic trimeters occur- 
ring within a song were |)robably 

ARISTOI'HANKS — I3 



not spoken as in dialogue, but 
sung or chanted. — dpxaia kuI 
TOKoi : regular words for principal 
and interest, but used here with a 
word-play, to curse usurers " root 
and branch " — ancestors and chil- 
dren's children. 

1 158 f. Taken together, the dac- 
tylic tripodies make a pentameter. 
— olos : such a — , in implied 
causal relation to the preceding; 
cp. 699. 

1 159. 8u)i.a<ri : ^ jjrose oiKtu. 

1 160. S|)ondaic sok-innity. — 
d.(i4)T|K€i : /7i>ii-edi^fd ; poetic 

1 161 . irp6PoXos. 86|jiois : poetic. 
Note diaeresis of the three /ac't/ju. 

1 162 f. Dochmiacs indicate 
an acme of emotion. 8o;^/xio9 — 
asiiiiit. 'I we could but know 



194 



API2T0<^AN0Y2 



St. 
2(0. 
St. 



6u KokecTov Tpd^oiv evhoOev o)? e^e. 
d) t4kvov, 6) TTat, e^eXO' oiKiov, 
ate (Tov 7rar/309. 
6o eKelvofi avTjp. 
o) (^tXo9, o) (f)LXo<;. 
a-niBi (TvXXa/Bcou. 



1 165 



tW ICt) TCKVOf, loi loV lov. 



1 1 70 



o)? yjoofjiai aov npcoTa rrjv \poiav Ihcov. 
vvv fx€u y tSeti^ et trpoiTov l^apvi]TiKo<^ 

KaVTlkoyiKO'^, KoX TOVTO TOVTTl^MpiOV 

are^i^ojq kiravOei, to ' tl Xeyet? crv ; ' koL Sokclv 
doLKovuT dSiKelcrdaL kol KaKovpyovvT otS' oti' 



the dochmiac dance-step! — Xvo-- 
avlas : siirceaser of sorrow ; po- 
etic. It ignores here the gen. 
within itself and takes a second 
(kokoiv), as such compounds often 
do in tragedy. 

1 164. Exit Socrates to sum- 
mon the young ''blade" (diJL(f>y- 
Krj<;)- 

1165 f. Streps, makes their re- 
entry a grand procession by chant- 
ing a march-measure parody on 
Euripides' Hecuba 172 ff. Poetic 
are the words t€kvov (= uios or 
Trais) and aiw ( = aKovw or alaOd- 
vofjuii) ; cp. 650. 

1 167. Enter Socrates and the 
Graduate. 

1 168. 4>CXos : tragic for <f>L\e. 

1 169. o-uXXapwv: taking him 
with you. 

1 1 70. One more dochmiac ca- 



per before coming down to ttc^^ 
Ae'ti^, or prose, in 1 1 7 r . 

1 171. xpo"'*"- probably a 
chalk-white; cp. 103, 11 12. 

1 172. (i€v 7€ : together they 
emphasize vvv to NOW. — ihdv 
KT€. : for inf. depending on adj. 
see S. 1240, HA. 952, G. 1528. 
efa/avrjTtKos is merely e^apvo<s in the 
fashionable -iko's form (483 n.); 
you have a disclaim-atious contra- 
dic-tious look. 

1 173. €irix«piov : this local 
Attic bloom (iir-uvOew) is the 
modern bumptious "brass." 

1174. Tl Xe'-ytis : asks not for 
information, but to challenge and 
dispute. 

1 1 75 . 0I8' oTi : a clause that has 
become adverbial, like / am sure ; 
cp. TTtos 80/cets (881), the imv. d/At- 
Aei (422), ovK iad" oTTws ov (802). 



NE^EAAI 195 

inl Tov irpocrcoTTOv t icrTLu \\ttlkov ^XeVos- "76 

vvp ovv OTTw? crwcretg fx\ iirei KdncoXecra'^. 
$c. (f)o/3€L oe St^ tl: St. ttjp evrjv re koI veav. 

ii. evTj yap eVrt /cat i^ea rt? ; St. rjfxepa 

et9 r/V ye OrjcreLi' to. TTpvTaveld fpacri jxoi. nSo 

$e. a77oXoucr ap' av6 ot 0€UTe<; ' ov ycip ecrd onco'^ 

p.1 rjp.dpa yevoiT dv rjixepai hvo. 
Sr. ovK av yevoiro : ^e. 770J? ydp : el fxrj nep y afia 

avrrj yevotr av ypav<^ re Kai via yvvrj. 
St. KaL prjv vevopucTTai y . $€. ov yd.p, ot^at, tov 

vopov 1185 

icracTLV 6p9a><; 6 tl voel. St. voel oe tl : 

$€. u ^EdXoji/ 6 TTaXatoi? t)i^ (j)Lk6orijxo'^ Trjv (fyvcTLV. 
St. rourt /aci' ovoev no) Trpo? eVr^i^ re /cat veav. 
*€. e/ceti^o9 ovi^ ttjv KKrjCTLv et<? ou 7^/xepa? 

edr]K€v, et? ye rr/f eVryt' re /cat i^eai^, "90 

1176. pXt'iros : Streps, is still rior tone that reduces his father 
in exalted mood ; the prose word to a crushed absurdity. 

is /SXefjifjuji. The Attic "look"' is 1185. Kal p.T|v : and yet ; a fal- 

perhaps that of Triumphant De- tering appeal to custom. — -ydp: 

mocracy. that's because. 

1 177. o-rrtus : see 257 n. 1186. voti : /ncans, intends. 

1 178. 8e 8t| : 8»; is our exple- 1187. <t>iX.68Tifios kt€. : the peo- 
tive (not temporal) mnu ox then. pie's natural friend., a born deino- 
— lvT|v KT€. : see 1 134. crat. Solon had by this time 

1179. •ydp; in c|ucstions is our become a sort of Thomas Jcffer- 
expletive (not interrogative) why. son in public estimation. Law- 

1180. Yt : in answer, assents yer-like, the young alumnus will 
but qualifies. Cp. yori' (ye ow), explain the original intent and 
which cites a confirmatory instance purpose of the lawmaker. 

(1063 n.) 9f|o-€iv: see 1 136 n. 1189. kXtjo-iv : cp. 780, 875. 

1183. €l (i^ TTtp -yc : i e. tiTrep 1190. -yc : namely. Phcidip. 

ye /XT; : unless of course., in a supc- interprets as if two articles were 



196 



API2T04>ANOY2 



lu' at 64arei^ yiyvoLVTo rrj vovfirjuia. 

St. ti^a or) tl ttju eurjv irpocredrfK ; #€. tV, a) jxeXe, 
TTap6vre<i ol (f)evyouT€<; yjixepa /JLLoi 
TTporepov airaWaTTOivd^ eKovres, el 8e fXTJ, 
€o)dev viravLcovTO rrj vovp7)vta. 1195 

St. tto)? ov oe^ovTai Srjra Trj vovfJirjpLa 

ap^ai TO. 7rpvTave2\ dXA.' eprj re Koi pea ; 

$€. onep ol TvpoTevSai yap ookovctl fiOL TToieZv • 
07r&>9 ra^tcrra ra irpvTaveT vffyeXoiaTO, 
Ota TOVTO TTpovTevdevcrav -qfjiepa fXLa. 1200 

St. eu y' ■ a; KaKoSaLfxoi>e<;, tl Kadrjad' a^eXrepoi, 



present, rrjv Ivqv koX ttjv veav, i.e. 
two days. 

1 191. 6«o-tis : deposits., sc. of 
the •Kpvravtia.. — tt) vov|iT)vCa : i.e. 
on the first of the new month, the 
via. of the preceding verse. 

1 193 ff. We now see Solon's 
humanity : a summons for two 
days but no suit to be begun till 
the second, that the defendants 
(01 (^cvyovres) might have one 
day for compromise. This hu- 
mane intent had been frustrated 
by the magistrates (at dpxo-0 ^r 
their own base ends (as we shall 
see), since now illegally, if we read 
Solon's law aright, they collect the 
fees on the evrj rather than the via. 
But if illegally, as Pheidippides 
contends, then the plaintiffs will 
be non-suited and the depositors 
lose their money, as above said 
(1181). 



1 1 95 . 1ew6«v : early, or in the 
morning ; the force of -Otv from 
has evaporated. — vw-aviwvTo : re- 
ciprocal mid. ; worry each other a 

bit (VTTO-). 

1 196. irws : how happens it 
that — {qui fit ut — ) ? 

1 197. at dpxal: the authori- 
ties ; an abstract in both languages 
replacing the concrete. 

1 198. 01 irpo-Tc'vOai : the fore- 
tasters ; a board who tasted and 
approved the food for the annual 
banquet of the Phratry or Brother- 
hood held on the evening of the 
first day of Apaturia. 

1199. oircus: = r va ; not with 
TaxtcTa. • — i)4>-eXotaTO : Ionic 
form ; = a.(f>i\oLVTO. 

1200. SidiTovTo: thaCswhy. — 
irpovTc'vOtvo-av : gnomic aor. 

1201. Tl Kd9Ti<r9« ; to the spec- 
tators. 



NE^EAAI 



197 



a/Dt^/id?, npo/BaT aXXoj?, dfx(f)oprjq vevr)(Tp,evoi; 

uiCTT et? ijxavTov kol rov vlov tovtovI 

i-rr' evTv^iaLcriv acrreou fxovyK(6fjiLOv. 1205 

' fXCLKap S) 'S.TpexpLaSeq, 

avTo? T i(f)v<'; w? ao(f)0<; 

^olou Tov vlov rpe(^€i9, 

(f)T](rovcn 817 fx' ol (fyikoL 

^ot SiqfjiOTaL 1210 

J^'q\ovuT€<i, tjv'lk av crv vlko.^ Xeycou raq 8i/ca9. 
dXX' eladyojp ere ^ovXo/xat TrpuiTOv IcrridcraL. 

Hacrias 

elr' dvSpa ro)v avTov n -)(PV 'n-po'ievaL ; 

ovSeTTore y\ dWd KpelrTou evdv<i tjv Tore 1215 



1202. KcpSr) ; spoil, booty. — 
Tuv a-o4)uv : sc. rj/xCjv, implied in 
rjiMeTCfja. 

1203. Ciphers, t/iere sheep, 
stacked-up jars. Sitting closely 
in rows, so they looked from the 
orchestra. uAAws with subst. is 
frequent. 

1204. w<rT€ : the audience is so 
stolid that Streps, must sing his 
own encomium. 

1205. €irt : on occasion of — , 
because of. — ^riov : 1I60). — \Loiy- 
K(&|uov : fxoi c'y/c. 

i2o6 ff. Lyricism on a high 
horse. — (idiKap : poetic (599). — 
STp««|/(aS<s : he inHects his own 
name by tlie wrong declension. 
See Introd. >? 141 for tlie rhytlini. 



1207 f. €(j)vs : poetic for ei. — 
ws and olov : exclamatory, in causal 
relation to the excl. /xaKap; cp. 
1 1 58. Note also the poetic dis- 
turbance of the word-order. 

121 1. \^"y«v: by the power of 
speech. The fruition of the college 
education Is in sight. 

1212. l-.xeunt Streps, and son. 
1 21 3-1 302. Two cTrtKroStu (<'/"- 

socles'), wherein the ^rrtoi/ Aoyo? 
wins two great victories. 

1 2 14. Enters Pasias of v. 21, a 
rotund money-lender, dragging a 
reluctant witness to his summons 
(KAi/irts) of .Streps. — tlra : an in- 
dignant then, or well. -n-po-i^vai : 
to snrrenilrr, sacrifue. 

1 215. 74: makes ouStTroTt a 



198 



API2TO<I)ANOY2 



aTTepvBpiacrai fjiaXXou rj cr^et^' Trpdy/xaTa, 

ore Twi> ifxavTov y eveKa vvpl ^pr]fJidTO}u 

ekKco ere KXr^TevcrovTa, kql yeurjcrofxaL 

e^^po? ert 7Tpo<; tovtolctlp dpSpl SrjfxoTj). 

oLTap ouSeVore ye tyjv narpLOa KaTaicr^vvci) 1220 

l,iov, dWd KoXovpaL STpe^iaorjv — St. ri? ovtoctl ,■ 

Ha. €19 TTju evTjv ts kol veav. St. fiaprvpopaL, 

ort ci<? ov eivrev i^/xepa?. Tov )(pTJpaTO<; ; 

Ua. TCi)v SojSe/ca p^voiv, a<? eXa^e? wi^ou/xe^'o? 

Tot" xjfapou LTTTTOU. ' St. lttttov ; ovK OLKovere ; 
oi' TTOLVTe^ v/xet«? I'crTe piaovvO^ LTnrLKTJv. 1226 

Ha. /cat ^"17 At" a7^o8oJC^€l^' y' iTTwpiVV^ tov<; Oeovi;. 

St. jLta To^' At" ot» ydp tto) tot i^rjTTiaTaTO 

<I>r 18171771817 9 jJLOi TOV OLKaTd/BXriTOv \6you. 



capitalized NEVER. — tvOvs totc : 
" tiien and there," /w. at the time 
the loan was requested. 

1216. d-ir-cpv6pido-ai : A? /u_y off 
blushes (/), i.e. unblushingly to 
refuse to loan. — (rx"" ! incur., be 
put to — . 

1217. oTt : causal if or since, 
as in 7, 34, and often. 

1218. K\TjT€v<rovTa : to be a 
witness to the KXrjai<;. 

i2ig. €Ti irpos TovTOKTi : a com- 
mon pleonasm : besides, in addi- 
tion to that. — 8t](a6tti : sc. Streps. 

1220. The lawsuit mania of 
Athens is taken off in the Wasps, 
where a dog is put on trial for 
stealing cheese. 

1221 . \5>\ : as long as I live. — 



KaXovfiai : in a loud voice ; where- 
upon Streps, becomes audible, if 
not at once visible. 

1222. |i,apr\ipop.ai : / call to 
witness, by wa)' of protest. 

1223. Svo : L-mphatic by separa- 
tion from its subst. — tov: nVos ; 
for what sum ? Cp. 22. 

1225. 'ifo.^ov: dappled; the 
KOTTTraTtu? of \'. 23. 

1226. ov : sc. Streps. 

1227. Kai . . . 7t : yes, and, 
stressing aTroSwo-eti/. 

1228. Streps, mocks Pasias' 
antiquated oath ; because (yap) by 
Zeus. The oath precedes the conj. 
as in 652, Wasps 1126, Frogs 192. 

1229. d-KaTdpX.TiTov : un-knock- 
downable. 



NE^EAAI 



199 
1230 



Ha. vvp oe oto. tout' i^api>o<i eluat hiavoeL; 

St. tl yap aW av dno\av<TaL[jLi tov iJLa0rjfjLaTO<i : 

Ha. /cat tuvt' ideXrjcr€L<; a.7ro/xdcrat fxoL Tov<i Oeov's 

IV av KeXevao) 'yw ere ; St. tov<? ttolov<? ^eov? ,• 

Ha. TOV Ata, tov 'Kpjxrjv, tov DocretSai. St. vy) Ata, 

Koiv TTpocrKaTaOeirjv y\ (octt ofxocrai, TpLcojSoXov. 
Ha. (XTToXoto TOLvvv €veK dvaLOeia^ eTL. 1236 

St. dkalv otacr/u-T^^^ei? ovaiT av ovtoctl. 
Ha. oijx a»9 KarayeXa?. St- e^ \od'; ^wprjcreTai. 

Ila. ov rot, jxd T'IV Ata tov jxeyav /cat Tov<i deov<i, 

ifiov /caraTT/aot^et. St. 0avfJLa(Tico<; T](r07]v OeoZ';, 

KoX Zei"? yi\oio<; o/JLvv/xevo'^ rot? etSocrt^'. 1241 



1230. e^apvos tlvai = itupvei- 
(tOul to deny. 

1232. €e«XT|o-€is : ivili yon be 
■wiliiii^/ Do not confuse fiov\t- 
(tOu to wish with iBkXuv to will or 
be Willi Hi:;. 

1233. 'iv' av : wherever (190). 
When there were many gods, it 
was important to choo.se with care 
the three before whose altars an 
oath could be most bindingly ad- 

. ministered. — tovs ttoCovs Ocovs : 
namely, what t^'otis ■ Cp. to tL 748. 

1234. Zeus was always one of 
the three. Pasias the capitalist 
adds Hermts the god of commerce 
and Poseidon the god of horses as 
most fit for the transaction. 

1235. irpotr- : in composition 
often r_ to boot, in addition. — 
tJ<rT€ = i.^ tpre on londition ; 
S. 1386, GMT. 587. 2. 



1236. €Ti: someday. 

1237. Hides in tanning were 
thoroughly rubbed and cleaned 
(8ta-o-/i,7;x<") with salt. This cor- 
pulent Pasias would make an 
excellent wine-skin {a.(TK6<i) if so 
treated. That he should even 
expect a return of his loan, now 
that Zeus was dethroned, showed 
that he lacked " Attic salt."' Sure 
of his champion Adyo5, Streps, 
can offer insult. — ovoito : orivrjfjiL. 

1238. €| xo*''^ '■ l)etwcen 4 and 
5 gallons. — xa)pT|o-tTai: will hold, 
have \<^pii. or space for . 

1240. lyav Kara-trpot^ti : — 
TrpoLKu ffj.011 KaTucfifiOvr/tTtii; = *' you 
shall pay for this." — f\a-9r\v : see 
174 n. 

1 24 1. Z€vs ojivvp.€vos : swear/nj^ 
by Zens ; the ji.irtic . not the sub- 
stantive, contains the .substantive 



APl2TO<t>ANOY2 



Ha. 17 ixr]P (TV tovtcou tm ^povco Swcret? SiK-qv. 

dXX' etr' aTTOOojcret? fxoL to. ^pr^'/xar', etre /xr/, 
aTroTrefxxpou aTTOKpivdixevo<^. St. e^e j'ui^ 17(Tuyo9. 
eyw yap avriK aTTOKpivovpjai croi cra^w?. 1245 

Ha. TL croL 00/cet opdcreiv ; dTrooaxreLP ctol SokeI; 

St. ttov 'cr^' ovto<; dnaiTCxyp fxe Tapyvpiov ,• Xeye, 

Toun Tt ecrrt ,• Ha. Tovd' o rt icrTL; Kct/aSoTros- 

eTTeiT ctTratTer? rdpyvpiov, toiovto^ cov ; 

ovK av dTTohoirjv ovh" av o^okop ovSevt, 1250 

ocrTL<; KaXecrete Kaphonov Trjv KapSoirrjv. 

OVK dp' aTToSwcret? ; St. ov^ ocroi^ ye /x' elhevac. 

ovKovv dvvaa'^ tl OaTTov dTTo\iTapyiel<^ 

diTO Trj<; 6vpa<i ; Ila. direLjXL, /cat tovt 1(t6\ otl 

Orjcro) TTpvTavel\ rj pr]K€Ti il^(or)v eyw. 1255 

St. TrpocraTTO^aXet? dp' avrd Trpo? rat? SwSeKa. 



St 



Ha 



thought. Cp. a6 7irbe condita. — 
Tois tlSoo-i : for those that know. 
In all ages those who come to 
'• know " as suddenly and greenly 
as absurd Strepsy are apt to think 
their ancestral religion ye'Aoto? 
(a joke) . 

1244. English reverses the or- 
der, as often : answer before you 
dismiss me. 

1245. E,xit Streps. 

1246. <roi : the witness. 

1247. Enter Streps, with a 
kneading-trough. 

1248. tovtC : put first for em- 
phasis. 



1250 ff . In Solon's time Athens 
had a property qualification for the 
franchise. Why, in these days of 
Enlightenment, should there not 
be an educational test for all 
creditors ? Why pay one's debts 
to an ignoramus ? 

1252. ovx ocrov ktI. : not so far 
as I know ; S. 1247, GMT. 778. 

1253. dvv<ras ti OcIttov : 506 n. 
— aTToAiTapyt'^oj = to pack off. 

1255. jiTiKtri t<^T|v : English 
turns about ; may I die if I 

dOH^t. 

1256. irpos : in addition to \ht 
12 minas of v. 21. 



NE^EAAI 20 1 

KavToi ere tovto y ov)(i /BovXo/jiaL iraOelv, 
OTLT) '/caXecra? evr/^iKoj? Trjv KoipSoTTOv. 

' A|xuvias 

LCO fXOL fJLOl. 

St. ea. 

Tt9 OVTOCTL TTOT eCT^' 6 6 pTjVUiV ; OVTl TTOV I260 

TO)v KapKLuov Tt9 oaiixovoiv i(f)0€y^aTO : 
A}i. Tt 8' ; ocrri'? ei/xt, roDro jSovXead' etSeVat ; 

di^T^p /caKoSat/xajf . St. Kara creaurdi^ j^ut' rpenov. 
A}i. w (TKXripe halfxov, w Tu;)(at SpavadvTvye'; 

LTTTToiv ifxajv, 0) riaXXa?, w? /x' d7rcoXecra<;. 1265 

St. rt 8at ere TXr^TroXeytxd? vror' eipyacTTaL KaKov ; 



1257. KttiToi KT€. : pretends 
condolence, but intends contempt. 

1258. cvT]9i.Kws : the fashionable 
elongation of evrjOiu^ ; see n. on 

483- 

1259-1302. Second victory for 
r]TT(»v Aoyo?. — Iw (io£ |xoi : not 
yet visible, this fast youth of vv. 31, 
686 bewails in tragic phrase a 
broken head. 

1260. ia : a tragic exclamation 
hard worked by Euripides. In 
Arist. it always strikes an attitude. 
— oCti irou : asks a question as firj 
does, deprecating, or refusing cre- 
dence ; il surely can't be that . . .? 

1261. 8aipi6v«Dv : in place of 
vlutv, as if the wretched i)oet Car- 
cinus were a god and his three 
sons (the constant butt of the 
comic poets) were demigods. 



One of these, Xenocles, the schol. 
says, had dramatized (probably 
shortly before this) the story of 
Licymnius. The wail of Amynias 
(l<j')'fx.oi fjioi) is therefore perhaps 
from that tragedy, drawing forth 
this surmise of Strejjs. 

1263. Kara <r«a\iT6v ktc. : /ct'r/> 
or _i^(> hy yourself, with your kuko- 
8fu/xoi/tu. Don't infect me. Cp. 
25. 

1264 ff. According to the. schoi., 
a comic variant on verses in 
Licymnius — as if a complaint on 
luck cart-lircakiui^ ( dpiiv(r-a.vTvyt<i ) 
instead oi luck heart-breakine;- 

1265. Should be read nioud for 
the sound-play. 

1266. It is through Tlepolennis 
that Licymnius mets iiis death 
(Horn. h. 2. 662). 



API2TO$ANOY2 



A|X. IXY) (TKMTTTe fx\ ft) TaU, dWo, [MOL TO. ^jOTy/xaTa 

Tou vlou aTTOoovucLi KeXevcroi', aXa/8ei^, 

aXXoj? re jxevTOL /cat KaKcos TrenpayoTL. 
St. to. TTola TavTa )(^pr]IJiaT ; Ajx. dSai^etcraTO. 1270 
St. KaK(i)<^ ap' oVro)? e^X^"*' ^^ "/' ^V*^^ So/cet?. 
Ap,. iTTTTov? y' iXavvojp i^enecrop, urj roi"; 0€ov<;. 
St. Tt orjra Xrjpel'? (ocnrap a.77' oVov KaraTT-Lcrojv ; 
A|JL. XrjpQ), ra )(prjiJLaT atroXal^elv el /SouXofxai ; 
St. ou/c e(T^' ottoj? cri; y' avro? vyiaivei<;. A|x. rt 8ai ,• 
St. TOi^ iyKe(f)a\ou cocrnep cr ecrelcr 6 ai fxoi So/cet?. 1276 
A|x. CTL' Se' ^-17 rot' 'EpfjLrjv, irpoaKeKXrjaOaL [xol 8o/cet9, 

et fXT) VoSftJcrets Tapyvpiov. St. KaTenre pvu, 

TTorepa vojat^et? Kaivov del rof Ata 



1269. (ji.€VToi : indeed; some- 
times intrudes itself into the for- 
mula aAAw5 re /cat especially. 
Not only honour, but pity, should 
move him. 

1270. rh. irola : cp. 1 233. 
Streps, forgets the entry in his 
ledger (31). — \i^i\'^o.To.: the last 
syllable disappears under u eSuv. ; 
cp. 214, 1 192. 

1 27 1 f. Then you were really 
unlucky, says Streps., meaning if 
his son borrowed from liim. But 
Amynias misunderstands : Yes^ 
in racing horses it was that I got 
my fall. 

1273. Here Strepsy begins again 
his merry game of Dunners Out- 
done with a play on an old joke : 
(If you got your fall from a horse) 
why pray gabble as if you had 



tumbled from an ass ? Of a man 
who was aTTo vov {i.e. a little " off" 
in his mind), the Greeks said that 
he had had a fall ott' ovov. Cp. 
dTrd-o-tros, used by Hippocrates 
of a sick man " off his food." 

1275. " Not to be well " was 
urbanity for 'to be demented." — 
avTos : ie. your mind, not merely 
your bones and chariot. — t£ 8aC : 
see 491 n. 

1276. oio-ircp : as it were, col- 
loquial '' sort of." — o-€o-£itr6ai : to 
have suffered concussion . 

1277. The inf. ending -creadai 
is a nettled and carefully matched 
retort to aeaela-dai. The perfect 
tense means as good as sum- 
moned. 

1278. diro8<oo-€is : fut. indic. 
threatens ; cp. 586. 



NEa)EAAI 203 

veLu vS(op eKoicrTOT, r) top tJXlov 1280 

ekKetp KOiTOidev ravro tovO^ vhcop TTokiv ; 

AfJL. ovK 0I8' ey(i}y OTTOTepou, ovSe jxol /xeXet. 

St. TTcoq ovu aTToXajBtlv Tapyuptov SiKato? €t, 
et pTjhev olada tcou [xeTecopcjv npayixarcov ; 

A|i. dXX' ei <j7ravL^eL<;, rapyvpiov /xot tov tokou 1285 

aTToSore. 2t. tovto 8' ecrO' 6 toko's tl diqpiov ; 

Apt. Tl 8' a\A.o y r) Kara fxrjpa Koi KaO' rjfxepau 
tt\4ov irXeop Tapyvpiov det yiyveTai, 
VTToppiovTo<^ TOV ^povov ; St. /caXw? Xeyei?. 

Tt Si^Ta ; TTjv BoKaTTav ecr^' ort irXeiova 1290 

i^vi^t vop.il,€i's r) irpo tov ; A|jl. /act At , aXX ttrr^i/. 
ov yap hiKaiov irXeLOv eluat. St. /caTa ttoj? 
ai;ri7 /xeV, a> /ca/cdSat/xoi^, ovOei/ yiyveTat 
intpp^ovTcoi' TO)v TTora^xCiv irXeLCJi', crv oe 
{r/ret? TTOLrjcraL Tapyvpiov irXeiov to aov ; 1295 

OVK aTTohicii^ei aavTov oltto Trj<; otKtaf ; 

1280. A further application of 1288. irXtov -rrXiov : more and 

the scientific education, as in vv. »tore. 

750 (moon), 768 (uaAos), 1222 1289. Woppe'ovTOs ktI. : /// the 

{Xvt] Kai via). The theory tliat insoisible (vwo-) flow oj tune. 

the sun drew water was at tiiis This /jcw suggests to Streps, iiis 

time new. next question. 

1283 if. Again the educational 1292. ov StKaiov : it is not the 

test applied to tiie creditor, as the iuo\\ not in the nature of thim^s, 

test of Christianity apijlicd to the not natural. 
Jewi.sh usurer in the iMiddie Ages. 1293 ff. Streps, has learned 

1285. o-iravtjtis : are short. from his science that we should 
From a fellow-feeling Amynias " live according to nature." 
makes a generous offer. 1296. diro-Sicilti : appiojjriate 

1286. 8t)pCov : jocosely taking to Amynias. wlio had come as a 
TOKOv as 'iflsprnii^. Strepsy asks prosecutor (SioWom/ ) ; "won't you 
what beast le is that / prosecute your way ? " 



204 APl2TO$ANOY2 

<f>€pe ^OL TO KevTpov. A|i,. javr iyo) fxapTvpofxai,. 

St. VTTaye. tl /AeXXetg ; ovk ika<s, w (ra/xijiopa ; 

A|i. TavT ov)(^ v/BpL^i StJt icTTLP ; 2t. a^etg ; eTTtaXoi 
KevTOiv VTTO Tov TTpcoKTov a€ TOP cr€Lpa(f)6pov. 1300 
(f)evyei<; ; ifxeXkou (t dpa Kivrjaeiv iyo) 
avTol<; T/ao^or? rot? crotcri /cat ^vvoipicTLV. 

Xo. oiov TO TTpayp-aTOiv ipau (j>\avpo)v ' 6 yap [^8^ 

yipoiv oS' epaaOeiq 

diroQ-TeprjcraL ^ovXerai 1305 

TO, ^pruxad' dhaveicTaTo ' 
KOvK ecrd' 6tt(o<; ov Trjixepov 
Xiqy^eTa'i tl irpdyix, 6 tov- 
Tov iroLTJoreL top (TO(f)L(TTr)v (tcrw9,) 



1297. (tapTvpofxai : i.e. against 
the goad (/ceVrpov). 

1298. Wa-yt : inove on. — <raji- 
<t>6pa : 122 n. 

1299. ^€is : uTTw; cp. 543. 
Will you be nimble? He little 
suspects that within twenty lines 
he himself must be " nimble?" — 
€Tr-iaXb> : from eV-idAAw (a Doric- 
epic word) to lay on {sc. rh kcV- 
Tpov) . 

1300. (r(ipa-()>6pov : 122 n. — 
Exit Amynias S/jo/xw. 

1 30 1. c|icX.\ov : / was bound 
to — , sure to — , " I t/ioug/it I 
should — ." — dpa: = apa ; 1028 
n. — iyut : proudly. 

1302. aviTois KT«. : your wheels 
and all ; S. 956 /^, HA. "jj^a, G. 
1 191. Streps, returns to his ban- 



quet. It has paid him to have even 
a small part of the modern college 
education in Science. 

But now as in a tragedy, at the 
hero's height of success, comes 
the KaTa-(TTpo(f}7]. The Clouds 
darken, and an ominous song is 
sung 1303-20. See Introd. § 142. 

1303. olov KT«. : ii>/iat a thing 
it is — this love of — • 

1304. €pao-OcCs : sc. TrpayfxaTOiv 
(fiXjavpoiV- 

1305. airo<rT€pfj<rai : to with- 
hold ; 487. 

1307-10. OVK «<r9' KT^. : 802. 
Something will surely catch this 
sophist to-day, which will make 
him catch some mischief. This 
mystery veiled behind mystery is 
comically tragic and oracular. — 



NE<^EAAI 205 

dud' a)V nauovpyelv ijp^aT, i^aifpi'r]'; Xafielu kcikou tl. 

olfiaL yap avrou avTi\ evprjaeLf onep [dvTu»8f| 

TTttXat 77 OT inyTeL, 131 2 

eluat Tou vlou Secuou ot 
yvwfxa^ evavTia^ keyetu 

TolcTLv ot/catot9, wcrre vi- 1315 

Kav a7ravTa<; olcmep av 
^vyyevrjTaL^ kolu X^yr) najxTrourip'. 

Lcraj<; 8' tcrajg fiovXyjcreTai Koifpcjvou avTov eivat. 1320 

St. lov lov. 

d) yetToi/e? koI ^vyyeueL<; kol SrnxoTai, 

afivj/ddeTe fxoi TvuTOfMeucp irdcrrj Te^vrj. 

olfxoL KaKoSaLjjLCju TT7? Ke(f)aXrj<; koL rrjq yvdOov. 

a> fxiapd, ruTrret? tov narepa : $€. </»7V'' ^ Trdrep. 
St. opdd' oixoXoyovud' otl jxe TvnT€L ; $€. kol /xctXa. 

In Greek, maladies and passions hand (1473), to lament a broken 

(as TTvp /ever, piyos c/ti7/, opyrj head. See also v. 543. 
wrath, etc.) are said to catch 1323. dj*,vvd9«T€ : a tragic or 

a man, not so often the man the obsolescent variant of d/jivVcTc, and 

malady. this rather old-fashioned for ^807/- 

1310. dv9' wv KT«. : for the ^r/o-are ; S. 445 rt. HA. 494, G. 779. 

knavish deeds he began ; = avri — irdo-i;) Tcxv^n : 885. 
Toirrojv a. 1324. rfis ■yvdOov : his son had 

1312. -rrdXai TToW : |)rose would . slapped his face; the Greek 

not add irori. particularizes this to jaw. Ill 

1320. Ikrus 8' to-ws : mayhap, treatment of parents (KaKwais 
mayhap. P'ate delights in dpui- yovcW) was a serious crime among 
vtla {understatement) \ her " may- the Athenians, punishable with 
be " = " must be." the loss of some of the chief privi- 

1321. tov lov: the blow has leges of citizrnshi]). 

fallen — littrally. Strejxs. rushes 1326. Kal p.dXa : - /ixaAiora ; 

forti) with a huge mug in his assuredly, yes indeed. 



2o6 APl2T04>ANOY2 

St. S) fXLape koI naTpaXola koI Toi^wpv^e. 1327 

§e. avOiq [Me Tavra ravra Kal TrXeio) Xeye. 

dp' olaO^ on ^aipoi ttoXA.' aKoviov Kai KaKoi ; 

St. to XaKKOTTpcoKTe. ^e. TTctrre TroXX-OL? roi? ^308019. 

St. top TTarepa TUTrret? ; ^c Kairotjiavco ye, urj Ata, 

a>9 eV 3iKi] cr' ervnTou. St. &j fitapcoTaTe, 1332 

Kat TTot? yepoLT ap irarepa TvnTetp ip olkyj; 

^€. eywy' dnooeL^co, Kai ere plkiJcto) Xeyojp. 

St. tovtl (TV PLKijcreLq ,- $€. ttoXv ye koI paOL0j<;. 

iXov 8' OTTOTepop toIp \6yoip ySovXet Xeyetp. 1336 

St. -noioip Xoyoip ; #6. roz^ KpetTTOp' rf top rJTTOPa. 

St. ihiSa^dfjiriP /xeVrot cre, i^i^ At", oj /xeXe, 
Totcrt^' St/caiotg a,^'TlXe'yet^', et ravra ye 
fxeXXeL<; dpaneLcreLP, &><? 8tKa[OJ^ kol KaXop 1340 

roi^ TTaTcpa TviTTecrd^ icTTiP vno tmp vUcop. 

^e. dXX' olofxai fxepTot cr dpaneLcreLP, oxTTe ye 
ou8' avTO<; aKpoacrdpoepo^ ovokp dpTepel<;. 

St. /cat prjp o tl kol Xe^et? dKovcrai y8ouXo/i,at. 



1327. The 7raT/3-aXoi'asyi?///i?r- i335- tovti : herein. 

^^d:/^r of antiquity corresponds to i337' iroCoiv : indignant ttoio? 

the modern wife-beater. (247). But the son tai<es the 

1329. x*'p" oiKovtov KaKO, : he question as a real one. 

has learned this from "ASikos 1338. Note position of verb and 

AoyosCgio). On rtKowwaspass. of its further emphasis by fxevroi. 

Ae'yojsce S. 1075. HA. 820, G. 1241. On the causative middle see 

1330. XttKKoirptoKTc : you sink S. 1055, HA. 815,0. 1245. 

of iniquity'. i339- dvTi-\€7€tv: = yvw/xas 

1331. Ka£ . . . "ye : yes, and. ei/avrta? Ae'yetv ot 1314. 

1332. €v StKT) : = StKa-'w? ; cp. 1342. [acvtoi : Pheidip. mocks 
Ik twv 8lk(U(»v 1 1 16 his father's /xcVtoi of 1338. 

1334. Xiyuv: argument, like i344- xa^ K^'H*' : as in 1036. — 

charity, should begin at home. o ti Kal Xc^cis : ''what sort of a 



NE^EAAI 



207 



Xo. (Toi^ epyovy oj Tvpeafivra, (^povril^eLV otttj [wSt] 

TOP avhpa KpaT7JcreL<;, 1346 

CiJ? OVTO'i, el fXT] T(p ^TTeTToWeiV, OVK av TjV 
OVTO)^ OLKokaCTTOq. 

dW €cr6^ oT(o Opacrvverai ' otjXov ye rdu- 

OpoiTTOv Vrt TO XrjfjLa. 1350 

dXX.' i^ OTOv TO npcoTop rfp^aO' tj p-oi-XV y^vecrdai., 
■qSr] XeyeLv XPl '^po'^ x^P^^ ' ttolvt(j)<^ oe tovto opd- 
cret9. 
St. Koi p^r^v oOev ye TrpajTOu rjpgdpecrda Xoioopeladai 
iyo) cfypdcrco ' VetoT^ y^P etcrTtoj/xe^', cocnrep icrre, 
TTpoJTOv pep avTov ttjp Xvpap Xa^oPT iyoj \e\evcra 
dcrat '^ipcopiSov peko^;, top Kptop w? eTrexOr]. 1356 
6 S' evdeo}'^ dpxo.lop elp' e<f)acrKe to Kidapit^eip 

speech you zvili make"'; on the means; often witli imv. or imv. 
function of koI see 785 n., 840. substitute, as here. 

i'?5'?- Ktti iiTiv . . . v€ : besjins 

ArnN ETEPOS 1345-1451 „ • .• , • 1 

tlie agonistic speech as in 1036. 

The student should compare 1356- The great popular poet 

this and the first dyuii' (949-1 104) Simonides had lived during the 

in respect to the structure. Persian wars, contemporary with 

«345 50. See Introd. § 143 fur I'indar and Aeschylus. A song 

the rhythm. of his in honour of a wrestler of 

1349. OTuj : dat. of cause. Aegina named Kpto? In'gan (ac- 

1350. Xti(ia: 457. cording to the schol.) inri^iiff o 

1351 f. The KOfjv(t>a'io<: here Kptos oi'k ileiKew;. Arist. here 
.sets as the riiythm for the debate changes to eVe;^^// probably by 
the same fish-wife iambic tetrame- way of jest : " How Mr. Ram was 
ter that he assigned to *A8«>co? sheared." 

A<>yf>s in 1034 f. — t6 irpwrov : 1357- dpxaiov : whereas now 

pleonastic with r;p^aro. the fashion was to artjue subtly 

1352 -irdvTus : of L(yiirse,by all and be Ko/*.i//oi (649). 



208 



API2TO$ANOY2 



aSetv re TTivovd\ wcnrepel Ka^pv? yvvalK akovcrav. 

#€. ou yap tot' ev6v<; xpyjv <t dpa rvTrrecrdaL tc Kat 
TTaTelcrdaL, 
aoeiv KeXevoud', wcnrepel T€TTLya<5 k<TTL(x)VTa ; 1360 

St. TOiavTa jxivToi koI tot iXeyev iuSov, oldirep vvv, 
Kol TOP '^ip.wvihrjv i(f)a(TK elvac kukou TroLr]TT]u. 
Kaycb /idXt? fxeu aXX' 0)a&j? rjuea)(6iJLriv to irpioTOV ' 
enetTa 8' eVeXeucr' avTov aXkd pivppivr)v XafiouTa 
TOiv Atcr^vXou Xeif at ti /xoi ' ko.O' ovto<; €v6v<^ ehrev ' 
' eyoi yap Axa^v^ov uofii^o) irpcoTOv iu TTOiiqTal^, 
xjfocfiov tt\4o)v, d^vcTTaTou, (TTOjU-^a/ca, KprjiJLvoTroiop ; ' 
KavTavda irax; olecrde fxov ttju KapSCap ope^^delu ; 



1358. w<rir«p€C: = wcr-rrep; 
GMT. 868. To sing when drink- 
ing was "too much like work." 
The Greeks had songs to Hghten 
labour in the field (reaping, bind- 
ing, winnowing) ; in the mill, the 
boat, the wine-press, at the draw- 
well — everywhere. For labour is 
lightened by rhythm. — -yvvaiK' 
dXovo-av : " women grinding at the 
mill " is a figure of the remotest 
antiquity. 

1359. TOT evOvs : cp. 1215. 

1360. T€TTi-yas : grasshoppers 
lived merely on air and dew, the 
Greek legend said, and sang with- 
out ceasing. 

1364. dXXd: is quoted from 
the original command; cp. 1369. 
— \Lvpplvi\v: each banqueter, as 
he sang his song, held a spray 
of myrtle or laurel in his hand. 



1365. Xc^ai : recite', not the 
same as eiTreiv; cp. 1344. With 
Tujv kXa^Xov supply €7ra»i/. — The 
holding of the myrtle (or laurel, 
as the schol. adds) was a sign 
perhaps of the poet-function of 
the banqueter. 

1366. (Yw^dp: feignedly indig- 
nant : wJty, is it I that thinks — ? 

1367. (|/6<)>ov irXs'tdv : Shake- 
speare's "full of sound and fury." 
— d-au-o-TttTos is ill-coherent ; cp. 
(Tv-crTr]fJM system. — <TT6fJi<f>a$ is 
formed from aT6fi<lio<i (a full 
mojith) ; all words in -u| are coarse 
and insulting. — Kpr^iivo - iroiov : 
precipice-maker ; refers to his 
huge and rugged phrases. In 
Frogs 821 his p7//xaTa are said to 
go on horseback (iTnro-fidaova) . 

1368. 6p«x0€iv : leading up to 
a truly Epic battle, he uses a 



NE<I>EAAI 



209 



6fJi(o<; 8e TOP dvjxou oaKcou e(f>rju., ' cru 8' aXXa TO-vTcof 
\e^ov TL T(t)v veo)Tipci)v, oltt earl ra a-0(f)a ravra.' 
6 8' evdvq fjcr ^vpnrihov prjaip tlv\ o)? eKiueL 1371 
dSeX(l)6<;, ojXe^LKaKe, T'qv oixojxriTpLau doek(f)TJu. 
Kayo) ovK€T i^rjuecr^ofirju, dXX' evdv^ i^apdrTO) 
TToXXot? Ka/cot? Kalcr)(polcn' /car' ivrevdev, olov 

et/cd?, 
e7ro<? 77/369 CTTo? rjpeLSojxecrB' • eW^ ovto<; iTravaTrrjoa, 
KaTTCLT €(pXa fie KacmoSeL Kairviye KaTredXi/Beu. 
$€. ovKovv StKatiwg, 6crTL<; ovk ^vpnrihiqv i-rTaivei^ i377 
cro(j>(jjiTaTOv ; St. (TO(f)a>TaT6v y Ik^Ivov w — rt cr 

dXX' avdL<; av TvnTyjcroixaL. ^€. i^r) tov At , eV 

8tKT7 y' dt*. 



Homeric word. For us the mean- 
ing is uncertain ; either to gasp 
or to palpitate. 

1369. ev(i6v : instead of ;)(etAos 
lip ; biting ))iy temper, i.e. to curb it. 

1371- p^<riv : speech, passage 
in a drama. — 4kCv«i : seduced, viz. 
in the tragedy of Aeolus. 

1372. d8(X({>6s : this was .Mal<a- 
reus, son of Aeolus. — « dXc^- 
KttKc : defender from ctH ( = 
Heaven save us!). C|). "AttoAAov 
A,iro-T poirau. — ofio (iT|Tpiav : lierein 
lay the shocking cjuality of tlie 
deed; for the marriage of a sis- 
ter ofio-iraTfHii, which sometimes 
(though rarely) took jilace. was 
not held to l>e incestuous. 

1373. Kd'Yw ovk: — Krlyoi^K by 
syniresis. — 4|-T)v««rx. : the prose 

AKISIOlilANKS — 14 



dvexofjuii is keyed up to Tragic 
pitch by €^; cf-a/jarrw dupHcates 
it. apixTTw to smite is itself a 
poetic metaphor for XotSopeoi. 

1374. -iroWois : .ft. words or 
names. 

1375- T|p€i86(x€o-0a : //urled (Ut. 
pus/ted, t/trust) ; cp. 558. 

1376. KcLirciTa . . . KaC . . . Ka( 
. . . Ka( : ol)scrve in all artless nar- 
rative the large use of the simple 
conjunctions a/td, tlien, and tlietu 
as here from v. 1361 on. With 
this finale of kui'\s cp. Ach. 380 f., 
983 f., /•->/. 251 f. Note also here 
the sound-play with a and 7r ; for 
its sake we might render slang for 
slang, thus : he began to swish and 
swiiii^r and s'-aurt and scrunth me. 

1377. bo-Tis : causal; cp. 692. 



API2T0$AN0Y2 



St. /cat 770)9 Si/catco? ; 6aTL<;, o}vai(T)(vvTe, cr i^edpeipa, 
aiauai'Ofxeuo'i crov TravTa t pavktt^ovTO'i^ o tl vooiiq^;. 
et ix€v ye ' fipvv eiTTotg, iyoj yvov<; av inelv iTricr\ov ' 
' fxafJiiJiav ' o av alTTJaavTo^;, rfKov crot (^epojv av 

apTOv 1383 

' KaKKOLv ' 8' av ovK e(j>drj<i (f>pdaaL, Kayoj Xa/Scov 

Ovpa^e 



Xo. 



ig€(l>€pov av Kal Trpova^^ofJLiqv ere 

anayy^cov 
fioMvra Kal KeKpayod' otl 
)(e^rjTL(^r)v, ovk erXr]'; 
e^ct) '^eveyKelv, Si fxiape, 
Uvpat^e jOt', dXXa 7TVLy6fjLevo<; 

avTov 'noLiqcra KaKKav. 

oifxaL ye tmv vecorepcDv 70,9 /ca/jSia? 

TrrjSav, 6 tl ke^et. 
et yap TOLavrd y ovTo% i^eLpyacTfievo^ 

XaXwv dvaTreCcreL, 



(TV o efxe vvv 

1385 



1390 



[dvT<j)8Vi 



1381. o-ov: proleptic. 

1382. Ppvv : a child's cry for 
something to drink. — av : itera- 
tive (55 ) with iTrecrxov; woitld pid 
(or hold) to the lips. 

1383 f. |jLa|ii^dv . . . KaKKav: 
baby-language seems never to have 
suffered from the confusion of 
tongues at Babel. It and music 
are universal tongues. 

1384. OVK €<})0Tis . . . Ka£ : 710 
sooner did you . . . than I . . . 
For ^^avwwith partic see S. 1295, 
HA. 984, G. 1586. 



1385. 7rpo-€o-xo(i.'nv <r€ : I would 
hold you before me. 

1386 ff. A TTViyos requiring 
practice for good delivery, because 
of the resolutions -yo^' on, /xLups, 
and -yofjcvoi;. 

1387. OVK €t\t)s: did not have 
the grace; cp. 119. 

1390. avTov : right tJiere^ on 
the spot . 

1393- «|-«ip"yao-|ievos : of Tragic 
ring ; after having wrought. 

1394. XaXuv : the Clouds 
frankly substitute by his chatter 



NE^EAAI 



211 



TO depfxa tmv yepanepoiv \a./3oLfJiep av 
dXX' ovS' ipe^Lpdov. 



1395 



aov epyou, w Kaivcop eVwi^ klptjtol kul po)(kevTd, 
TTeiOcti Twa t,rjTelp, oVo)? So^et? \4yeiv oi/cata. 
^e. CO? Tjov Kaipoi'^ Trpdypacnp Kal Se^tol^ o/X'-Xelp, 

Kol T(i)P Ka6eaT(x)T(x)P popnop v7T€prf)popelp ov- 

vacrOai. 1400 

e'yoj yap ore pep ImnKr) top povp poprj irpocrel^^op, 
ovo oip TpC eiTTelp pijpad^ otd? r' rjp -rrplp 

i^apaprelp ' 
pvpi o', irreLorj p ovTocrl tovtojp enavcrep avrd?, 
ypoipai^ 8e Xe7rrat9 koX k6yoL<; ^vpetpt koL pe- 

pippaL<;, 
olpaL oLod^eLP cu? oiKaiov top naTepa KoXd^etp. 1405 
2t. LTTireve tolpvp, prf At", o)? epoiye KpelTTOP icTTLP 



for />y his ar^u)iieiit (Aeyo^v) hith- 
erto used (884, 892, 121 1, 1334). 

1395. XdpoifMV : = -npiaiixtBa 
buy. 

1396. dW ov8€ : nay, not even. 
— «p«P£v0ou : gen. of price; for 
a pcci . 

1397 ff. The KOf)vcf>(uoi ])re- 
scrihcs for the second half of the 
'AyoW the same "sfiuahl)le "- 
rhythm as before — Kivtird ktc. : 
addressed as Motor and Heavier 
of phrases new, Pheidip. is made 
almost the peer of Poseidon, 
"the wild Uphcaver of the hriny 
Sea" C568). There is probably 



a parody here of Euripides' Medea 

I3'7- 

1399. 6(ii\€iv : to be conversant. 

1400. v6p.(i)v v7rcp({>povciv : the 
ideal also of the modern Ueber- 
mensch. 

1402. TTpCv : without. 

1403. avPTos : this stings. 

1404. Yvufiais. Xdyois. K'^P^f'' 
vats: Hitting througli the whole 
plav, these " winged words " of 
the New Learning now come home 
to roost. For fxepifivat see 1 01, 
420. 952. 

1406. iiriTtDt ToLvvv : note pres- 
ent tense ; ,i,'" on horsc-im:; it then. 



212 API2TO$ANOY2 

iTTTTOiv rpe^eiv ridpiTTTTOv 7] rvTTTOixevov ilTLTpi- 

$e. cKetcre 8', odev aTTe(T)(Lcrd<i /xe, tov \6yov fxereLfXL, 
Kol irpMT ipTJcroiJiaL ere toxttl ' iralod fx' out 

St. eycoye (j\ evvooiv re /cat Kr^Sofxeuo^;. #€. elne 

ov Kafxe (TOL StKaLov ecTTiv evvoelv 6fJLOL(t}<; 

TVTTTeLu t\ iTrethiJTrep ye tovt ear evvoeZv to 

TVTVTeiv ; 
TTw? yap TO fiev crov (rajp^a \pr) TrXrjycov dd(oov elvaL, 
Tovpou Se pyj ; /cat prjv e<^vv i\evdep6<; ye Kayco. 
Kkdovdi TTatSe?, rrarepa S' ov /cXaetv 80/cet? ; 141 5 
(f)y]creL<; vopit^ecrdai crv TiatSo? tovto Tovpyov elvai. 
iyo) 8e' y dvTeiTTOipb av oj? '819 TratSe? ot yipovTe<i 
elKo<i 8e pdWov tov<s yepovra^ rj veovs tl Kkaeiv, 

1407. Tt'Opnnrov : sc. a.pfjua.\ a 1414- ^al |it|v : surely, verily; 
four-in-hand would double the cp. 4, 1036, 1353. 

outlay for the t^vyiot hitherto kept 1415. A trimeter parody on 

(122). Note the play on T and TT ; Eur. Alcest. 694: •^aipti'; opStv 

cp. 6, 1265. <^oj?, irar'pa 8' ov ^atpetv Sokcis ; 

1408. (i<T-€ifii : / will pursue, father and son are there un- 
perhaps should be Vavei/At ,i^o heroically wrangling over the pro- 
dack to iKcta-e tov Xoyov. The priety of the father's dying for the 
sophist] ing thus rebukes his father son. — Sokcis : l/i/nk right, ap- 
for "splitting him off" in the prove (though in Euripides' line 
midst of a formal argument full of it means merely to think), 
there/ores, firstly, secondly, etc., 1416. o-v : to be stressed, of 
as will be noted. Cp. av-eifxi course. — rovp-yov : sc. to tutttc- 
1058, Trdp-ttfu 1075. (rOat. 

1413. TO (TOV o-ajp-a : not to ^4^7- s^w Se ye. as usual, ye 

(Twfjid (TOV, which would put no stresses the word before Se; 169, 
stress on " your." 175, 211, 914, 915, 920. 



NE^EAAI 213 

ocrconep i^afxapTaveLv -^ttou SiKacov avTov^. 1419 
St. aXX' ovOafjiov voixil^eTai top Trarepa tovto Trdcr^eiv. 
$€. ovKovp avrjp 6 tov vopuov 6eL<? tovtov rjv to irpoiTov, 

(ocnrep crv Kayco, /cat Xeycjv enetde tov<; 7rakaLOv<; ; 

TfTTOV TL SrJT e^€(TTL KOLfJiol KaiVOV av TO koLTTOP 

delvai po/xop toI<; vlecnp, tov<; Trarepa? olptl- 
TVTTTeLP : 1424 

0(ja9 Se TrXr]ya<; ei^^ofxep, irplp top pofxop TeOrjpaL, 

d(f)L€ixep, /cat SiSo/xep avTol<; npolKa avyKeKOffidaL. 

aKCipat 8e tov<; dkeKTpv6pa<; /cat rdWa to, ^otcl 
rauTi, 

0)9 Tov<; Trarepa? dp^vpeTai ' /catrot rt oia<^epovcrip 

yjfjLCjp eKelpoL, ttXtJp y otl xprjcfticrixaT ov ypdcftov- 
(TLP ; 
St. tl 6177', iTretSr) tov<; dXeKTpvopa^; dnaPTa /xt/u,et, 1430 

ovK iadieLS /cat tyjp Konpop, /cctTTt ^vXov /ca^ei^Set? ; 

^€. ov TaVTOP, d) TUP, ioTiP, OvS^ dp XcoKpdTei OOKOLr). 

1420. vo\iiX,iTai. : again an ap- 1427 f . a-K€«|/ai, : this call to 
peal to custom, as in 1185. — tov consider nature's beasts and pat- 
irar^pa: with great stress: "old tern life "according to Nature," 
men in general, yes ; but oue's like barnyard fowl, — how often it 
father — no ! " recurs ! 

1421. dv^p : viaii, not a god. 1429. i|/Ti4>(<r(jiaTa : cp. 1019; a 
— v6|iov: Advanced Thought of bitter taunt for Athens' democ- 
that time held that v6\x.o% ro.se by racy — tliat llie difference between 
convention or pact of man (^£o-ei), democratic man and beast is only 
not by will of the gods. Hut if one of decree (or degree !). 
made by men, why not un-made ? 1430 f. Reasoning by analogy 
See also Introd. § 45- is apt to suffer shipwreck on con- 

1426. d<|)-C«|ji«v : with magnani- sistency. 
mous gesture. — (ru-yK(K64>6ai : as 1432. l'heidi|). is fairly beaten ; 

if a substantive; we ^ive them our he too falls liack on authority, on 

pastconltisioii'i (perf U-nsn) i^rat/s. the ipse dixit. 



2 14 api2to4>anoy:* 

St. 77/30? TavTa fxr] tvttt ' el 8e fjcrj, aavTov ttot aiTidaei. 
^€. Kai 77"a»? ; Sr. iirei ere [xev SiVato? eljx' eyo) 
Kokdl^eLv, 
(TV 8', rji> yivy)Tai croi, tov vlov. $€. r)v he fxr) 

yeur)TaL, 1435 

fiaTrfv ifjiOi ;ce/c\aucrerat, cru 8' ey^avatv Tedvrj^ei<^. 
St. e'/xot /xeV, wi^Spe? t^X'Kc?, So/cet Xeyeti' 8t/caia • 
KOLfioiye crvy^oipelv hoKel tovtolctl TaTneiKrj. 
KXaeiv yap r)fxa<? etKo? e'crr', ^t^ yni^ hiKaia Spcofxep. 
$6. <T/<"ev//at Se ^drepoiv en ypcojxyjv. St. ciTro yap 

o\ou^a^. 1440 

#€. /cat fJLrjp L(To)<; y ovk d^6ea-ei iraOuiu a vvv 7Te7rov0a<;. 
St. ttox; Orj : OLoa^op yap, ri ix eK tovtojv eVcu^eXr^'cret?,- 
^e. Tr]v fxriTep' coanep Kal ere TvuTrjco) St. tl f/)^^?, 

TL (l>f)^ (TV ; 

Tovd^ eTepou av fxeZl^ov kukov. $c. tl S', tjp evoji^ 

TOP TjTTdi 

\6yov ae PLKyjact) Xey(oi>, 1445 

1433. irpos ravra: 990. — tl Se will finish him off. — diro-o\ovp.ai : 

(iTJ : otherwise ; i.e. if you set the tmesis, as in 792. — "yap: perhaps 

example of father-heating. best explained here as equiv. to 

1436. e-y-xo-vwv TtOvfjIeis : you its original elements (y' a.p) ; " I 
will have died with the laiti^h on ?,\\^.\\ perish (ye) then (a/au)." 
we (iy-xd(TKw). 1441- Kal (iif|v : and yet ; cp. 

1437. «v8pes TiXiKts : addressing 1185. 

the old men of the audience with 1445-51. One long "Over- 
gravity — productive doubtless of measure" verse (v-n-ep-/xeTpov) ; 
levity. see Introd. § 132 £'. — Kiyuv. the 

1438. TouToio-i : u\ Toi? v£ots. key-tone of the play (Argument, 
1440. erc'pav -yvwpLi]v : the ^rst Reason) is rung once more in 

yviofjLr) had nearly pounded Strep.sy Strepsy's ears. It has become his 
to death ; another one, he thinks, ve[jLccn<;. 



NE^EAAI 215 

Tr)v fJ.r]T€p' w? TVTTTeLu xpecou ; 
St. tl S' dXXo y rj, ravr' r]v vroti^?, 

ovhdv ere KojXvcret creav- 
Tov ifx/SaXelv etg to /SdpaOpou 

* 

fxerd SojKpaTOv;, HS° 

Kol TOU XoyOV TOU rjTTOJ. 

TavTi St' vpd<;, u) Nec^eXat, TreiTOpO' eyw, 

vplv duaOel^ dnavTa rafxa. TrpdyfxaTa. 
Xo. avToq ixeu ovv cravTM av tovtoju atrto?, 

(TTp6\ia<; aeavTov et? Trovrjpd TTpdyp.aTa. i455 

St. tl SrJTa ravr' ov fxoL tot rjyopeveTe, 

aXX' dvhp' dypoiKOP kol yepovT iirrjpiTe; 
Xo. r)ixel<; TTOLOvp.ev TavO' eKdaTod' ovtlv olv 

yucofJiev TTOvrjpwv out ipa(TTr)v Trpay/xaroit', 

ec/j? dv avTov ip/SdXcofxep etg KaKou, 1460 

6V&J9 ai^ ^l^rj Tovq Oeov<; SeSot/ceVat. 
St. djfxoL, TTOvqpd y\ Si Nec^eXat, St/cata oe. 



1446. XP***" = = XP'?- 1453- dva-OcCs: rcfcrrins; ; — 

1447. Tl hi: echoes rt' 8e of lTTnpi\li(i.%. 

1444. Strepsy's wrath is so hot i454- ii-tvovv. nay, rt7//ity ; yi, 

that he snatches the Tri/Tyos-verse 11 12. 

aiivay from his son. — ravra: i455- o-Tp«\|/as : the o/nL/i of 

stressed by position. his )iomcn dawns upon him. 

1449. TO pdpaSpov : the bodies 1456. t6t€ : in the first place. 

of executed criminals were thrown i457- «'ir-T)p€T€: 42. 

into this pit just outside the walls 1458 ff. Clouds prove to be not 

of Athens, literally c? Kopa/<fz?. It always fleecy white, but .sometimes 

wa.s probably an ancient quarry. carriers of Zeus's thunderbolts. 

1451. The second 'Ayoji/ here 1462. When judgment fall.s, 

ends, the ^ttoji/ Aoyo? a;;ain vie- delusion ceases. The comedy lias 

torious. become a tragedy. 



2i6 APl2TO*ANOY2 

ov yap IX ixP^^ ''""■ XPW^^' aSaueLcrdfirju, 
OLTTocrrepelv. vvv ovv otto)?, cu (^tXrare, 
Tov XaLpe(f)covTa Tov fXLapoi> kol %(OKpdTr] 1465 

aTToXet? [xeT ifiov 'Xdcov, ot ere Ka/x' i^r]TTdTcov. 

$€. ctXX' ovK at' dhiKiqcraipLi tov<^ StSacTKaXovs. 

St. t-at t-ai, ' KaratSeV^r^rt Trarpwov Ata. 

$€. tSou ye 'Ata TraTp(ooi> ' • w? d/3;)(aro9 ei. 

Zeu? yap rt? ecTTti' ; St. ecTTLv. §€. ou/c 

ecrr', ov/c, eVet H7o 

Atvo? /SacrtXevet, rot' At' i^€Xr)\aK(o<;. 

St. ov/c i^ekrjXaK, aXX' e'yw roCr' (poixyju 
8(,a rovTot'l Toi^ Stt'ot'. oip.01 oeiXato?, 
ore Kttt ere ^j^vrpeout' ot-ra ^eot' rjyrjaafjiTQv. 

$€. ivTavOa cravTM napaifypopeL Kai (f)Xr]ua(f)a. i475 

St. OLpoL TTapavoLa<; ■ w? ^paLvop.y)v apa, 
OT i^e/SakXov tov<; 6eov^ 8ia ScoKpaTrj. 



1464. oirujs : with aTroAet? ; 257. 1469. Mocks Streps, of v. 818. 

— « <|)iXTaTe : to liis son. 1471 Aivos kt€. : the whole 

1467. Mocking the old man's accursed verse and doctrine back 
words of 834. on Strepsy's head just as he had 

1468. The tragic trimeter (/.c. taught it (828)! 

without resolution of long sylla- i473- tovtov£ : he holds up his 

bles), the long a in Trarpwov. and toper's mug (Slvos) ; see notes on 

the word alS'.ofiai for crifioixaL in- 380, 132 1. 

dicate a tragic parody or quotation 1474- ot€ : causal. 

perhaps of Euripides, since he uses 1475. £'-i// Pheidip , perhaps 

KaTaihioyuiu several times. Athe- to the house of '' Uncle Megacles." 

nians usually appealed rather to By Hypoth. (i' , what follows was 

'AttoAAojv Trarpajos. Here it is written for the second Clouds. 

Zeus, so that another winged word i477- tlePaWov : imperfect 

of Strepsiades may return to flap tense for imperfect action; was 

its raven wings about his ears. for banishing. 



NE<l>EAAI 



217 



dXX', (1) (^iX' 'KpfJLT], fJiTjOaiXO)'? 0VfiaLP€ fXOL, 

fjLiqhe fx inLTptxjjTji;, aXXa avyyvcvfjiyju e^e, 

ifxov 7Tapavo7J(Tai'TO<; dSoXecr^ia* 1480 

/cat /xot yeuov ^vfJi/BovKo'?, etr' avTov^ ypacf)r]i' 

okokolOco ypaxjjdixei>oq, eW o tl croi 8o/<et. 

6pdw% TTapaivei^ ovk eiou OLKoppa(f)€Li>, 

aXX &»9 Ta^LCTT ifJLTnixTrpduaL Trju oLKLav 

Toju dooXecr)(wi>. Sevpo Sevp', oj Ha^'^la, 1485 

/cXt^a/ca Xa(3cou igeXde /cat apuvurjv (pepcov, 

KamiT inapa/Bd'; eVt to (ppouTLcmjpiov 

TO T€yo<; KardcrKaTTT, €t (/)tXet9 tou ^eanoT-qv, 

e'ojs ai' atiTOt? ifx/SdXrj'^ ttjv otKLav 

ijxoi ok oao eVey/cdroj rt? -qfjiixevrju, 1490 

/cdyw Ttt"' avTcov TTjixepov hovvai hiKrjv 

iixol TTOLijaoj, /C€t acfyoSp* €.1(t dXa^di^e?. 



1478. 'EpiiTj : to the stone 
ima;^e before the door ; see 

1482. SiwKaOb) : cp. diivvdOo) 
1323 on formation from hwKw. 

1483. He has put ear to the 
lips of his stone counsellor. — 
8iKoppa4>(lv : the Grecl< " sewin^r " 
of a lawsuit (81V17. pd-n-TU)) is hriiif^- 
'f'J^ it, i^cttiiif^ it up; the En<;. 
" patching up " of a suit is rather 
to effect its compromise. 

1485. &SoX((rxuv : a name often 
given to tlic philosophers by the 
comic poets, carrying the oppro- 
brium of our vulgar word " blath- 



erskite." — Hai/^t'a? is a common 
slave name. 

1489. (|jipd\Y]s KT€. : tionble 
their /muse ahoid their ears. 

1490. Tjiijitviiv : ttTTTo) ; 18. — 
In l)urning thus the Socratic cftpop- 
TKTTrjpLov, Arist. was I)ut staging 
a borrowed historic fact. Perhaps 
only ten or fifteen years before 
tliis a mob had burned the assem- 
bly house ((Tvv-iSpLov) of the fol- 
lowers of Pythagoras in Croton, 
Italy, and many of liis school liad 
perished. 

1492. (r({>68pa : " for d// their 



2i8 APISTO^ANOYS 

MaBiiTTis A 

lov lov, 
St. aou epyov, co Sag, teVat TroWrfu (fyXoya. 
Ma?- dvOpcone, tl TTotets ," St. o rt Trotoi ; ri 8' 

aXXo y' 17 1495 

StaXcTTToXoyoG/Aat rat? SoKot? T179 ot/ctas ,• 

MaBiiTTis B 
otfxoi, Tt's rjfjiwu nvpnoXel rrju oiKtav ; 
St. e/cetvo9, ovnep doifjidTiou elXyjcfiaTe. 

MaSiiTTis r 
(ZTroXet? (XTToXet?. St. tovt auro yap Kat ^ov- 

XofxaL, 
rju rj cryLivuTj fxoL p.rj rrpoSo) Td<? eXTTtoag, 15°° 

T) 'yo) nporepou 7ra>9 eKTpa^rfXicrOM mcrwu. 
So), ovro?, rt Trotet? ireou, ovm tov reyov; ; 
St. depo^aTO) /cat nepLffypouoj rov rjXtou. 
So). OLfjiOL rdXas, oetXato? diroTTViyiqcropiai. 

Xaipe4>ci>v 
eya> 8; KaKohaiixo)v ye KaraKavOrjcroixai. 1505 



1493. lov lovi : from within; quent substitute for the prose 
see too V. 543. word ifx-rriixTrprjfjii of v. 1484. 

1494. From the roof. 1498. OoljidTiov : the various 

1495. The iJM$r)T7]<; rushes threads of the comedy reappear, 
forth. 1499- tovt' awro kt«. : " why 

1496. 8ia-X«ir. : cp. 320 and just //lal it is that I am wtshing 
(for the compound) 8iaAe'yo/iai ; (Kat' emphasizing verb as in 785). 
perhaps = / ajn holding conver- 1503. Streps, echoes from aloft 
subtle-piitation . the words of th e great airos i n 2 2 5 . 

1497. irvpiroXei: a grandilo- 1505. Chaerophon's mask 



NE^EAAI 



219 



St. rt yap ixa$6vT€<; tov'^ deov<; v/Bpil^eTe, 

/cat 717? ScXt^Vt^s icTKonelcrde ttjv ehpav 

' Epixfjs 
oiojKe, ySaXXe, naie, ttoXXcoi' ovueKa, 
p.d\i(jTa S' €t8a>? Tov<; d€ov<; a)<? rjhLKOvv. 
Xo. rjyelad €$co- Ke^opevTai, yap 

fjLeTpLaj<; to ye Tyjfxepov rjfxli'. 



1510 



would be known by its bushy eye- 
brows (146). He echoes -t;o-o/xui 
Irom Socrates. 

1506. t( (jLaOovTCS : cp. 402. — 
uPpil^€T€ : iinpf. ; cp. the next verse. 

1507. Tr\v cSpav : used of the 
heavenly bodies, it means their 
position ; here there is a coarse 
reference to its other sense, sea/, 
to give an instance of the v(ipi<; 
of the philosophers 

1508. Hermes, appealed to in 



1478 and now really appearing 
high above the actors and chorus 
on the ^£o-AoyeToi', or s/ntfe of the 
gods, to superintend the vengeance 
meted out to impiety, would indeed 
have been an effective parody, 
had the play lieen acted, on the 
c/eiis e.v macltina so dear to Eurip- 
ides. 

151 1. (i€Tpiu>s : /// measure \.t. 
enough. Tlie ciiorus retire march- 
ing in anapaests. 



APPENDIX 

ABBREVIATIONS 

The letters A., E., N., V., P., Av., L., Th., R., Ec, and PI. stand 
for the Latin names of Aristophanes' comedies in their chronologic 
order. See Introd. § lo. 

The works to be hereinafter most frequently referred to, chiefly 
by the author's name only, are as follows : 

E. Abboit : Pericles (i2><)\). 

A. J. P. = American Journal of Philology. 

O. Bachm.^xn : Lexici Aristophanei Specimen (Programme, 

Frankfurt, 1884). 
Conjectitrariim Arist. Specimen I (Dissert., Gottiiigen, 1878). 
A. Baumkister : Denkm'dler ties klass. Altertums (1885-88). 
J. Beloch : Griechische Geschichie I (1893), II (1897). 
Berl. phil. Wocli. = Berliner philologische Wochenschrift. 
E. Beihe : Prolegomena zitr Geschichte des Theaters im Altertiim 

(1896). 
K. Brlgmann : Griechische Grammatik^ (1900). 
Bull, de corr. Hell. = Bulletin de correspondance Jlellenique. 
J. B. Bury : History of Greece (1900). 
Ci. BusoLT : Griechische Geschichte I-III (1893-1904). 
W. Chris'i : Metrik der Griechen und Romer' (1879). 
CHRisi-ScHMn> : Geschichte der griechischen Littcratur'' (1908). 
Class. Phil. = Classical Philology (Chicago). 
Class. Rev. = Classical RcTiew (London). 
A. CouAT : Aristophane et Tancienne comedie Attique (1889). 
M. Croiset : Aristophane et les partis a Athcnes ( 1 906). 
H. DiEi.s : Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker^ (1903). 
\\ . DriTENBERGER: Syllogc Inscriptionum Graecarum- (1898- 

1901). 

221 



222 APPENDIX 

L. R. Farnell : Cults of the Greek States, vols. 3 and 5 (1907). 
P. FoucART : Des associations religieuses chez les Grecs (1873). 
E. N. Gardiner : Greek Athletic Sports (19 10). 
Gard.-Jev. : Manual of Greek Antiquities (1895) by P. Gardner 

and F. B. Jevons. 
GS. : Syntax of Classical Greek (1900) by B. L. Gildersleeve ; 

cited by paragraph. 
H. Gleditsch : Metrik der Griechen und R'dmer^ (i9oO- 
T. GoMPERZ : Greek Thinkers, Engl, translat., I (1901), II (1905). 
GMT.: Greek Moods and Tenses (1890) by W. W. Goodwin; 

cited by paragraph. 
A. E. Haigh : The Attic Theatre - (1898). 
J. E. Harrison : Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion ^ 

(1908). 
K. F. Hermann : Lehrbuch der gr. Privatalterthiimer, rev. by H. 

Blumner (1882). 
A. Holm : History of Greece, Engl, translat., II (1895). 
E. W. Hope : The Laiiguage of Parody (Dissert., Johns Hopkins 

Univ., 1905). 
Jbb.f klass. Phil. = Jahrbiicher fur klassische Pliilologie. 
J. U.S. = Journal of Hellenic Studies. 
Th. Kock : Comicorum Atticorutn Fragmenta (1880-88). 
K.Z. = Kuhn's Zeitschrift filr vergleichende Spraciforschung. 
K.-Bl. = Gramniatik der griechischen Sprache by R. Kiihner, 

Part I revised by F. Blass (1890-92). 
K.-G. = op. cit., Part II revised by B. Gerth (1898-1904). 
O. Lautensach : Grammat. Studien zu den griech. Tragikern iind 

Komikern ; Augment u. Reduplic. (1899). 
J. VAN Leeuwen : Enchiridium Dictionis Epicae (1894). 
Prolegomena ad Aristophanem (1908). 
edit. Aristophanes' comedies complete (i 893-1 906). 
1'. Mazon : Essai sur la composition des comedies d' Aristophane 

(1904). 
E. Meyer : Geschichte des Altertums II (1893), IV (1901). 
A. MoMMSEN : Feste der Stadt Athen (1898). 



ABBREVIATIONS 223 

R. A. Neil: edit. Aristophanes' Knights (1901). 

W. Nesi LE : Euripides der Dichter der griechischen Aufkldrung 

(1901). 
M. P. Nii>;soN : Die Kaiisalsatze im Griechischen, Heft 18 of M. 

Schanz's Beitriige zur histor. Syntax der gr. Sprache (1907). 
C. W. Peppler : Comic Terminations in Aristophanes (Dissert., 

Johns Hopkins Univ., 1902). 
Phil. = Philologus, Zeitschrift fiir das klass. Altertum. 
Plutarch : Lives, cited by chapters. 

Moralia, cited by the pages of Xylander's edition. 
Rh. M. = Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie. 
H. Richards : Aristophanes and Others (1909). 
H. Rm ER and L. Preller : Historia Philosophiae Graecae * 

(1898). 
E. S. Roberts and E. A. Gardner : Introd. to Greek Epigraphy, 

Part II (1905). 
A. Roemer : Studien zu Aristophanes, I Teil (1902). 
E. RoHDE : Psyche^' {\()Q-^. 

A. Rossbach : Griechische Metrik'^ (1889). 

J. H. W. ScHMiD'j : Die Kunst/ormen der griechischen Poesie, 

vol. 2 (1869). 
O. Schwab: Histor. Syntax der griech. Comparation, Band IV of 

M. Schanz's Beitriige etc. (1893-95). 
C. Situ,: Die Gebdrden der Griechen und Romer (1890). 
H. \\ . Smvih : Greek Meiic Poets'^ (190C). 
S. SoBoLEWSKi : De Praepositionum Usu Aristophaneo (1890). 
Syntaxis Aristophaneae Capita Selecta (1891). 

B. Speck : De Aristophanis Dialecto (Dissert., Breslau, 1878). 
W. j. M. SiARKiE : edit. Aristophanes' Wasps (1897) and Achar- 

n id lis ( 1909). 
W. S. Teukkel : Stiidiin und Charakteristiken zur gr. und rom. 

Litterutun^eschichte ( 1 87 1 j. 
'rEUiKKL-KAEiM.i-.i< : fdit. Aristophanes' Clouds (1887). 
T. (1. 'I'ucKEk : edit. .Aristophanes' Frogi (1906). 
11. W'EiiEk : .iristophanische Studien {\c)o^). 



224 APPENDIX 

J. Wehr : Quaestiones Aristophaneae (Dissert., Gottingen, 1869). 
L. Whibley : Political Parties in Athens during the Peloponnesian 

lVar(iS8c)). 
U. WiLAMowiTZ-MoELLENDORFF : Honier. Untersuchungen (1884). 

Aris to teles und Athen (1893). 

Die Textgeschichte der gr. Lyriker (1900). 

Timotheos, Die Perse r (1903). 
K . Zach er : A ristopha nessiudien (1898). 

E. Zeller : Die Philosophie der Griechen I^ (1892), II* (1889). 
T. ZiELiNSKi : Die Gliederung der altattischen Komddie (1885). 

The chief recent annotated editions of the Clouds are those of 
Teuffel-Kaehler (1887), Blaydes (1890), Kock (1894), and van 
Leeuwen (1898). 

NOTES ON THE INTRODUCTION 

I. The Vitae Aristophanis are to be found in Diibner, Kaibel, 
van Leeuwen, and the editions of Bergk and Meineke. | For the 
schoHa on his life see Diibner's index. | Beside mention in Plato 
Apol. 19 c, whereon there is a valuable scholium, Arist. is one of 
the guests in Plato's Symposium. \ Passages more or less personal 
begin at Arist. A. 377, 502, 628, E. 507, N. 518, V. 1016, 1284, 

P- 734- 

3. The Vita XI (Diibner) begins : 'Api<TTo<f)dvr]<; 6 kw/awSottoios 

Trarpo? fxev ^v 'PlXlttttov, to Se yivo<; 'Adrjvalos, twv Srjfioiv Kv8a6r]vai€v<;, 
IluvSioi/tSos <{>v\rj<;. Suidas' Lexicon, s.v. ^ KpL(TTO(j>a.vr)^ : 'PoSos 
r/Tot AtV8ios, 01 hi. AlyvTTTLov t(f>acrav, ol Se K.ajX€ipea, deaei 8 Adrjvaio^, 
eiro\iToypu(f>i]6r] yap Trap' uuTOis. | Kydathenaion : 8^/x,os eV acrr£t 
T^s IlavStoi'tSos <fiv\?]<; (schol. on Plato Symp. 173 b). W. Judeich 
Topographic von Athen (1905) 159 supposes it may have embraced 
the Acropolis and reached as far north as the Eridanus. | Birth- 
year of Arist. : van Leeuwen Prolegg. 39 and Starkie Ach. XI in- 
cline to 451, the year of Pericles' bill recognizing as citizens only 
those born of parents both of whom were Athenians (Aristot. Ath. 
Pol. 26. 3, Plut. Peric. 37). This might explain the doubt on the 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 225 

poet's citizenship, and the ypa4>i) ^en'as said to have been brought 
against him by Cleon. | Country-joys are dwelt on especially in 
the peace-plays, as A. 32, 198, 245, 268, 872, 1005 ; P. 525, 550, 
565. 587. 634, 765, 975> 1000; reojpyot' frgg. 100, 107, 109. 
See also E. 805, N. 43, N^o-oi frg. 387, and Busolt 3. 925. | Arist.' 
bdyhood passed in the country : so Croiset 14-1 7 and van Leeuwen 
Pro/eg^. 13, basing perhaps on Thuc. 2. 14. | That A. 652-54 
proves the poet's possession of land in Aegina is the opinion of 
W. Christ Gesch. der gr. Lit?' 248, Meyer 4. 313, Busolt 3. 1061, 
Croiset 13, Starkie ad loc, basing on schol. to Plato Apol. 19 c, 
KaTt.K\rjpwcre Sc kol ttjv Ai'ytvav, ws WeoyeVijs (^rjcnv iv tco irepl Aiytvi/s- 

It is held however by schol. on A. 654 and by Romer 125, not to 
mention many others, that the Ac/i. passage refers to Callistratus. 
Christ-Schmid 393 leaves the question open. 

4. Why was not Arist. the 8tSao-KaAo5 of his first play ? Answers 
vary : because of his modesty, say those who take E. 5 1 2-45 and 
N. 530 f. seriously; because too young legally to receive a chorus 
(schol. N. 510) ; because a foreigner (van Leeuwen F('s/>. XII) ; 
because a coward " safe crouched behind a name, Philonides or 
else Callistratus, i)ut forth wiien danger threatened " ( Browning 
Aristophanes' Apology, with the amenity due a brother poet !) ; 
because he was rich, or had jUKpo<l>wvLa like So])hocles, or . . . etc. 
I That the Banqueters was brought out Sta KaAAio-r/aaTou is stated 
in Proleg^. de Comoedia III (Diibner p. xv 50 = Bergk p. xxxii 
§ 12). Philonides is thought the more probable 8i8aaKuA.os by 
Kock {Nub. 531) and Teuf.-Kaehl. 4. But Weber 95-108 regards 
the play as a political rather than a moral satire, aimed at such 
rhetorical ttoKltikoC as Thrasymachus. If then Protege;, de Com. 
{I.e.) is correct in further reporting that Arist. intrusted his j)olitical 
comedies to Callistratus, and those aimeil at Euripides and 
Socrates to Philonides, it follows that Callistratus brought out 
the Banqueters. 

5. Arist. refers to the Banqurlrrs and its results for him in A. 
502 f., 642 {L ; see also schol. on A. 378. | The poet prosecuted 
was Arist., say l-'ritzsche, Bergk, A. Miiller, Ril)beck, Cobet, Capps, 

ARisiui'iiANKs — 15 



226 APPENDIX 

Fr. Leo, Kaibel, Meyer 4. 377, Busolt 3. 1061, Haigh 73, Croiset 
73, Starkie Ach. p. 247 (where see list of disputants and passages 
cited) ; was rather Callistratus (or Philonides), say C. F. Hermann, 
Petersen, Kock, Mtiller-Striibing, Briel, Wilhehn, Reisch, Romer 
(see Starkie I.e.). \ Penalty of the suit : discussed by Croiset 
78-80. 

6. The tradition of a ypa4>r] ^enas (schol. Ac/i. 378, V/fa XI li. 
27 Diibner= Bergk XII § 4) is rejected by J. Kirchner (^P7-osopo- 
graphia Attica), Romer (130), Busolt (3. 1061), Christ-Schmid 
(393) ; is held probable by Croiset (143): is matter of conviction 
with van Leeuvven {Prolegg. 39). Van Leeuwen's theory is this : 
the poet's stock was Aeginetan — note Pindar's third Nemean in 
honour of the Aeginetan Aristocleides, son of an Aristophanes. His 
father Philip sided with Athens in the war which. began c. 488, and 
was one of those who migrated to Attica then (Hdt. 6. 90) or 
later in 458. He was admitted to citizenship, his wife remain- 
ing Aeginetan. Pericles' bill requiring for citizenship that both 
parents be Athenians was passed in 451. If now the poet was 
born before 451, his citizenship could not be challenged ; if born 
later, his alienship was no less certain; if born just in 451, his 
status might be matter of doubt. In 431, Aegina being cleared 
of its inhabitants and occupied by Athenians, PhiHp claimed his 
old patrimony, and thus the passage in Ach. refers to Arist. and 
not to Callistratus. 

7. From the vtzoQiuwi we know that Ach., Av., and Lys. were 
brought out by Callistratus, the Vesp. and Ran. by Philonides. 
Callistratus also had in charge AatraAiJs {Prolegg. de Com. Ill 50 
Diibner) and Ba/8vAwvtoi (Suidas) ; Philonides taught Ilpoaytov 
(Hyp. Vesp.), 'A/xc^id/jews (Hyp. Av}), and probably Nub. (Diibner 
Prolegg. de Com. Ill 52). Arist. himself is the official poet only 
iox Eq., Pax {T), and Plut., though this list also is questioned 
{^Vita XI 80 Dubner = Bergk XII § 12). | Were Callistratus and 
Philonides poets or only actors? Vita XII § 15 Bergk (= Diib- 
ner p. xxviii footnote) speaks of them as vvoKpirai ; but Vesp. 
1018 honours them with the name of poet. For sufficient discus- 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 227 

sion see Teuf.-Kaehl. 5 and Starkie Vesp. p. 309. | Note that 
other poets sometimes employed 8t8aa-KaAoi ; e.g. EupoHs exhibited 
Autolycus hw. ArjfxocTTpdTov (Athen. 216 ^/), and Eubulus made use 
of Phih}) son of Arist. as SiSao-KaAo? (schol. Plat. Apo/. 19 fi). 

8. lyp :n//e Se Spafjuara fxB , <l)v dvTtAeyerat reacrapa ws ovk ovra avTOV 
{Vita XI 85 Diibner = Bergk XII § 13). | On the son Araros : 
Hyp. IV Plut., Prolegg. de Com. (Dubner) XI 77, XII 36, XIII 16, 
XV 21. 

9. The name of the third son was Nicostratus {Vitae XI 79, 
XII 43 Dubner) or Philetaerus (Suidas, schol. Plat. Apol. 19 c). \ 
Arist. bald : E. 550, N. 540, P. 767 ff., Eupol. 78. 

10. Names of all comedies by Arist. : Teuf.-Kaehl. 3 f., Kock 
Com. Fragm. \ Arguments of the extant comedies: Teuf.-Kaehl. 
8-19, Christ-Schmid 395-410, W. C. Wright Hist. Grk. Lit. 

284-303- 

12. Rhythms of Arist.: Rossbach 3. 2. 799 ff. | Diction: 
Tucker Ran. xxxiv — Ivi. | Love of Nature: Croiset 15, Busolt 
3.9215. I Pathos: exx. in A. 810 (starving Megarian takes " this 
one fig"), V. 291-315 (boy-escort pleads for figs), L. 596 f. 
(woman's bloom is brief), PI. 281 f., 535 ff. | Structure of plays: 
so varied and supple as to be the despair of formalists. They 
would beg him, as Trygaeus begs the dancers in Pax 323, " not 
to spoil the thing by his capers " (fi-qSapiw^ . . . Trpayfia kolXXkitov 
8La<f>6€ipr)Te 8ia ra fr;(r//xaTaj ; but like those dancers either his left leg 
or his right 7c>i// break loose to fling one more hea.ven-h\gh pas. — 
Thus his " IlaooSo? " is not always an entering song. In Nui>. the 
chorus sing it before entrance, in Thesm. they suddenly are pre- 
sented to view without either entry or song, in Eccl. they sing 
their first song not as they file in but file out. — Nor are the choirs 
always half-choirs (12 in each), singing in responsion ; see R. 
Arnoldt Die Chorparticn hei Arist. (1873) 178 on (e.g.) Thesm. 
1136-59, and Zielinski 275 for Ran. 399-416. — Nor does P. 
Mazon believe that the "'Aymv" (woni-duel ) need be cast in the 
rigorous mould re(|uired by Zielinski; I'lssai \i. 5: "la comtidie 
grecque est faile d'unc succession rdguliere de cadres souples et 



2 28 APPENDIX 

non d'une succession incoherente de cadres rigides." He thus 
finds an aywv not unsymmetrical in A. 490-625, N. 358-475, Th. 
372-530, where Ziehnski found no dywi' at all (or at most but frag- 
ments due to revision or corruption), because these passages were 
not of the stereotyped form seen in E. 756-941, N. 950-1104, 
Av. 451-638. I Wit of Arist. : Teuf.-Kaehl. 23 f., Starkie Ac/i. 
xxxviii — Ixxiv. The latter elaborately classifies Aristophanic jests 
by the Aristotelian scheme found in Pro/egg. de Coin. X d Dlibner 
(= Bergk XI = van Leeuwen Prolegg. 192 f.). 

13-14. Comic portraiture in Arist.: Teuf.-Kaehl. 28; S. H. 
Butcher Aristotle's Theory of Poetry and Fine Art^ ch. 10, espe- 
cially 379 i.\ Ivo Bruns Das literar. Portrdt der Griechen (1896) 
150 ff. 

16. The climax of Athens' power is variously dated from 460 
B.C. (seizure of Naupactus) to 447 (just before defeat at Coronea). 

17. Cleisthenes : Hdt. 5. 66 ff., Aristot. Ath. Pol. 20 ff. | Size 
of Attica : 975 square miles (Baedeker's Greece) ; estimates vary 
above and below this. | Dependence of the other cities upon 
Athens : at the time of the Samian apostasy 440 B.C., only three 
allies — Chios, Lesbos, and Samos — maintained their own ships 
and paid no tribute ; Thuc. i. 19, 3. 10 ; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 24. 2. 

I For Pericles' ideal (but unrealized) city see his funeral oration 
(Thuc. 2. 35 ff., especially 41. 4). | Gold mines of Thrace : Thuc. 
I. 10 1, Meyer 4. 28-31 ; for the silver mines of Laurium see 
Thuc. 6. 91. 7, Hdt. 7. 144, Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22. 6, Plut. Them. 
4, Nic. 4, Xen. Mem. 3. 6. 12, Vect. 4, Strabo 399 y?«. 

18. For Pericles' dreams see Plut. Peric. 11. 4 f., 12, 14. i, 
15. 2. I Athens covetous of power in the Euxine (Plut. Peric. 
21. I, Arist. V. 700), Caria (Arist. E. 173 f.), Cyprus (Thuc. 
I. 112, Plut. Cim. 18. 4 ff.), Egypt (Thuc. i. 104, 112), Sicily 
and Tuscany (Plut. Peric. 20. 3), Sardinia (Arist. V. 700), Carthage 
(Plut. Peric. 20. 3, Arist. E. 173 f., 1303 f.), Gibraltar (Plut. Nic. 
12). I Supreme insolence (vfipis) shown, for example, toward the 
Melians (Thuc. 5. 89) ; also in displaying the tribute and orphans 
in the orchestra of the theatre at the Dionysia in the presence of 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 229 

the allies (Isoc. 8. 82 f.). tUt^l tol K6po<; vfipiv (Theogn. 153). 

vfipl'i <l>VTi.VtL TVfMVVOV (Soph. O. T. 2)"] T,). 

19. Athenian oppression is minimized by Grote (ch. 47 mid.); 
but see Holm 2. 218, Wilamow. Phil. Unters. i. 73-76 on 
<f>povpupxoi, tiria-KoiroL, KXyjTrjpt<i, imixeXr] rat established Over depen- 
dencies ; also ps.-Xen. Jiep. Ath. i. 14 18, Harpocr. s.v. iTrL(TKoiro<: 
quoting Antiphon, Bekk. Afiecd. 254 c iruTKiirTai, Thwc. passi/n s.v. 
<f>povpiov and (f>povpe2v, and the words of Pericles and of Cleon in 
Thuc. 2. 63. 2, 3. 37. 2, also 3. 10. 5, Aristot. A//i. Pol. 24. 2, 
Busolt 3. 224-28. The oppression must have been considerable 
and notorious to have drawn such heavy fire from the comic poets ; 
see Arist. Ba|8t'Awvtot, V. 237, Av. 147, 1022, 1050, 1422, Eupol. 
IldAtis especially frg. 233. | Hatred of Athens universal : Isoc. 
8. 77-79. I Corruption of character by vvar : Thuc. 3. 82 f. | 
Ambition of Pericles : Plut. Peric. 7. 

20. Peloponnesian war a conflict between democracy and 
oligarchy (Whibley 34) ; its cause, Sparta's fear of Athens' growing 
power (Thuc. i. 23, 33, 86), or Athens' resolve to maintain her 
naval empire (Bury 397). | 'I'he "sycophants" or false informers 
and blackmailers : Xen. Convh. 4. 30, Plut. Nic. 2 fin., 4 ined., 5 
init., Meyer 4. 141-43. | Fear of tyranny : Thuc. 6. 27. 3, 6. 28. 2 ; 
Arist. V. 498 ff., L. 619. 

21. Invasions of Attica took place in 431, 430,428, 427,425, and 
413 B.C., when finally Decelea was seized and permanently occu- 
pied by the Lacedaemonians ; Thuc. 2. 19, 2. 47, 3. 1,3. 26, 4. 2, 
7.19. I Athens crowded with country-folk : Thuc. 2. 17. 1-3, 2. 52. 
2-3, Arist. A. 72, E. 792 f., Busolt 3. 926. | Athens a fortress — 

tkVTl Toil TToAlS iJ.VdL (f>pOVpl()V KllTOTTq IhuC. "] . 28. 1, ISOC, 

8. 92. I (Quarter-million human beings inside Athens' walls : Beloch 
/?/> Bcvdlkenini^ der ,(;>:- ro in. ll't/f 54 ff, J/isf. i. 404, Bury 378, 
870, Starkie Ae/i. XVI. | City full of corpses : Thuc. 2.52. | Moral 
effect of the i)lague : 'I'huc. 2. 53. | Cimon's policy of dual head- 
ship : Plut. Ciin. 16 fin., Bury 342-45, ]^)US(jlt 3. 256. 

23. Cleavage of opinion crosswise and lengthwise : not all 
noblemen were oligarchic, nor all conservatives ignorant ; some 



230 APPENDIX 

old men were radical, some city-people religionists ; no working 
majority was left on any subject. Meyer 4. 148 ff., 420 ff. 

24. Two or three thousand citizens slain on each expedition : 
Aristot. Ath. Pol. 26. i, Isoc. 8. ^'&. \ No ^ev7;Aacrta in Athens : 
Thuc. 2. 39. 1. I Citizenship not too strictly guarded : Isoc. I.e., 
Busolt 3. 337 f., Meyer 4. 11-14. 

25. Moral ruin resulting from war : Thuc. 3. 82 f., Meyer 
4. 345 f., 417 f. Note the falling off of Athenian respect for 
sacred precincts between 446 b.c. at Brea, and 424 at Delium 
(C. L. Hicks Man. of Grk. Hist. Itiscripp. No. 29, Busolt 3. 
417 f., Thuc. 4. 97 f.). Compare also Athens' oath in 445 B.C., 
to deal honourably and justly by Chalcis with her condemnation of 
the Lesbians in 427, and her butchery of the Melians in 415 (Hicks 
No. 29, Busolt 3. 433, Thuc. 3. 36, 5. 116). — Beloch, however 
(i. 594 f.), finds no moral deterioration resulting from the war 
but only a letting loose of passions previously there but asleep. 

26. Athens a democracy in name, but in fact toO irpwrov di'S/ao? 
apxrj Thuc. 2. 65. 9; cp. Telecl. 42, Plut. Peric. 15 /;///., 16. | 
Athenians pensioners : Plato Gorg. 5 15 <? aKovm \if.piKkka ireTroirjKevai 
AdrjvaLOv; apyov<; Koi SetXous kol XdXov<; Koi (jiiXapyvpovq, eh pnado- 
(ftopuiv TTpwTOf KaTaa-Tr'icruvTu. | The hr]p.oKpaTut almost an 6)(\oKpaTLa : 
ps.-Xen. Rep. Ath. 2. 9 f., Meyer 4. 371-73. | Pericles' great debt 
to Anaxagoras : Plut. Peric. 4 Jin., 8 init. \ Pericles as dema- 
gogue : Plut. Peric. 9 nied. vireiroulTo tov Srjfiov, 1 1 med. tw S'^/juo 
Tas riVLu<; dvets o UepiKXr/^ eVoAiTCucTo Trpos X'^P'-^' Beloch I. 466 
(Pericles) " hatte ein sehr feines Gefiihl flir das, was die offentliche 
Meinung verlangte." Meyer 4. 48 (Pericles) "hat, um sich zu 
behaupten, dem Parteiprogramm erst recht bedenkliche Conces- 
sionen machen miissen." | Destruction of the court of the Areop- 
agus : Plut. Peric. 7 Jn., 9 fin., Cim. 15 med., Aristot. Ath. Pot. 
27. I, Polit. 1274 a 8. I On Pericles and his policy in general, 
see Busolt 3. 246-55, 261-95, Couat 130-41, Beloch i. 466 ff., 
Aristot. Ath. Pol. 27. 3 f., Plut. Peric. 9. Some of his policies 
were as follows: (i) all offices of state and jury service thrown 
open to all citizens with pay (Aristot. Polit. 1274 a 8, Ath. Pol. 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 231 

27. 4, Plut. Peric. 9, Bury 349, Abbott 135); (2) cleruchies (Plut. 
LCf Bury 365, Abbott iii, 135, 286); (3) allies to be kept well in 
hand (Bury 362, 382, Abbott 130 f., 156-59); (4) league-money 
to be used to adorn Athens (Plut. Peric. 12-14, Bury 364, 373, 
Abbott 135-39) ; (5) splendour of festivals increased, and theoric 
fund established (Plut. Peric. 9, Holm 2. 204, Busolt 3. 264 f.). 
That Pericles instituted the theoric fund is doubted by Beloch 2. 
360 and Bury 587. | Final judgment on Pericles : Thuc. 2. 65, 
Meyer 4. 47-50, Busolt 3. 984-86. 

27. Change in Pericles after winning undisputed control : Plut. 
Peric. 15. I Deterioration of popular leaders after Pericles: Thuc. 
2. 65. 6-10, Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28. i, schol. Arist. P. 681, Beloch 

1. 476; also of generals: Eupol. 100, 117, 205, Meyer 4. 378 f., 
Starkie Ach. XVII. 

28. ps.-Xen. Rep. Ath. 2. 8 iirtira <f>wvr]v Tracrav aKOvovT€<; 
i^eKe^avTO tovto jxkv €k Trjs, tovto Sk €k t^s ' Kal ol /xkv EAAt^vcs I6:n 
ftaWov Kal <f>(i)vr] koL BiuiTp Kal (T')(fijxaTi ^(pwvTaL, ' Adrjvaloi Se KtKpa- 
fxivq i$ aTrdvTwv tu)v 'EX\i]v<jjv Kal (SapfSdpwv. Beloch I. 591. | Comic 
specimens of bad "Athenian": Arist. P. 291, Th. looi ff. 
(Scythian), Av. 1615, 1628, 1678 (Triballian), A. 100, 104 (Per- 
sian), 729 ff. and 860 ff. (Doric and Boeotian); Timotheus' Per- 
sians 162 {f. Xenophon's .*\ttic is held to be impure because of 
his long sojourns abroad. 

29. On dress: ps.-Xen. /c, Thuc i. 6, Beloch i. 591, Iwan 
V. Miiller Griech. Privataltcrtr (1893) 97 ff., Gard.-Jev. 49-67 ; 
note on Nub. 984 infra. 

30. Importation of luxuries : Thuc. 2. 38, ps.-Xen. Re/>. Ath. 

2. 7, 2. II, Herniip. 63, Meyer 4. 53 f., Beloch i. 397, Wilamow. 
Phil. Unters. i. 76. | Peacocks: Starkie on Ach. 63, Antiph. 175 
(K. 2. 83), Athen. 654<jr-55^, 397^-98 A. | "Coddled" school- 
children : Arist. N. 965, 987. | A round of processions and festi- 
vals in Athens: Thuc. 2. 38, ps.-Xen. Rep. Ath. 2. 9, Plut. Peric. 
II. See Cratinus' MaA^a«oi for general effeminacy of the age. 

31. Cleon's bad manners: Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28, Plut. TV/r. 8, 
Arist. \. 381, K. 137, V. 36, 596, 1034. His impudence pleased 



232 APPENDIX 

the people; see the anecdote in Plut. Nic. 7 fin. \ Neither Tri- 
ballian nor " specialized " pettifogger knew how to drape his hima- 
tion: Arist. Av. 1567-71, Plato Thcaet. 175 e. \ Children ill-bred: 
Arist. N. 981, 993, 998. 

32. Odeum : Busolt 3. 469. | Music developed but degenerate : 
Pherecr. 145, Athen. 632 a b quoting Aristoxenus, Meyer 4. 
179-82, Smyth liii-lv, Ivii, Ixvi f. | The dithyramb to TraXaiov 01 
iX^vdcpoi exo/jci'jv auTot (ps.-Aristot. Problems 19. 15). | Phrynis : 
see note on v. 971 infra. \ Timotheus : Christ-Schmid 241 f., 
Smyth 137 f., 462-65, Wright Hist. Grk. Lit. 133-36; for the 
1 1 -stringed lyre see Wilamow. Tiinothcos 74. 

33. Music a mere ear-tickling : Plato Gorg. 501 ^-502 a. \ Social 
singing wanes: Arist. N. 1357-60. | Older music and poets pass- 
ing: Arist. N. 966-70, 1355-72, V. 220, 269, R. 1304-07, Eupol. 
139, Antiph. 85 (K. 2. 45), Wilamow. Textgcsch. 11-14, Jebb 
Bacchylides 52 ff. | (Inesippus: Athen. 638 ^/-39 a (=Chion. 4, 
Crat. 15,97,256, Telecl. 16 ( ?), 34, Hermip. 45 (?), Eupol. 139). 

34. Confusion of lyric types : Plato Legg. 700 ; Christ-Schmid 
235-38. I Euripides Troir/r?;? prjfjiaTLwv 8iKavt<0.v Arist. p. 534. His 
dechne from tragic level: Arist. R. 939-43^ 949-52, 971-88; 
Christ-Schmid 329, 364. 

35. Parodies of Kinesias, for example, in ^v. 1372-1400; of 
cyclic poets in general, JVtib. 335-38. ] Of Timotheus it may be 
true that his originality lay rather in music, and that in his poetry 
he but followed tradition and the trend of his times, his meta- 
phors, for example, being hardly more enigmatic than others by 
his predecessors. But when he sows these metaphors " with the 
sack and not with the hand," when almost every phrase is a strain 
for some "effect," who is not reminded of MoWtre' s Precieuses 
Ridicules? When he calls a ship's oars its "mountain-feet" 
(oupeiW? TToSa?, because made of the mountain-grown fir), when 
thole-pins are for him " niarhle-shiniiig children " (/Aap/xapo<^£Yyets 
TraTSa?) which have "leaped out of the mouth" when crushed in 
battle (frro/Auro? e'^VyXXoi/ro) , when the sea strewn with wreckage and 
dead bodies seems tu hiin "starry" (KuTacrrtpos ttoi/tos), can we 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 233 

say that the ridicule is not deserved in Arist. N. 333 ff. ? See note 
on § 100. La Bruyere says of those who frequented the Hotel 
Rambouillet : "They left to the vulgar the art of speaking intelli- 
gibly ; a phrase, not over clear, expressed before them, was sure to 
bring on another still more obscure, which was at last followed by 
positive enigmas, always greeted with the plaudits of the whole 
circle. ... To take part in these discussions one wanted neither 
good sense, memory, nor capacity, but esprit, not of the best or 
most genuine, but of the falsest kind." — It appears that here, 
too, the Greeks were precursors of the moderns. 

36. Yox " resolutions " in tragic trimeter see Christ Aletrik 

§ 378. 

37. Aeschylus neglected, and Euripides enthroned, at least with 
the youth: Arist. N. 1367, 1371, R- 771-78. Note that accord- 
ing to Couat 339 Arist. parodies no less than thirty- three of 
Euripides' tragedies — a pointless thing, had he not counted on 
the acquaintance of the public with the originals. 

38. Bankruptcy of poetry at end of fifth century b.c. : Christ- 
Schmid 236. | Strabo 18(1. 2. 6) avro Se to -ntZjav \(.^r]vai tov avtv 
Tor fj.tTpov Koyou ifx<f>Mi/ei tov oltto ui/'ous Ttvo<i KarafSiivTa kui o_i^r/|U,aTOS 
eis Tov8i(f)o<;. \ On "Art for art's sake" : Meyer 4. 160 (Euripides) 
" ist stolz auf sein Denken, auf seine geistige Superioritat " — 
" nur zu oft ist ihm das Einfache zu einfach, und er greift zum 
Unnatiirlichen." 

39. Professionalism anfl specialization of athletes : Gardiner 
ch. 6, Gard.-Jev. 322. | Meat-diet introduced in fifth century: 
Gardiner 126. | Over-development of special parts, as legs or 
shoulders: Xen. Conviv. 2. 17. | Overeating i)roverbial : Xen. 
Mem. I. 2. 4, Aristot. Nic. Eth. 2. 6. 7 (= 1 106 /^ 3), Arist. P. T)?, f-» 
Athen. 412 f | i8u!>T7)<i vs. oBX-qTy)'; : Xen. Mem. 3. 12. i. | High 
rewards : Plato Rep. 620 b, Apol. 36 d. \ General condemnation 
of athletics : Xenophanes frg. 2 (liergk"), Eur. frg. 282 (Nauck), 
Plato Rep. 404 rt, 41 1 c c/, .Aristot. /W/A 1335 h, Arist. N. 1002, 1054, 
R. 1087. I (gymnasia deserted : Arist. N. 1054, R. 1070; or fre- 
quented by "chatterers" such as Socrates : Xen. Mem. i. i. 10. | 



234 



APPENDIX 



Alcibiades, a devotee of the turf, entering seven chariots at the 
Olympian races of 416 B.C., and winning therein three prizes: 
Thuc. 6. 16. 2, Phit. Alcib. i r. | Of the Sophists everyone writes — 
(]rote ch. 67, Zeller, Gomperz, Meyer 4. 253-72, Beloch i. 630-37, 
Bury 385-89. 

40. Rhetorical training in Athens in fifth century : F. Blass 
Attische Bcreihamkeit d.m\ R. C. Jebb Attic Orators — the open- 
ing chapters of each ; for briefer treatment see Christ-Schmid 
510-18, Adams' Lysias 13-31, 344-57. 

41. " Reflection supersedes authority " — " Not old Herodotus 
himself escaped the spirit of his age" (Gomperz i. 408. f.). | 
Education of the individual : Meyer 4. 249-53. | Aoyicr/Aos, o-k€i//15 : 
Arist. R. 973-75. I Athenian esprit : A. W. Verrall Euripides the 
Rationalist (1895) 90 f., quoting Thuc. 3. 38 ("Athenians pride 
themselves on applauding a subtlety before it is out, catching the 
sense before it is spoken"). | tl Aeyet? av ; Arist. N. 11 74. | 
Protagoras-debate : Plut. Peric. 36. Alcibiades on Law : Xen. 
Mem. I. 2. 40-46. 

42. Culture anti-democratic : Meyer 4. 423. 

44. TravToJV )(pr)iJ.dT(DV filrpov av$puiiro<i. o'la fxiv eKaara ifiol 
cf)aLveTaL, TOiavra /xeV iariv ifioi, ola 8k trot, Toiuura 8c av aoi (Plato 
Theaet. 152 a). \ Euripides-anecdote: Plut. Moral. 33 c ( = 
Eur. frg. 19 N.) ; cp. also Athen. 582 d. 

45. <^ucris vs. $ecn<: : Plato Gorg. 483 f., Protag. 337 ^/, Xen. 
Mem. 4. 4. 14, Diog. Laert. 2. 16 (Archelaus said to BiKaiov dvai 
/cat TO alcrxpiv ov <f>v<Tei, dAXa vo/xco), Eur. //ec. 800 f. vo/ao) yap 
Ksl 6tovi rjyov/xe.9.1 kuI ^Cofiev aSiKa Koi SiVat wpLap-evoi, Arist. N. 
1075-78, 1427-31. See especially A. W. Benn Philosophy of 
G?rece 137-44 commenting on Eur. Phoen. 546 ff. | Cephalus 
and his life-rule: Plato Rep., init. and 331 b.\ Laws made by 
01 do-^evei? Kat 01 troXkoi : Callicles in Plato Gorg. 483 h. \ Each 
generation to make its own laws : Arist. N. 1421-24. | Probably 
Pherecrates' comedy, the "Ayptot, was a satire on " life according 
to Nature (</)vcrei)-" 

46. Pericles and Aspasia : Plut. Peric. 24, Beloch i. 474, 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 235 

Couat 135 "Son mariage illegal avec Aspasie 6tait, pour la plu- 
part ties Ath^niens, un defi jet^ a leurs traditions les plus respec- 
tables. La famille, sur qui reposait tout I'Etat, ne pouvait subsis- 
ter que par la puret^ du mariage ; Pericles donnait I'exemple 
d'y faire entrer les courtisanes." | For modern Aspasian literature 
see Busolt 3. 565 ff. | Divorce of Hipponicus : Plut. Peric. 24. 5. 
Bigamy of Callias : Andoc. De Myster. 1 24. — Phaedra's conduct 
in the play 'iTTTrdAvro? KuAvn-rd/xevos, being " dn-pcTrcs koX KaxT^yoptus 
a^iov " has been withdrawn from the play now extant, 'IttttoXijtos 
(TTe<f>avr](f>6po^ ; see the argument. 

47. Athens' misappropriation of league-funds, and ostracism of 
Thucydides : Plut. Pej-ic. 12, 14. | dpTray?; or kAott^ of public 
money frequently charged, e.g. in Lysias 21. 13, 25. 19, 26. 6. 9. 
II, 28. I, 30. 26 ; cp. Xen. Anab. 4. 6. 16, and see note on § 67, 8. 

48. Pleistoanax-incident : Plut. Peric. 22, Arist. N. 859 with 
schol., Busolt 3. 429. I 8wpo8oKta a national weakness: K. F. 
Hermann Gr. Privatalt.^ (1882) 44 f. Many trials recorded, as 
of Cimon (acquitted, Plut. Cim. 14), Pythodorus and Sophocles 
(exiled, Thuc. 4. 65. 3), Eurymedon (fined, Thuc. I.e.), Pericles 
(convicted, Thuc. 2. 65. 3, Plato Gorg. 516 a, Busolt 3. 950 ff.). 
See also Isoc. 8. 50. | Jury-bribery in 409 B.C. : Aristot. Ath. Pol. 
27. 5, Diod. Sic. 13. 64. 6, Plut. Coriol. 14. | o-uvScKu^etv of 
"wholesale bribery" is used by Plut. {Peric. 9) of Pericles' earlier 
concessions to the people to win the headship. For references to 
bribery in Arist. see note on § 67, 9. 

49. Religion of Athens at this time : Couat ch. 6. | Foreign 
gods in Athens : Foucart 55-66, Couat 253-58, Beloch 2. 4-9, 
Card.-Jev. 214-16, Rohde 2. 104 f., Harrison 417-19, Strabo 
471. I Ridiculed by the comic poets: Cratinus in W/jarrai, Aris- 
tophanes in At///i/uxi, 'I2/uut, V. 9, 1 19-21, Av. 1570 ff., L. 387-98, 
Eupolis in BaTrrai, Plato in "ASwi/is, Apollophanes in Kp^rfs. See 
\si\t^c\i Aglaoph. 625 {{. I Alcibiades lampooned in Euj)olis' Butttui. 

51. Meyer 2. 595 f. (in seventh century the gods exchanged 
fetish formlessness for human form ; human sacrifice almost ex- 
tinguished) ; 2. 727-3! (in sixth century the gods become moral- 



236 APPENDIX 

ized. Need felt for a personal, not alone for a tribal or city god. 
Worship of Dionysus, Demeter, Persephone, the " nature-gods," 
recognized by the state along with that of the Olympian gods — 
i.e. religion becomes democratic, is no longer aristocratic, as in 
Homer). | The passing of Zeus: Gard.-Jev. 296, Harrison 29. 
Fairbanks Grk. Religion 364 f. gives a list of the religious festi- 
vals of Athens. 

52. Religious ecstasy leads up or down: Harrison 658. | Or- 
pheus, made one of the Argonauts and therefore far antedating 
Homer and Hesiod, was a founder well chosen for this " revealed " 
religion : Meyer 2. 736, VVilamow. Horn. Unlets. 21 1. But educated 
antiquity detected the lateness of the poems attributed to him : 
Hdt. 2. 53. I On Orphism in general: Gard.-Jev. 213-22, Har- 
rison 478 to end, Meyer 2. 734-49, Rohde 2. 103-36. | Orphism 
a personal religion : Meyer 2. 745, Farnell 3. 130 "The object of 
the ixv-qa-L'i (initiation) is to place the /xucttt/? in a peculiarly close 
and privileged relation with the divinity or the deified spirit " ; 
this definition of ixva-r^pLov " serves to mark the contrast between 
these peculiar ceremonies and the ordinary classic cult of city of 
gens or family." | Reinterpretation of old myths common to Hin- 
dus, Iranians, Hebrews, Egyptians, and Greeks: Meyer 2. 714. 
For that of the Orphics see Harrison 495. | Immersion in mud : 
Harrison 516, Arist. R. 145-51. | Abstinence from eggs, beans, etc. : 
Rohde 2. 126. I Symbolism of such abstinence : Harrison 509. ■ 

53. Choicer spirits influenced by Orphism were Xenophanes, 
Pherecydes, Pythagoras, Pindar, Heraclitus, Aeschylus, and others : 
Meyer 2. 747. | Danger of ceremonial religion to those without 
imagination is seen in Ibsen's satire (Brand, Act V) : 

" On me no spot is to be seen ; 
The tub of Faith hath vvash'd me clean ; 
Each splash has vanish'd, scraped and scored 
On Hoiiness's washing-board; 
In Vigilance's mangle I 
Have wrung my Adam's-vesture dry; 
And shine like snowy surplice fair, 
Soap-lather'd with the suds of Prayer." 



NOIES ON INTRODUCTION 237 

Orphic dogmatism: Rohde 2. iii. The Eleusinian Mysteries, 
on the contrary, taught by Spwfxeva (8pa/xa), not by Xdyos : Farnell 
3. 192. I For varieties of Orphic cosmogony see E. Abel Orphica 
(1885) 156-209. That followed in the text is Gruppe'sin Roscher's 
Lexicon s.v. Orpheus, § 65. A cosmogonic parody: Arist. Av. 
692 ff. Reward to the initiated : fjLUKapwv €vo)^lu Arist. R. 85 ; 
Tov airavTa ;;(pdvoi/ Stayeti' ixt6vovTa<;, fjLiOrjv ulwviov Plato J^c/>. 363 
r //. I Punishment for the uninitiate : (ioi'iopoi, aKujp dtiVwi', o-kotos 
Arist. R. 145, 273 ; ttt^Xo's, ko(tk'.vw i8wp (^ipuv Plato Rep. 363 d, 
8civa365 a. Rohde 2. 128, i. 313. | Vengeance on enemies : Plato 
Rep. 364 l>-e, Rohde 2. 128. 

54. Itinerant priests: Harrison 516 f., Plato Rep. 364 l>-e, 
Plut. A/oral. 16S d, iji a ^. 

55. Greek religion a thing of tradition and ritual, not of feeling ; 
of the state, not of the individual : Couat 218-23, Rohde 2. 71 ff., 
G. L. Dickinson Greek View of Life 9 ff., i 7 ff. | Philosophers could 
still be theists ; e.g. Thales believed to -kov (.p.\^v^v a/xa xal Zaip-o- 

vwv Tr\rjpe<;, Alcmaeon 6eov<; w€To tovs do-ripas eivat ifi[pv\ov<; ovra?, 
Socrates prayed to "HAios (Plato Sy/fip. 220 d. \ Herodotus critical 
e.g. in I. 131, 2. 49. 53. 172, 3. 38. 80 ff. On his and Sophocles' 
attitude toward religion see Meyer 4. 129-39; on " the world" 
of difference between Sophocles and Euripides, Meyer 4. 151. 

56. Lightning : note on v. 404 i/fra. \ p.tT (.wpoXoyia : infra v. 
332 f., note. 1 Diogenes: 6e6<; = ar]p; note on v. 228. | For the 
theories of Pythagoras, Empedocles, Leucippus-Democritus, and 
others see briefly Zeller's /Lis/, of Philosophy, Eng. translation by 
Alleyne and Abbott (1886). Isoc. 15. 268 disapproves of studying 

"the old sophists," *»v o p.iv dinLpov to ttAt/^os e<f)r](Tf.v cTvui twvovtmv, 

'E/XTTcSokA^S St TiTTIiptl (kui VtlKOS Kill (f>l\l'ai> fV ttUTOtS ) , loJl/ O (W 

irKiiu) Tpu'ov, 'AXKfJXLiwv Si 8vo /xovu, II up p.€viori<i ok kuI MeAifrao? ev, 
Fopytas Se Troi/TtAoJ? oi'otV. 

57. Pericles' debt to Anaxagoras : Plut. Perie. 4-6, Meyer 4. 50. 
Anaxagoras took up jiermancnt residence in .Athens r. 462 n.c. 
(Busolt 3. 9). His book Trtpl j^uo-cois to be had in the " opxwrpu " : 
Plato /ipo/. 26 d. I Athenians sacrificed to 'HAios and the 'lipu 



238 APPENDIX 

at Pyanepsia and Thargelia : schol. Arist. E. 729. PI. 1054. | For 
Euripides ^eds ^aWyp (see notes on vv. 264, 265) ; the sun was a 
Xpvrea /ifwAos (frg. 783, Orcst. 983); "there are no gods" (frg. 
286, Meyer 4. 116 f.). | Protagoras' dictum on the gods: Diog. 
Laert. 9. 8. 3 ; for Gorgias' agnosticism see Sext. adv. math. 7. 
65 ; on Critias' Sisyphus, Nauck's Tragic. Fragmenta^ 771. Cp. 
also Eur. El. 743 f. 

58. Victory of Ionian reason over superstitious Orphism : Wila- 
mow. Norn. Utiters. 214 f., Meyer 2, 728, 751, and especially 753, 
Bury 311 ff., 319 ff. 

59. What to believe? Meyer 4. 1 13-17. | Sophocles' mono- 
theism: Rohde 2. 234-46, Meyer 4. 121-23, 132 (§461), 139 f. 

I Herodotus on oracles: 8. 77. Xenophon also a beUever : Hip- 
parch. 9. 9, Anab. 3. i. 11 ff. So too Socrates : Xen. Anab. 3. i. 
5. I Nicias superstitious : Plut. Nic. 4 f. | Lampon : note on v. 
332 infra. 

61. Diopeithes' bill: Busolt 3. 826. | On the " heresy " trials 
see G. F". Schomann Gr. Altert. 2. 583-89, Meier and Schomann 
Aii. Prozess (Lipsius) i. 366-75, Busolt 3. 825 ff | Alcibiades re- 
called from Sicilian expedition: Thuc. 6. 53. | Intolerant Athens : 
Holm 2. 293 f , 445 f 

62. Divided Athens : Meyer 4.433-35 (§ 617), Beloch i. 634 f. 
I Man vs. State: Plato Ci-ito and Gorgias (Callicles) ; Arist. N. 

1399 f, R. 1069-88; Meyer 4. 143-48 (§468 f.), 251 (§520); 
Croiset 250 f. ; Whibley 80 "This exaltation of the individual was 
the result of the general philosophic movement of which the Soph- 
ists were the representatives"; Beloch i. 474 " Liberation from 
every compulsion, be it what it may, was the goal of endeavour of 
this fifth century in Athens." | For terrible condemnation of Al- 
cibiades see Grote ch. 66 fin. 

65. Kock names 42 poets and 275 plays in vol. i of his Comic 
Fragments. 

66. Plato allows wine at festivals : Legg. 775 b. \ With the h- 
censed satire of Athens at the Dionysia compare the modern 
academic world in its class-days, spring-days, annual burlesques, 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 239 

and comic papers, where students have their fling at the faculty, 
who emerge nevertheless undamaged in reputation, even though 
the jests graze unpleasant truths. 

67. Old Comedy homogeneous : Couat 34. Yet individuality 
not wholly lost ; Crat. was avo-rr^pos, Pherecr. vir6inKpo<:, Eupol. 
ev<f)dvraaTO<; Kara Tas viroOeaeL^, etc. See Prolegg. de Com. II and 
III (Dlibner). | Subjects of Old Comedy : like Cleon's oracles 
(^Eq. 1006), they were "about you, about me, about every- 
thing"; e.g. (i) The gods, as 'Hpa»cA»}s Treti/wv, Atovucros SetAd?, 
Ztvs /Aoi;^ds, in fact, all Olympians, especially at birth and 
marriage. Dionysus plays many roles — at bar of justice 
(Arist. frgg. 70, 71), as soldier (Eupol. in '^u.iio.pyoi) , as 
athlete (Aristomen. Atov. 'A(rK7;r7/s, K. i. 692), as KOTTafSo^- 
player (Amips. 4), as barber (Stratt. 6), as poetic critic (Arist. 
Kan.^. See Couat 229 ff., Romer 66 f. For foreign gods see 
n. on § 49. 

67. — (2) Soothsayers, priests : see n. on § 88. 

67. — (3) Demagogues : e.g. Pericles; Crat. 71, iii, 240 f., 
293, 300, Aioi/vo-aXe'^ui'Spos in Oxyrrh. Papyri 4. 71 ; Telecl. 17, 
42, 44 ; Hermip. 41 ( ?), 46 ; Eupol. 94 and 100 in praise (Peric. 
being dead) ; Arist. A. 530, E. 283, and N. 213 not in derision, N. 
859, P. 606. — Cleon; Hermip. 42(?), 46, Eupol. 290, 308, 456, 
Plat. 107, 216, Com.Adesp. 2, .Arist. Eijitites and Vespae through- 
out (see n. on § 74) ; Couat 142. — Hypcrbolus : see n. on v. 551 
infra. — Pisander ; Hermip. 9, Eupol. 31, 182, Phryn. 20, Plat, iu 
IleiVavS/io?, .Arist. P. 395, .Av. 1556, L. 490, frg. 81 ; Couat 162. — 
AlcH>iades; Pherecr. 155, Eupol. 158, 351, Archip. 45, .Anonym. 
27, 148, .Arist. A. 716, V. 44-46, R. 1422-33, frg. 198 (AairaX^s), 
and probaldy in TTjyxi/io-rat and Ipi^ixKr]-, ; Couat 178. — Cleophon ; 
Plat, in KAfoe^Tji/, Arist. Th. 805, R. 679-85, 1504, 1532 ; Couat 
164. — Tlurtimrnes ; Philon. in Kd^o/ji/oi, Eupol. 237, Polyzel. 3, 
Arist. R. 534-41, 967, frg. 549. See n. on § 74 and the following 
sections on orators, lawyers, and " sycophants." 

67. — (4) Orators: Antiphon : Plat. 103, Arist. V. 1270, 1301 
(B. Keil IJermes 29 (1894), 339). — Demostraltis ; ICupol. 96 f.. 



240 APPENDIX 

Arist. L. 391-97- — Diopeithes ; Telecl. 6 (more famous as a 
XpTjcr/xoAoyos ; see n. on §88). — Gorgias ; Arist. V. 421, Av. 
1701. — Neocleides ; Arist. Ec. 254, 398-406, PI. 665 f., 716-26, 
747, frg. 439. — Phaeax; Eupol. 7, 95, Arist. E. 1377-80. — 
Philip; Arist. Av. 1694-1705, frg. 1 13. — They are described as 
foreigners (Arist. A. 634) and striplings (A. 680) who use cajoling 
phrases (V. 668), did not exist in the days of Marathon (V. 1095), 
extort from the allies (P. 635-45), bite like hidden snakes (Th. 
530), reduce the poets' pay (R. 367), are venal (PI. 379), self- 
enriching (PI. 567-71), lewd fellows (E. 879 f., N. 1093 f., R. 
1070, Ec. 113, Com. Adesp. 15), and as reproductive as the heads 
of Hydra (Plat. frg. 186). See the sections before and after this, 
and n. on § 74. 

67. — (5) Lawyers ((rvvrjyopoL) : e.g. Akibiades ; Arist. A. 716. 
— Euathlus ; Crat. 75, Plat. 102, Arist. A. 704-10, V. 592, frg. 
4x1. — Marpsias ; Eupol. 166, Arist. A. 701. — They draw pay 
and work in collusion (Arist. A. 685-88, V. 691-95), appeal to 
base motives (E. 1358-60), use a special lingo (frg. 198), and are 
lewd wretches like the demagogues (N. 1089 f.). See the two 
previous sections, and Starkie Vesp., Excurs. VII. 

67. — (6) Secretaries (ypa/A/xaTeis) t as Nicomachus i^. 1506), 
Phamts (E. 1256, V. 1220), Teleas (Av. 168), Theophanes (E. 
1 103). The city is full of them (R. 1083 f.). Starkie Vesp., 
Excurs. VII. 

67. — (7) Sycophants {Informers, Blackmaikrs) : Telecl. 41, 
Eupol. 231, Arist. A. 726, 818-28, 840, 904-58 (Athens exported 
them) ; E. 259-65, 278 f , 299-302, 326, 435-44> 4S0, 825 f , 923- 
25 ; V. 288, 505, 669-71, 895 f., 911, 914 ff., 923 ff., 928, 1096 ; 
P. 171 f., 639-47 ; Av. 1410-69 (their method of work) ; Ec. 562 
{. ; PI. 31, 725, 850-958 (no magic ring can heal a sycophant- 
bite, v. 885) ; frgg. 100, 219, 439. 

67 — (8) Embezzlers : as Cleon (Arist. E. 826 f, see section 3), 
Cleophon (Plat. 57, see sect. -^.Meidias (Phryn. 41, Plat. 80, 108, 
Metagen. 11, Arist. Av. 1297), Neocleides (Arist. PI. 665, frg. 439, 
see sect. 4), Pamphilus (Arist. PI. 174, frg. 40), Simon (Eupol. 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 241 

218, Arist. N. 351). — In general, Arist. V. 554, Th. 811 f., Ec. 
206 ff. 

67. — (9) Bribery, receivmg of Bribes : Arist. charges it against 
Cleon (E. 66 ff., 403, 438, 802, 834, 932, 938 f., 987-96, N. 591) ; 
Diopeithes (E. 1083) ; Eucrates (L. 103) ; Hermes (P. 378-425, 
/xeyaXoSwpuTaros V. 392) ; Hyperbolus (N. 1065) ; Lysicrates (Av. 
513); Pisander (frg. 81); a prytanis (P. 908, Th. 936 f.) ; the 
orators (V. 669-71); any petty office-holder (Av. 1111-13). See 
also Crat. 69, 128, 244, 401, and Plat. 1 19, who accuses Epicrates 
and Phortnisius. Cp. n. on § 48. 

67. — (10) Perjurers : as Simo?i, Cleonynius, Tlieones ; Arist. 
N. 399 f. 

67. — (11) Charlatans: 2S Meton ; Phryn. 21, Arist. Av. 992- 
1020. 

67. — (12) Foreigners: as Akestor (2a(ca?) ; Call. 13, Meta- 
gen. 13, Theopomp. 60, Arist. V. 1221, Av. 31. Archedemtis ; 
Eiipol. 71, Arist. R. 421 ff., 588. Chaereas ; Eupol. 80, Arist. V. 
687. Cleophon ; Plat, in KA£o<^<Li/, Arist. Th. 805, R. 679 ff., 1504, 
1532. Diitrephes ; Plat. 31, Arist. Av. 798. Exekesiides ; Phryn. 
20, Arist. Av. II, 764 f., 1527, frg. 671 (?). Myrniex, Nichoma- 
chus, Archenomus ; Arist. Av. 1506. Spinlharus ; Arist. Av. 762. 
— See also Arist. A. 704, R. 730. — On foreign dialect, n. on § 28. 

67. — (13) Sop/lists: Crat. in llai/oTrrat and Xetpojve? (?), Va\- 
pol. in Atye? and KoAix/cts, Arist. in AairaA^? (tiioiigh Thra- 
symachus was pro|)erly a rhetor) and Niibes, .'\mij)s. in Koj/w?. 

67. — (14) Socrates: Telecl. 39, 40, Eupol. 352 f., 361, 
Amips. 9, 28, Call. 12, Arist. Av. 1555, R. 1282, 1491, and Niibes. 

67. — (15) Tragic Poets: over a score of them bantered 
(Coiiat 331). Those named by Arist. are Akestor (iiaKus), Aes- 
chylus, Agathon, Carcinus, luirijjides, Io|)hon, Melanthius, Mele- 
tus, Morsimus, Philocles, Phrynicus, Pythangelus, Sophocles, 
Theognis, Xeno* les. — Note that IMirynicus' Morfmi competed 
with .Arist. 's A'anar, .iiid like it discussed the com])aralive merits of 
poets. 

67. — (16) Cyclic or Dithyramb I (■ J'octs : especially A7;/^.t7</,f ,• 

AKISIUI'MANKS — l6 



242 APPENDIX 

see Pherecr. 145, Plat. 184, Stratt. in Ktvr/o-tas, Arist. Av. 1372- 
1409, R. 153, 1437, L. 838-979, Ec. 330, frg. 149. Another is 
Hieronymus : Arist. A. 386, N. 349. The genus in general : 
Arist. N. 333-39, P. 828-31, Av. 904-55, R. 366. See also n. on 

§99- 

67. — (17) Competing Comic Pods: e.g. (IxdX. 200, 307, Eu- 
pol. 54, 78, 357 (?), Plat. 81, 100, Aristonym. 4, Amips. 28, Stratt. 
20, 54, Sannyr. 5. Arist. feigns to scorn Crat. (A. 848-53, 1173, 
E. 400, 526-36, P. 700, R. 357), Hermip. (N. 557), Eitpol. (N. 
553, V. 1025, P. 762), Phryn. (N. 556, R. 13), Lykis and Amips. 
(R. 14), the whole set of them (N. 524, 537-60, V. 57-66, P. 
739-48, R. 1-18, 358, etc.). See also n. on § 98, and on v. 554. 

67. — (18) Modern Music and Musicians: e.g. Crat. 256, 
Pherecr. 6, 42, 145 (?), Eupol. 77, 139. From Arist. we hear of 
Arignotus (E. 1278, praised), Chaeris (A. 16, P. 951, Av. 857), 
Dexitheus (A. 14, praised), ConnusiEj. 534, V. 675). Poor Connus 
was the butt also of Crat. 317, Eupol. 68, Phryn., and Amips., the 
two latter each naming a play from him. On music in general : 
Arist. N. 969-72, Th. 68, 130-33, R. 1296-1308. The criticisms, 
so far from being merely humorous, directly anticipate the very 
serious strictures on music by Plato Rep. 398 e, 399 c d. See Plut. 
Moral. 1 142 d, Couat 320-26. 

67. — (19) Actors: as Hegelochus (Plat. 215, Stratt. i, 60, 
Sannyr. 8, Arist. R. 303) and Callippides (Stratt. in KaAAi7r7rt'S>;s, 
Arist. frg. 474). 

67. — (20) Gourmands: as Glauketcs ; Plat. 106, Arist. P. 
1008, Th. 1033. — Leogoras ; Plat. 106, Eupol. 44, Arist. N. 109, 
V. 1269. — Melanthius ; Pherecr. 139, Eupol. 41, 164, Plat. 132, 
Archip. 28, Call. 11, Leuc. 2, Arist. P. 802 ff., 1009, Av. 151. — 
Morychus ; Telecl. 11, Plat. 106, Arist. A. 887, V. 506, 1142, P. 
1008. — Mynniscus ; Plat. 160. — Teleas ; Phryn. 20, Plat. 161, 
Arist. P. 1008, Av. 168, 1025. 

67. — (21) Spendthrifts: as Callias ; Eupol. in KoAukc?, Arist. 
Av. 284-86, R. 428-30, Ec. 810, frgg. 114, 572. 

67. — (22) Lechers, Debauchees : as Agathon (more famous as 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 243 

poet) ; Arist. Th. 29 ff., R. S3, frgg. 169, 326, 599. — Akibiades ; 
Pherecr. 155, Kupol. 158 and in Bairrat, Archip. 45, Com. Adesp. 
3, Arist. A. 716, V. 44-46, R. 1422 ff., frg. 198 (in AatraA^s), also 
probably in TayT^i/io-rai and T/3i<^aAi;s ; see also Athen. 574 d. — 
Antimachus ; Arist. A. 1150 (?;, N. 1022. — Ariphrades ; Arist. 
E. 1281-89, V. 1280-83, P. 883, Ec. 129, frg. 63. — Aristodemiis ; 
Crat. 151, Arist. 231. — Cleisthenes ; see n. on v. 355. — Philoxc- 
niis; see n. on v. 686. Add .Arist. A. 79, X. 1085-1102, Ec. 113, 
etc. 

67. — (23) Parasites : as Ainynias ; see n. on v. 686. — Cleon- 
ytnus ; n. on v. 353. — Theories; n. on. v. 400. — See also Eupol. 
KdAuKes (espec. frgg. 159, 162), Crat. 44, Crates 33, Eupol. 346, 
Arist. 437. 

67. — (24) Boasters of Riches : as Aeschines ; Arist. V. 325, 
459, 1220, 1242, Av. 823. — Proxenides ; Arist. V. 325, Av. 1126, 
Telecl. iS. — Theogenes ; Eupol. 122, Arist. V. 1183, P. 928, Av, 
822, 1 127, 1295, L. 63, frg. 571. 

67. — (25) Cowards, Shield-droppers: as Cleonymus ; seen, 
on V. 353. — Pisandcr ; Hermip. 9, Eupol. 31, 182, Phryn. 20, 
Arist. P. 395, Av. 1556, L. 490, frg. 81. 

67. — (26) Harlots: Pherecr. in 'E7rtA7/fr/xwi/ ^ ©aAaTra, and in 
Ko^jiuin/oj. See .Athen. 567 c for like plays in later times; Couat 

364- 

67. — (27) Poor People: as Amynias ; n. on v. 686. — Lysis- 
tratus ; Arist. A. 855-59, E. 1266, V. 787, 1302, 1308, L. 1105, 
frg. 198 (in AaiTuA^s, he was a rhetor ?). — Hyperbolus the dema- 
gogue ; Arist. P. 684, and see n. on v. 551. — Pauson ; Arist. A. 
854, Th. 949, PI. 602. — Thumantis ; Hermip. 35, Arist. E. 1268- 
73. — See also Arist. E. 186, PI. 976. 

67. — (28) Ugly and Deformed People: Aristophanes' gallery 
incluiles Aesivtus ^w\n<i (Ec. 208), Alcihiades rpauAds (V. 44 ff., 
see list 22), Aristophanes (f}akaKp(k (E. 550, N, 545, P. 767-74), 
Chnerrphon rjfj.i.Bvq'i wKrepU 7rv$ivn<; (see n. on v. T04), Ctrsiphon 
ir>iy\'i iTfjoyd'TTitii) (A. 1 002), Kiiiesias XtTTroraTo-i (tkc\€to<; aTrryos 
( \v. 1378; Plat. 184, .Stratt. 18; see list 16), Laespodias kuko- 



244 APPENDIX 

KVJ7;xos (Av. 1569; Eupol. 100, 102, Stratt. 16, Theopomp. 39), 
Leotrophides Xeirros (Av. 1406; Hermip. 35, Theopomp. 24), 
Melanthius \i.Tvp6<i (Av. 151, see list 20), Neocleides y\dfiwv (see 
list 4), Opuntiiis eT€p6<f)6u\fxo<i fi.iya pvyxo? ^X*"" C"^^- ^53> 1294; 
Eupol. 260, Stratt. 7), Philodes atcrxpos (Av. 1295, Th. 168), /%/- 
lonides /xeyas tw o-w/Aart ^At^tos (PI. 1 79 ; Theopomp. 4, Nicochar. 
3, Philyll. 23). — Eupol. 343 some nameless x">A.os. 

67. — (29) Awkward People : as Pantades; Eupol. 296, Arist. 
R. 1036. 

67. — (30) Dirty People: as Chacrephon avxMP^'^ (Crat. 202, 
see n. on v. 104), Patrocks aXouros (Arist. PI. 84, frg. 431), Soc- 
rates aXovTo<: (Arist. Av. 1554). 

67. — (31) Morose People: as Timon ; Phryn. 18, Plat. 218, 
Arist. Av. 1549, L. 809-20. 

67. — (32) Proud People {KOfxr^Tu) : Arist. E. 580, N. 14, 1100, 
V. 466, 1069, Av. 911, Com. Adesp. 12. 

See, further, notes on §§ 74, 78, 85, 86, 88, 91, 97, 99, 102 f. 

72. Aristophanes a "mere jester": Grote, ch. 67; the prize 
his main aim : Tucker Ran. xxii. But a glance at the structure 
of his plays will always reveal a serious purpose. His jolly person- 
ifications IloAe/xos, Wiprfv-q, Kw8ot/xos {HllbbuF), ©ecopta, XIXovTOS, 
and Aij/xos {Uncle Sam) provide food for thought as well as laugh- 
ter. And the droll interruptions of the clown or rustic may be 
shelled out from between the stages of a serious argument as the 
filling from a layer-cake. They are a mere device to keep the 
audience merry. The poet had to assume the gay air and the 
dunce's cap as Solon did his -Kiklliov (Plut. Sol. 8, A. Dieterich 
Pulcinella 156), the better to obtain a hearing and escape the 
penalty of overmuch gravity. Examples of such pre-, inter-, and 
post-luding nonsense are : A. 407-79? a hilarious rag-borrowing 
scene, to prepare for the earnest plea for peace; N. 314-41 1 a 
satire on modern science relieved of continuity by the absurd mis- 
understandings of Strepsiades ; V. 500 ff., an easement of the 
otherwise offensive speech that precedes; L. 1 122-61, a plea for 
reconciliation of Sparta and Athens, obscenely interrupted to save 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 245 

it for comedy; R. 316-419, the procession of the mystae saved 
from too great solemnity by the buffoonery of Xanthias and Dio- 
nysus ; R. 674-737, two earnest appeals for amnesty and election 
of wise leaders introduced by two chaffing odes on Cleophon the 
demagogue and Cleigenes the bathman — reversing the usual order 
of grave and gay in parabasis as seen, e.g. in N. 563-626. Add to 
these the clown's part, assumed almost regularly in the dywvcs by 
somebody, as by Demosthenes in E. 303-460, Demus in E. 756- 
941, Euelpides in Av. 451-638, Calonike (or yw:^ a) in L. 476- 
6 1 3, Dionysus in R. 895-1098, Chremes (or yaVwv) in Ec. 5 7 1-708, 
Blepsidemus in PI. 487-599. See ZieHnski 116 f. 

73. Judgment of Arist. confirmed by others ; e.g. concerning 
Cleon by Thuc. 3. 36. 6, 4. 21. 3, 5. 16. i, Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28. 3 ; 
Hyperbolus ttovt/^os, Thuc. 8. 73. 3 ; Cleophon balker of peace 
(R. 1532), Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34. i; demagogues selfish, Thuc. 

2. 65. 7 ; demagogues corrupt, Thuc. 3. 11. 5, ps.-Xen. Rep. Ath. 

3. 3, Eur. (n. on § in) ; demagogues of low birth after Pericles 
(E. 125-44), Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28. i; " sycophants " a plague, 
Lys. 25. 27, Isoc. 15. 318; Athenians seduced by orators, Thuc. 
3. 38. 4 f. ; Athenians too clever and suspicious, Thuc. 3. 43 ; 
Athenians oracle-mad (E. 61), Thuc. 2. 8. 2, 2. 54. 3, 5. 103. 2, 
Eur. (n. on § in) ; Athenians love litigation, Thuc. i. 77. i, ps.- 
Xen. Rep. Ath. I. 16-18; maintain a tyranny by force (A. 642, 
E. 802, 1070, P. 639, 644, Bu^uXwwoi), Thuc. 2. 63. 2, 3. 37. I, 
3. 40. 4, 3. 42-48, 5. 105. 2, Isoc. 15. 318; have lost their large 
ideals of justice and are submerged in petty egoism, Thuc. 3. 82 f., 
Eur. in his later plays (see G. Murray Eiiripiiles (1906) xxxvi- 
li) ; should recall Alcibiades (R. 1431 ff.), Thuc. 6. 15. 4, Croiset 
263, Busolt 3. 1579; should declare amnesty (R. 686-705), Lys. 
34. 3. — What he says of lyric poetry's badness is confirmed by 
Timotheus' Persians ; of Euripides as unsettling philosopher rather 
than dramatic poet, by the tragedies extant ; of Kinesias by I.ysias 
frg. 143 (= Athen. 551 e) and Plato Gorg. 501 ^-502 a; of en- 
ervate<l and seductive music by Plato Rep. 398 e, 399 c d. 

74. Comic poets " in the pay of the oligarchs " : Couat 33- 



246 APPENDIX 

55, 173' 382 f- ; Holm 2. 448-51 (Arist. " the organ of the anti- 
democratic opposition"). 

Demagogues assailed : the Knights, the greatest piece of in- 
vective in any language, is levelled at ■ Cleon, demagogue of 
Athens from 428 to 422 B.C. Not a bone in his character is left 
unbroken. He is reduced to "mincemeat" {Vesp. 63). The 
play opens with a curse upon him as a Paphlagonian slave in the 
house of Demus the People. He is called a most slanderous 
rascal (vv. 44, 247-50, 331, 450, and often), a tanner (136, 197, 
203, 209, etc.), a cringing flatterer (47, 216, 266-70, etc.), a 
deceiver (48, 633, etc.), a supplanter of the honest servants of 
the People (52 f.), a "boss" who bestrides the world (75 ff.), an 
embezzler (137, 444, etc.), and a bawler (137, 218, 256, 274-76, 
286, 304, 311, 626, and very often). The qualifications of a 
demagogue are low birth, ignorance, and general beastliness 
(pSeXvKa, 181-93, 218, etc.); his handicap is any knowledge 
whatsoever (190). His methods are to agitate, bluster, and- 
flatter (213, 363, 431, etc.). Rich and poor ahke quake before 
him (223 f., 265). He is ready to play the informer and utter 
denunciation at any moment (235-39, 259-65, 278 f., 282 f, 
299-302, 314, 326, 361, 435. 475-79> 628, etc.). He is an ex- 
tortioner (248), a guzzler of plunder (248), a pension-getter for 
the veteran jurymen by increasing their business, importance, and 
pay (255 f.). He is a foul villain (303), impudent (304), a muck- 
raker (308), a tribute-fisher (313), a cheat in his private leather 
business (316 ff.), shameless (324 f., 397, 409), a trickster (332), 
and a gourmand (354 f., 361, etc.). Perjury and pilfering are sure 
signs of his incipience (425-28). He shirks military duty (443). 
He talks down to his hearers wagon-maker phrases, unlike the 
lofty Pericles (462). He treats privately with the enemy to his 
own gain (467). He prays to gods of his own (Juggle-naut, 
Hoax, and Humbug) for impudence, a ready tongue, and a 
shameless voice (634-37). He will go any length in overbidding 
for popular favour (626-82, 781-85, 871 f., 883-91, 905-11, iioi- 
06, 1 164-1200). His good omen is a tto/jSj/ (639). He buys the 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 247 

whole Senate with an obol's worth of coriander (682). His 
favourite rehsh is " purse"-ley sauce (707). He chews food for 
the People (A>;/xos) like a nurse, but swallows three quarters of it 
himself (716-18; cp. 1222 f.). He hinders the state from profit- 
ing by service of the kuXoI KayuOot (734-36). His devotion to 
A^/i.os is wholly self-interested (780). He helps himself from the 
public treasury with both hands (826 f ). He muddies the stream 
the better t(j fish (864-67). He will "get even " with an enemy 
by having his property-assessment raised (923-26). His signet 
ring is a wide-gaping cormorant haranguing on the Pnyx (956). 
He knows but one scale in music, \wpo-hoKi(TTi, " B-sharp in Har- 
peggV^ {apirayrj) ; 987-96. The hoUow of his hand is ever ready 
(1083) ; he steals for the public good (1226). — Other references 
to the demagogue : N. 1093 f., V. 32-41, 242, 409 ff., 596 f., 
666 f., 669 f., 699, 759, iioo f., Ec. 408-21. — For the real 
Cleon, I'jusolt 3. 988-98. 

Democracy criticized : easily duped by demagogues, E. 753-55, 
803 f., 1 1 15, 1340-45 ; willing to follow rascal leaders, E. 734-40, 
P. 680-84, R. 727-33, Ec. 176-78, PI. 920; stupid as a granny, 
\\. 62, 396 ; liable to Sibyl-itis, E. 61 ; (piick-tempered, peevish, a 
httle deaf, E. 40-43, P. 607 ; loved " pensions " (ixi(rOo(f>ope.iv), E. 
1352 ; procrastinated, A. 23, L. 56 f., Ec. 788-90; was fickle, A. 
630 (tu)(^v(3ov\ol), 632 (/A€Ta/iouAoi), E. 518 (cTreVciot rrjv <^i;:nv), V,C. 
218-20, 456 (woman-rule tiie only thing untried), 586 f., 797 f., 
S12-22, also Plat. 22, 220, Archip. 14; had the dicastic fever or 
litig-itis, Frs/). entire, with the chief symptoms in vv. 91, 94, 100, 
108, I 10, I I 2 fl., 281 ff., 51 1 f., 517 fv 563, 621-28, 651, 967-84, 
999 f, ii<j2 21, sec also E. 710, 131 7, 1358-60, N. 208, 1004, 
1220, P. 107 f., 505, Av. 40 f., 1 10 f., Ec. 657, and Telccl. 2 ; suf- 
fered from decree-mania, V.. 1383, N. 1019, 1429, V. 37S, Av. 
1289, ICc. 812-22, frgg. 217, 584, N. 587 (8v(r(3i)vX.i(i) ; elected 
youngsters to office and foreign missions, A. 601-06, 680 ff., 716, 
V. 687 ; electefl military leaders without regard to fitness, A. 1078, 
N. 581 ff., Av. 798-800, R. 727 33, Imi|)()1. ill Ar}/uH (100, 102, 
116, 117, 121), Ilo/Vets (205), 310, I'lat. 185, see also Couat 83. 



248 APPENDIX 

Couat 382 thinks the charges of Arist. the " most virulent ever 
written against democracy " ; but he forgets ps.-Xen. Rep. Ath., anti 
he probably confuses the attack on demagogues with the criticisms 
of democracy. Neither are these criticisms the charges of a 
" mere jester." Much has become believable of democracy since 
Grote wrote his history in 1846. Arist. gives the reality perhaps 
more accurately (though with comic exaggeration) than Pericles in 
his funeral oration, which presents the high ideal but not the 
accomplished facts of Athenian democracy. At all events, it was 
Arist. and not Pericles' oration which, as the story goes, Plato sent 
to Dionysius of Syracuse when the latter wished to learn of the 
polity of Athens (Arist. Vita XI 60 Diibner). 

Aristophanes not anti-democratic: Whibley 98 f., Croiset 176 
(" nuUe part il ne se montrait I'ennemi de la democratie "), Th. 
Kock Rh. Mils. 39 (1884), 118-40. Arist. never said with Alci- 
biades " Democracy is a ofjioXoyov/xei/r] avoia " (Thuc. 6. 89. 6), 
though \nEqiiites he as good as says, after Demodocus : " Democ- 
racy is not tomfoolery, but it acts as if it were." Yet at the end 
of the play (1340-95) Demus is reformed and blest, and does not 
become either oligarchy or tyranny ; for the poet does not believe 
the rule of the people essentially bad, as does ps.-Xen. in Rep. 
Ath. Indeed, he is so heartily a democrat that he ridicules the 
fear of m'vojyaofrta, tyranny, or Laconism as senseless : E. 257, 452, 
476-78, 862, V. 345, 474-76, 482 f., 487-502, 507, 953, P. 640, 
L. 630, Th. 338 f. The very name of " aristocracy " or " Sparta " 
(= oligarchy) is detestable to the two Athenians in Av. 125 f., 815 
f. In Th. 1143-47 there is a prayer to Pallas to come with peace, 
as hater of tyrants. | Aristocrats flouted : Kock I.e. 133 names the 
oligarchic aristocrats who are constantly the butts of Old Comedy, 
e.g. Alcibiades, Callias, Phaeax, Phrynichus, Pisander, Theram- 
enes, Leogoras, Glauketes, and Morychus. (Perhaps this list 
should be revised.) Add Antiphon (Crat. 201 (?), Plat. 103, 
Arist. V. 1270, 1 301). In L. 577 f. oligarchs seem to be collec- 
tively referred to. 

76. Praise and blame: see n. on § 112. 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 249 

77. Athenian audience in theatre conservative and democratic : 
Croiset 9-1 1. | Peace the theme of Ach. Fewpyoc, 'OAKaSes, Pax, 
Lys., and N^o-ot. | On injustice practised upon the alhed cities and 
for pleas in behalf of milder treatment, see BafSvXwvLoi,, A. 642, E. 
802, 1034, 1070 f, 1319,^. 669-71, P. 639-47, 759 f., 935 f., Av. 
1422-60. I Alliance suggested with Sparta: P. 1082; and ear- 
nestly urged : L. 1 11 4-61 ; see n. on § 81. | Dealings with Persia 
disapproved : A. 62-130. | Whibley 94-103 holds that Arist. "was 
the representative man of the middle party," " which accepted the 
constitution as it was, and worked loyally under it." | In attacking 
Cleon in the Knights despite the warning received after Babylo- 
nians, Arist. took a far graver risk than loss of prize. Nor was he 
merely a humorist when he wrote the present ending of Nubes. 
Nor was Hermippus merely a buffoon, no matter what his motive, 
when he brought suit against Aspasia (Plut. Pcric. 32). 

78. Arist. detests vulgarians — the irovrjpoL, ayopaloi (e.g. P. 750, 
R. 1015, frg. 471), and tradespeople. There fall under his ban 
all -TTwAai and their offspring, as the crrvTrTreto-, Trpo/Saro-, l3vpcro-, 
dX\avTO-, kvxvo-, /SeAovo-TTwAai (E. 1 29-43, 739, PI. 1 75); the 
rTKurord/Aos and vevpoppdcfio'i (E. 739 f.) ; the /SvpaoSeil/r]^ (N. 581), 
ttutu/ottAokos (Av. 79^)> Au/jottoios (R. 679), Kcpa/Mcvs (Ec. 253), 
ytoj/jyos (PI. 903), and especially Euripides the son of a Aa^avd- 
ttojA.? (A. 457, 469, 478, E. 19, Th. 387, 456, 910, R. 840, 947) ; 
cp. Nicophon 19 (K. i. 779). For the unexampled portrait of 
the vulgarian in politics see Cleon's in Equites. \ On all plebeian 
successors of Pericles see Busolt 3. 986 ff. | The ^Uu.io<i Adyos will 
teach y(ni to hate the ayopa (N. 991) ; under reformed democracy 
no dyeVeios shall have business in it (E. 1373). | For ridicule of 
fops see n. on § 67, 20-24. 

79. Arist. gentle with the oligarchs: so Couat 173, 184. | Ref- 
erence to revolution of 411 h.c. : R. 689 ff. ; to recall of 
Alcibiades : R. 1422-34. lint Arist. was never deceived by Alci- 
biades as Eur. was, who wrote an ode to glorify his Olympic 
victories (Plut. Alcib. 11 ; see n. on § 67, 3). 

81. Pica for reconciliation between Athens and Sparta based 



250 APPENDIX 

on their religious union at the altars of Olympia, Thermopylae, 
and Delphi : L. 1128-61, P. 1082. | Panhellenism is first invoked 
in P. 302 to win peace, with a call on Boeotians (466), Argives 
(475), Laconians (478), and Megarians (481) to join. In P. 996- 
98 is a prayer for a spirit of friendhness between them. Later, 
Panhellenism is to be, not a federation, but actual Athenian citi- 
zenship for all resident aliens, well-wishers, the colonial islands 
and Ionia : L. 579-86. Whibley 100 : " It is scarcely possible to 
overestimate the significance of this passage." 

82. Arist. a "chimerical poet": Croiset 233. His wisdom 
uttered too late: Croiset I.e., Busolt 3. 1414, Meyer 4. 12 and 
55g. I Democracy in danger if it relaxed its tyranny ! So Pericles : 
Thuc. 2. 63. 2. I Diodotus' speech : Thuc. 3. 42-48. 

83- Quotations are from Grote's History ch. 67, and Jevon's 
Hist. Grk. Lit. 263. Also Browning twits Arist. on his ineffective- 
ness not only in politics but in restraining the trend of the times : 
Aristophanes' Apology (Cambridge edit., 1895) 659 and 656 f. 

84. Society without slavery a novel doctrine : Nestle 359 f 

85. Women in Arist. : wanton (L. 1-3, 107-10, 191 f., 677, 715 
ff., PI. 959-1096) ; extravagant, proud, fond of adornment (N. 
48-52, L. 42-48, frg. 320 naming 52 articles of toilet " kui oAAa 
TToXAa") ; fond of wine (L. 114, 195 ff., 235, 466, Th. 347 f., 393, 
557, 630 f, 733-59, PI. 645, 737, 972, Pherecr. Koptaww and frg. 
143) ; general bad character (Th. 383-432) as caused by Euripides' 
slanders, 473-519, 531-65, frg. 10, Plat. 174. — But Praxagora 
has good things to say of women in Ec. 215 ff. (are conservative), 
233 ff (loving mothers), 236 (resourceful), 441 (are a vpayixa. 
vovj3ov(ttik6v), etc. I On Eur. the misogynist: Nestle 267, 
254. I Humour of Thesvwph.: MiiHer and Donaldson Hist. Grk. 
Lit. ch. 28 § 9. 

86. Communism (including that of wives) : Eeel. presents the 
theory in 571-709 (dyojv), the results in the scenes following 
thereupon. Note especially vv. 590, 594, 597. | Socialism — equal 
distribution of wealth: Pint, especially vv. 128-97, 487-618 
(dyaiv) for the theory, vv. 850-1209 for the results. Note 552 f 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 251 

(distinguishing the irev-qi from the tttw^os), 600 (where Chremyhis 
in answer to the argument in favour of poverty can only say oi yap 
TTciVeis, ovS" av Tretcrr^s). The irony of the Jina/e is the same as 
that in the Ji/ia/e of Fes/>. and Aves, i.e. the seeming success is 
only tinselled blank failure. — See R. Pohlmann Gesc/i. des antiken 
Communistmis (1901) 2. 1-32. 

88. Priests rallied: P. 1031 and Eupol. 211 on Stilbides ; Av. 
851-95, PI. 1 17 1-90 they serve only for the perquisites — will 
desert the established cult, if one shall appear more remuner- 
ative. I Soothsayers: Diopeithes in E. 1085, V. 380, Av. 988, 
Telecl. 6, Phryn. 9; Hierocles in P. 1046-1126, Eupol. 212; 
Lampon, see n. on v. 332 infra. \ Oracles : E. 61, 109 ff., 797 ff., 
818,961-1095, 1229, V. T59 f., P. io63-ii20,Av. 962-91, L. 770- 
76. I Omens : E. 639 TToph] = Trrap/xd?, Av. 719-22 opvts-ovo?, R. 
196 on leaving home. ] Thessaiian ivitches : N. 749. | Bogeys : R. 
293 and frg. 501 "E/xTrouo-a. 

89. Arist. himself an unbeliever : so Couat 241, 244 f., 250 ff., 
Meyer 4. 434, 15rowning op. cit. 651. 

90. G. L. Dickinson Greek View of Life 44 f. : "Arist., if there 
had been an established church, would certainly have been de- 
scribed as one of its main pillars." 

91. 'i"he gods ridiculed : Zeus, N. 367-402, 1081, rJTTwv epo}To<;, 
P. 42 (TKUTai/?aTr;s, PI. 87-93 distributes wealth blindly, 125 his 
Kcpawoi cheapened, 128 his apxv below that of Plutus, 582-91 he 
is either poor or a miser. — Apollo, Av. 584 p-KTBo^opCu — Aescu- 
lapius, V. 122 f., PI. 653-747 his temple-cures mocked, 706 
o-KaTo<^ttyo?. — Demetcr, Av. 581. — Dionysus, throughout Ran. — 
Hermes, P. 180-728, PI. 1097-1170 deserts the Olympians. — 
Bercules (\tm\goi\, t\\. 1574-1693, R- 3^-'64> 503-'^^' 550-^''*^- 
— In general, they are lecherous, P. 849 f., Av. 557-60; sacrifice 
to them is quid pro quo, Av. 1514-24, PI. 11 13-16; their wor- 
ship is expensive, Av. 612-26; their names are ornithized, Av. 
864 ff. — Foreign gods : see n. on § 49. | Orphism hinted at : N. 
254 ff. (initiation parodied), Av. 692 ff. (cosmogony parodied?), 
R. 145 (pijpfSopot), 1032 (Orpheus brings rites). | Hut the day of 



252 APPENDIX 

the purifier such as Epimenides was long past, that of the heahng 
priest in the temples of Aesculapius was, for the educated, rapidly 
waning. The wise had scaled a " peak in Darien " and were look- 
ing upon a new ocean. Rohde 2. 90. 

92. Couat 229 finds that more than a third of the old come- 
dies, whose titles are known to us, travestied mythologic subjects. 
But familiarity with their gods was always characteristic of the 
Greeks ; note the song of Demodocus on Hephaestus in Od. 8. 
266 ff., Homer's Hymns to Demeter (202 ff.) and to Hermes, the 
tug-of-war in //. 8. 18 ff., and the ancient story of "Hpa? Secrixoi. \ In 
the mediaeval plays — the Mysteries, Miracles, and Moralities — 
easy familiarity is had with the devil, a sheep-stealer makes off with 
his booty while the " shepherds watch their flocks by night " (^^- 
cu/tda Pastorum, Towneley Plays), Cain uses outrageous language 
of God {Mactacio Abel, v. 238), and Noah must beat his wife to 
get her to go into the Ark {Processus Noe cum Filiis). Even in 
Dante's Inferno (21. 137-39, and 22 last third) demons with droll 
names (Malacoda, Alichino = Harlequin, Cagnazzo, Graffiacane) 
must lighten the gloom with not overrefined frolic. 

93. On the Feast of Fools see in great detail E. K. Chambers 
The Mediaeval Stage (1903) i. 274-335. 

95. " Consecrated Scurrility," or rt>iBaa^6<i (Grote ch. 29, 
Frazer on Pausan. i. 37. 3, Aristot. Polit. 1336 b 16) was prac- 
tised in honour oi Demeter {^{ovix. Hy. Demet. 202, Diod. Sic. 5. 4. 
7, Pausan. 7. 27. 10), Damia and Auxesia in Aegina (Hdt. 5. 83), 
Dionysus (Athen. 622 b-d), Apollo in Anaphe (Apoll. Rhod. 4. 
171 7 ff., Conon c. 49), at the festivals Xde?, Ai^vata, 'EXevo-tVta 
(Suidas s.v. to. ck tw d/xa^wv (jKwfjifjiaTa, schol. Arist. PI. 1014, 
specimen of yecfivfjiaixo^ Arist. R. 420-34), Sri^vta (Phot, and 
Hesych. s.v.), &t(j fjio4>6piu and 'AAwa (Harrison 136, 148). For 
the same in Egypt see Hdt. 2. 60 ; for Africa Sail Jug. 66. 2 ; for 
Italy Ov. Fast. 3. 675. Probably abuse saved an object or per- 
son from the envy of the gods or the evil eye. So farmers thought 
cummin grew better av Kurupwixevoi (nrcipuxxL kul AoiSopofvres (Plut. 
Moral. 700 f ). 



NOTES ON IN IRODUCTION 253 

Phallus-worship connected itself with Dionysus as a god of 
vegetation. It was the " fetish of life," and '' may have belonged 
to Pan-cult as to Hermes-cult in Arcadia and elsewhere" (Farnell 
5. 433; cp. 5. II). I (j>u\Xo4>6poL : Athen. 445 fi, 621/, 622 c if; 
Aristot. Poet. c. 4 17 kw/juoSlu airo roiv to. (f>aWiKa i^ap^ovrwv. The 
Urea-colonists had to '" send annually e? Atoi'wta <^aAAdi' " (Hicks 
Man. of Grk. Hist. Inscripp., No. 29). | Phallus carved over a 
city-gate at Alatri (Baumeister 1702) and Ferento (C. Sittl /?/<? 
Gebdrden der Gr. u. Romer (1890) 122). | Phallus efficacious 
.against the evil eye (Sittl 121). | Phallus worn by comic actors — 
not by the chorus: Arist. N. 538 f , V. 1342-49, Th. 239, 643-48, 
1 1 14, Haigh 290 f., .A. Korte Jahrb. des kais. dentsch. archaeol. 
Instit. 8 (1893), 66 ff. 

Obscenity carved in European cathedrals : Jules (Champ)fleury 
Hist, de la caricature au moyen age (1871), espec. pp. 245, 222, 
155, 239 ff. ; Thos. Wright, Hist, of Caricature and Grotesque 
(1865), through the first 200 pages. | For modern survival of 
jihallus and obscene pantomime in Thrace and Thessaly, see 
W. Ridgeway, Origin of Tragedy (19 10), 17 ff, or R. M. Dawkins 
mf.H.S. for 1906, 191-206. | On the necessity of obscenity in 
Old Comedy, see Couat, 375-82. 

96. On one vulgarity see n. on v. 394 infra. \ virovoua. the mark 
of New Comedy, aiVxpoAoytia of the Old: so Aristot. Eth. Nic. 
4. 8 ( = 1128 a 23). 

97. Ugliness on comic stage: see n. on §67, 28; A. Dieterich 
Pu/cinel/a (1897) 37 f. | Poverty ridiculed : Hermann 3. 45; n. 
on § 67, 27. I Jests at expense of the dead : e.g. Pericles (Arist. 
A. 530), CIcon (P. 47 f., 269-72, 313-15, 647-56, 669, 753-60), 
Hyperbolus (Th. 840), P>uripides {Ran., second half), Phrynicus 
politician ( R. 689). | The mother of Hyperbolus was jeered by 
lOupoI. in Ma/jiKav, of Cleophon by Plat. (56), of Euripides by 
Arist. (A. 457, 478, E. 19, Th. 387, 456, 910, R. 840, 947). | An 
exceptional instance of sensibility at sight of an tmburicd human 
body is recorded by Plato Rep. 439 e. 

98. Saucy impudence a mark of Old Comedy and one of its 



254 APPENDIX 

recognized means of raising a laugh. For instances of self-praise 
and boasting aside from Arist. see Crat. 237, 306, Pherecr. 191, 
Eupol. 357, Lysip. 4 (K. i. 701), Metagen. 14 (K. i. 708); on 
contempt for competing poets see n. on § 67, 17. 

A good example of this latter is the raillery poured out by the 
stripling Arist. upon his aged rival Cratinus. In A. 848-53 he 
pictures the old poet as a young buck wearing his hair in rakish 
fashion (perhaps parted in the middle?), playing the lady-killer 
and so feigning not to be passe. In A. 11 73 is a prayer that he 
may unexpectedly collide with a handful of muck aimed at some 
one else. In E. 400, 526-36 he notes the ancient toper's love of 
drink and suggests that he receive public (not board, o-tT7;(ns, but) 
drink in the Prytaneum as a reward for his past great services, and 
not be permitted to go on drivelling out comedies, "played out" 
as he is. (Unhappily for Arist., the "driveller" wrote a play the 
following year, the irvTivr] Flask, which won the prize over Niibes /) 

As for bragging, the parabases of the first six comedies of Arist. 
are nothing but six long odes of comic self-glorification and bids 
for the prize. See A. 628-64, E. 507-70, N. 518-62, V. 1015- 
59, P. 732-74, Av. 685-736 (where the birds promise irXovOv^U^av, 
evSai/xovLav, etc., if the audience will believe them gods, i.e., pro- 
claim them victors). 

The humour of the impudence lies often in this, that the poet 
lays claim to a virtue which at that very time he patently lacks. 
Examples are as follows : He never yet has come forward to praise 
himself (A. 62S f.) — yet does so now. Ditto E. 512-16. Poets 
should be flogged who praise themselves (P. 734) — yet he pro- 
ceeds to take the risk. He alone has put an end to comedy's 
jeering at rags and making war on fleas (P. 740) — yet note his 
own Euripidean tatters in Ac/i. and the battle with the fleas in 
JVul>. 634, 696-725. He attacks no iSiwras ai/9pw7rL(TKov<i but only 
some great Hercules like Cleon (P. 751 f.) — yet cannot keep his 
hands off even barbers and bathmen (Av. 300, R. 709). He has 
no brace of slaves bribing the audience by tossing them nuts as 
his rivals have (V. 58 f., cp. A. 657, PI. 797-99) — yet his slave 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 255 

scatters the barleycorns in P. 962. He will not lampoon Eurip- 
ides again (V. 61), yet on the same day with the promise does 
lampoon him in the Upodywv. " Nor shall we make mincemeat of 
Cleon again " (V. 62), yet he is slyly hashed to pieces in the same 
play in the debate between Philo-CIeon and Bdely-Cleon. He 
has not the heart "to jump on'' a fallen foe (N. 550), yet for in- 
stances where Old Comedy assails not only the fallen but dead see 
P. 752 ff., Th. 840 ff., /?an. all the second half, and n. on § 97. He 
never repeats his jokes (N. 546 f.), yet says this when he is repeat- 
ing, or trying to repeat, a whole play. His ideas are always new 
('x., V. 1044, 1053, frg. 528), yet (to mention a few among many) 
cp. Th. 690 ff. with A. 326 ff., Th. 466 ff. with A. 496 ff , Th. 733 ff 
with A. 738 ff. 

If therefore he scorns the vulgarity (to (jyopriKov) of his rivals, 
and claims that he has never descended to it, if it "rouses his gall, 
turns his stomach, and ages him more than a year" (R. 1-18, 
358, N. 524, 537-43, P. 739-50, and often), we- at once suspect 
that he will do his best to outdo those rivals in that same vulgar 
stuff. And so he does on every page, with the phallus and kordax 
everywhere (n. on §95 and v. 540) and Lysistrata as climax. It 
could not be otherwise. Vulgarity and buffoonery {^(DixoXoxia-) 
are the quintessence of Old Comedy ; and for that Arist. stood 
stanchly to the end. Better honest coarseness, he thinks, than 
the modern delicate-handed hypocrisy. — Yet writers on Arist. 
continue to take N. 537 ff. seriously and make him out as attemj)!- 
ing to elevate and i)urify the stage ! 

With the audience Arist. is unceremoniously familiar ; few ugly 
names are left unapplied. They are not merely ruxvf^ovXoi and 
lUTa/SovKoL (.\. 630, 632), but avorfTOL, evpvTrptoKTOL, a^iXTtpoL, Xi'doi, 
TrpofiiiTU (N. 898, I096-IIOI, 1 201 ff.), fKUvdntvOL, KaKOjy^et? ( I'. 
55, 822 f. ), BpairiTui €rrTiyp.ivoL (Av. 7^^), yufrT/at'St?, f3o)fj.()\<>x<n, 
koyrro^vrai, av^pn-n-o^uTTui (Th. 814 ff.), (TriopKoL (R. 275 ff.}, <rvKo- 
<f}avTiu (Ec. 440), udiKoi (PI. 99). (p. further Iv 518, V. 65, 1052, 
I'. 659, L. 1217-20, R. 783, 808, and 'I\'lecl. 4, Plat. 94. Some- 
times one of the audience is singled out by name : V. 74 f., 8i, R. 



256 APPENDIX 

308 (?), Ec. 167, PI. 800. Only rarely are they flattered as clever 
(Se^iot ) : E. 233, R. 810, 1109-18. — Other references to the au- 
dience : A. 442, E. 163, P. 1 1 15, especially in bidding for the prize 
in the main parabasis, as in E. 546 ff., V. 105 1 ff., P. 761, 765 ff., 
Av. 723-36, or elsewhere (Ec. 1141), and in direct appeal to the 
judges (KpLTac) : A. 1224, N. 11 15-30, Av. 445 f., 1101-17, Ec. 
1142 f., 1154-62 ; also Pherecr. 96. (For the prize sometimes a 
prayer is put up : E. 586-94, Th. 306, 355 f., 1229-31.) 

Robert Browning's strictures on Arist. are most serious. He 
addresses him as " O genius and O gold," but deplores his exag- 
geration and advises him to " load his lash with no least lie." This 
is indeed poetic nemesis. As Arist. robbed Euripides of his rags in 
Ar/i., he is now himself despoiled, and can say with Euripides 
<f)pov8(i fxoL TO. Spd/jbara (A. 470). Arist. should have been an Eng- 
lishman, as also Josh Billings, whose prediction in his Farmer's 
An»ii7iax for i8yi is a gross exaggeration : " This will be a 
good year for Allminax, they will do better this year, than they 
have did for the last 30,000 years." 

99. Comedy scorns books: Arist. R. 943, 11 14, 1409, frg. 490, 
Eupol. 304 ; the neiv schooling: n. on § 67, 13 ; the new music : 
n. on § 67, 18 ; fustian poehy : one item suffices to illustrate it — 
its dithyrambic compounds such as are in Timotheus' Persians 100 
/Aa«pau;(£v07rAoDS, 134 fJic\afXTreTa\o)(LTwva, 229 fJiOV(TOTra\uio\vfjui<;. 
Arist. can beat these; see P. 831 ivSiaepLaveptvTjx^Tov^, V. 505 
6pdpo(f}OLToavKocf)avTo8iKOTaXuiTro)poL, Ec. 1 169 a wonl of 1 80 letters ! 
For others see N. 1004, V. 1357, R. 839, 963, 1337, and Blaydes 
on Ec. 1 1 69 for an endless list. 

100. Arist. antipathetic toward Socrates : Meyer 4. 429 ; on the 
other hand with a natural affinity for Plato, both being gentlemen 
and poets, and neither fanatic : Meyer /.c. 

102. Euripides as seen by Aristophanes : his heroes are lame 
and ragged beggars: A. 395-479. ?• M7 f-, R- 842, 846, 1063; 
he and all his stage-folk keep up a constant democratic chatter 
(AaXta, (TTw/AuAtu ) : A. 429, R. 91, 841, 943, 948-52, 1069, 1160 ; 
he discusses the problems of philosophers such as Socrates : R. 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 257 

1491-99, 1477; he uses the language of the day and debates in 
the quibbling clever style of the rhetors before the courts : A. 444, 
447, P. 532-34, R. 775,826-28,901 ; his one ambition and teaching 
was to be o-oc^ds, to think (voeiv), to show comprehension (crvveai^) : 
A. 400 f, 445, E. 18, N. 1377, L. 368, Th. 21, 93, 927, R. 776, 
^93> 954~58, 973, 145 1, frg- 638 ; his favourite themes were love- 
sick women, incest, adultery: N. 137 1 ff., Th. 546 f., R. 850, 
1043-54, 1079-81 ; his warblings and versicles (eTrvAXta) were im- 
moral: A. 398, R 532, R. 849, 942, 944, 1302-09, 1323, 1328; 
his gods were Aether, Glib, Grasp, and Sniff: R. 892 f., Th. 272 ; 
or there were no gods at all : Th. 45 1 (see n. on § 5 7) ; he taught 
men to be fxoxO-qpoi (R. ion), dyopaloi, KO/8aXoi, Travovpyoi (R. 
1015), oTto/iAvAoi ( R. 1069), to avTayopev€Lv (R. 1072), and shirk 
civic obligations (R. 1065 f.) ; his disciples were such as Cleophon 
and Theramenes (R. 967) ; he had filled Athens with vTroypaix/xa- 
Tti? and /3wp.oX6)(oi (R. 1084 f.), and emptied the gymnasia of all 
save chatterers (R. 1070, 1088, 1491 ff). — See also n. on § 103. 
I Arist. believed a poet should be the teacher of men and should 
make them better: R. 1008-10, 1030-36, 1053-56, A. 500, 645, 
656-58, R. 391 f., 686 f. ; Rohde 2. 224, S. H. Butcher Aristotle's 
Theory of Poetry and Fine Art, ch. 5. 

103. Euripides patriotic: see his Herac/eidae 3.x\6. Suppliants ; 
tragic : .Aristot. Poet. 1453 ^ ^9 T/aayt/cwraros rtov TrutrjTCJv ; sympa- 
thetic : Mrs. Browning's " Our Euripides the human, With his 
droppings of warm tears," and cp. Arist. A. 413, 420, 422, R. 
1063-66; tooeful : O. Ribbeck "Prophet des VVeltschmerzes " 
(Nestle 28). lie unfrocked and denatured his heroes: note on 
§ 102 ; neglected dramatic situation for the sake of Tre/jtVuToi (ex- 
cursuses), dvTiAoyiai (debates), and Socratic philosophy : Ran. 942, 
775, 1491-99, 1477, Nestle 35-3^; insulted dramatic pro])riety 
by introducing comic scenes : Nestle 32, 397 (pioting schol. 
Androm. 32 and hypotheses to Alcest. and Orest.; was guilty of 
various mannerisms such as the stereotyped prologue {Ran. 1197- 
1247), and linguistic tricks such as KaTi^ytv l^ytv jjytv (Bacch. 1065, 
cp. Ran. 1336, 1354 f.) and 01*1 6'£A<i>v OtKtov or vvfj-^-qv uvvfxifiov 

AKISTOI'IIANKS — I 7 



258 APPENDIX 

{Alcest. 141, 242, 521, 528, Hec. 431, 566, 608, 612, 948, 1121, 
sescenties, cp. Ran. 1082, 1334); left his chorus external to the 
play: Aristot. Poet. 1456 a 26-28, Arist. A. 443; employed the 
deus ex machina : Nestle 398 for recent discussions. | His 
themes disgusting, e.g. those of Chtysippiis, Aeolus, Stheiieboea, 
the Cretans and Cretan Women: Arist. R. 850, 1079-81, N. 1371 
ff., Nestle 33 f. and 394, who thinks Euripides stands to Aeschy- 
lus and Sophocles as Ibsen to Goethe and Schiller. Arist. felt that 
the grandeur of the Aeschylean tragedy was missing because the 
religious sense of Fate (such as that which doomed the house of 
Atreus) was gone out, leaving the Phaedras and Melanippes of 
Euripides to be actuated by the secular lawless passion of ordi- 
nary sexualism. Such presentation might be true to life and yet a 
libel ; for the true soul of man is more divine than his life. 
Therefore Arist. called Euripides a libellous woman-hater. 

104. If Ridgeway's theory of the origin of the drama be cor- 
rect, viz. from the annual sacrifice and dirge celebrated at the 
tomb of the dead chieftain, may we not fancy that comedy, though 
distinct in origin, came in time to be the substitute for the games 
which followed the dirge and enlivened again the downcast spirits? 
So, too, now the military band plays a funeral march when escort- 
ing the soldier to his grave, but a quick and lively piece on the 
return. 

108. Alcibiades' assault on Hipponicus : Plut. Alcib. 8. 

109. Arist., like Plato, had his vision of a perfect Republic. It 
shall be no aristocracy (Av. 125 f.), nor tyrannical democracy 
either (147), but a Sans Souci (904 ff.) whence all undesirable cit- 
izens shall be excluded — hungry lyric poets, oracle-mongers, 
charlatan-scientists, government-inspectors, lobbyists (i/'7^<^icr/xaro- 
TTwAat), father-beaters, modern musicians, and informers. Revolu- 
tionists are roasted there (1584). There shall be no demagogues; 
only " the best " shall rule (R. 718-37, E. 738). 

no. Socrates not a physical philosopher in mature life : Plat. 
Apol. 19 cd, Xen. Mem. i. i. 11 ; but for his earHer studies see 
Plat. Phaed. 96 b, Xen. Conviv. 6. 6 f., Couat 294, Mind N. S. 



NOTES ON INTRODUCTION 259 

18 (1909), 278 f. Hence it is believed by Ivo Bruns Das literar. 
Portrdt der Griechen (1896) 181 ff. and Meyer 4. 429 that 
in 423 B.C. Socrates was popularly supposed, and perhaps by 
Arist. also, to teach such doctrines as are put into his mouth in 
Nubes. 

111. The cross-currents of the time: Meyer 4. 148 and 
420. I Pisander : n. on $ 67, 3 ; for his politics see Andoc. i. 36, 
Whibley 90, Busolt 3. 1291. | Euripides scorned demagogues: 
Hec. 131-33, 254-57, Orest. 772, frgg. 194, 200,784, 788, Nestle 
289 ff. ; loved democratic Athens : Heracleidae and Suppliants^ 
Nestle 283, 314; longed for peace: frg. 453 ixovsx Kresphontes, 
Nestle 310; esteemed the middle class and the small farmer: 
Suppl. 238-45, Orest. 917-22, Nestle 299 ff. ; deplored the power 
of the orators: Orest 902-08, y]/<?^. 580-83, Hippo I. ^%6 f., 989, 
frgg. 56, 206, 253, 439, 583, 597, Nestle 206 ff., 317 f.; vilified 
soothsayers: EI. 400, Iph. A. 520 f, 956-58, Phoen. 954-59, frg. 
795, Nestle no ff | Clcon denounced Nicias : Thuc. 4. 27. 5 ; in- 
veighed against rhetoric : Thuc. 3. 38. 2-7, Meyer 4. 421 f. ; was 
the accuser of Anaxagoras : Diog. Laert. 2. 12, Busolt 3. 
9. I Etiathlus (n. on § 67, 5) accused Protagoras : Diog. Laert. 9. 
54 reporting Aristotle. | Diopeithes' law : Plut. Peric. 32, Busolt 3. 
826, P. Decharme in Melanges Perrot {i<)Ot,) 73-77. 

112. Praise of the "good old times" is frequent: Crat. 165, 
238, 239, Telecl. I, Arist. chiefly in the dyoJvcs of iV//^. (952-1104) 
and Ran. (895-1098, especially vv. 1014-17, 1071-73), E. 565-80, 
V. ro95, L. 274-82, 285, 665, Kc. 215-28 ; mention of Aeschylus : 
A. 10, N. 1365, frg. 153 and latter half of Ran.; of Myronides : 
1,. 801, Va:. 303-07 ; of Phormio : E. 562, L. 804 ; of Phrynichus, 
tragic poet: V. 220, 269, Av. 748-50, Th. 164-67, R. 1299 f. 
(other mention being neutral). — Praise of the living or just-dead 
almost absent : Agathon : R. 84 (doubtful if praise) ; Arignotus : E. 
1278 (lauded only to contrast with Arii)hrades) ; Cratinus : R. 357 
(dead); Dcxitheus : A. 14 (contrast to Chaeris) ; lophon : R. 73 
(doubtful); Lamachus : Th. 841, R. 1039 (dead); Sophocles: 
1". 531 ; Pericles: Eupol. 94. In Ran. 696 Athens is praised for 



26o APPENDIX 

having enfranchised the slaves who fought at Arginusae. — " Sprin- 
kles with roses": Niib. 510. | Exceptions to universal ridicule: 
Couat 259, 265, 236. 



NOTES ON THE TEXT 

Hypothesis a'. diroTvxuv Kxe. : it may be held as certain that no 
second Nubes was ever played ; for Aristotle made no mention of 
such production in his AtSaaKaXiat, as is proved by the schol. on v. 
552. Indeed Ritter, van Leeuwen, and others doubt if the poet 
ever meant to present it a second time. They think he rewrote 
the parabasis, with perhaps a few other changes, and published the 
play as an appeal from the unjust judges and the mob to the cul- 
tured and posterity — hence the use of the first person tyw in the 
parabasis. Van Leeuwen Pro/egg. ad Niib. VII. 

1. On sleeping outdoors see V. 68, where Philocleon sleeps 
cVi Tov Ttyovi. The thing is common in Greece and the Orient ; 
there is no need to assume here the use of the iKKVKXrjfia, as do 
Merry, Rogers, and Mazon. 

2. TO XP^H-* Twv vvKToiv: w/iaf a monster of a night, instead of 
what a monstrous nig/it. The chief quality of a person or thing 
becomes the substantive thought and word, the person or thing 
being then thrown into the gen. or the adjectival form. Hence 
in Engl. : that rascal of a man, your Highness, his Majesty ; in 
Greek : TvSe'os ySi'a, o-^eVos 'Hercwvos, ts T7;Ae/i.axoio, Se/xas 'kyaitiix.- 
voi/os, 'loKao-TT/s Kiipa {beloved Jocaste), ofifui vvfx<j}a<; {dear bride), 
(iirj 'HpaKXrjecr) {mighty Herailes) ; K.-G. i. 280. | In Arist. to 
Xp>}/Aa is thus used c. gen. as here with exclamat. ocrov A. 150, E. 
1 2 19, Th. 281, R. 1278; without o<tov V. 933, Av. 826, L. 2,2^, 
103 1, 1085, PI. 894, frg. 67. I For pi. vuKTcs = horae nocturnae 
K.-G. I. 18. I On Greek facility of imagination in the theatre 
(imagining night when day), see Gard.-Jev. 687, and note chil- 
dren in their games : " Let's play Bear " ; then presto : " Let's 
play Fire-engine." 



NOTES Ox\ TEXT 261 

4. ^-yw : not by any means is every eyw or av emphatic ; but 
those at the verse-end usually are : e.g. 49, 507, 1301, A. 50, 72, 
325. 358, and often. 

5. ovK av : for the freq. omission of the verb after av see 
GMT. 227 ; in Arist. after ovk dv or ovS" dv indie, is omitted in 
A. 137, N. 5, P. 907, Ec. 390; opt. in A. 966, 1035, N. 108, V. 
298, Av. 11,816, L. 130, PI. 924; partic. in E. 1252. The verb 
is further omitted after ovkow dv L. 307 ; tC 8rjr dv N. 154, 769, 
L. 399 and Eupol. frg. 46; n' 8' dv Th. 773; ws dv Ec. 735; 
other av-connections N. 690, 1379, Av. 356, L. 113, 115, Ec. 920. 

6. Alliteration (sound-play in the initial letter) : cp. 12 f., 1049, 
1376, 1407, A. 983 f., R. 829. 

7. In-moving of. the Attic country-folk; Thuc. 2. 14, 2. 
16. I ore. causal, Lat. quando, quandoqtiidem ; A. 401, 647, E. 
1112, 1122, N. 7, 34, 717, 1217, 1474, V. 1134, P. 196, 1251, L. 
421, Th. 707, R. 22, 1 189 from Sobol. Synt. 154 f.). This usage 
runs through the language; see Nilsson 51, 75, 90, 107, 129. 
I KoXdur' t^to-Ti : final -ut was usually sounded short, as witness 
the accent, e.g. of rpd-niXjui, Xvofuii, Au'eo-^at (K.-Bl. 1. 320). 
Hence in daily speech it was probably elided like any short vowel, 
and for this reason in Arist. also, though not in tragedy, whether 
falling in arsis or thesis; e.g. in inf. (N. 7, 42, 523, 550, 780, 
etc.), in ist sing, as oi/n', Seo/i' (V. 941, 1426, P. 102, 324), in 2d 
sing, as fttfivqcr' (Av. 1054), in 3d sing, as <j>utv€T, Kpeixya-er (V. 273, 
808), in 2(1 sing, imv., as x^ipi-cr , diad (P. 392, 906). Or -at 
may stand fast, with aphaeresis of the foil, initial, as dx&op^L 'yw 
A. 62, Ki\r)Ti<TaL 'k(\€vov v. 501. Sometimes, though rarely, crasis 
takes place, as in Sr/^o/iupi A. 325, TrepwipofjLuirekdovTu R. 509. 
Cp. oi/i = oi/xoi 773, and see K.-P>I. i. 238 and 223; lilaydes here. 

13. Diaeresis of the three fiirpu is noticeable in varying degree : 
striking in e.g. A. 31, 199, N. 13, 47, 686, K. 100, 165,218, 1*. 291, 
Av. 175, L. 884, R. 184, 608, 1203 ; less so in e.g. N. 147, 169, 
225, 651, 678, 790, 802, 854, 869, 878, 885, 1258, A. 181 ; hardly 
at all in 127, 131, 854. Cp. notes on 16, 50, and for tragedy see 
T. Goodell C/ass. /'hi/, i (1906), 165. 



262 APPENDIX 

14. K<S|i,Tiv tx**" : cp. E. 580 c. schol., 1 1 21, Av. 911, 1282, Xen. 
Rep. Lac. 11. 3, Lysias 16. 18, and see Gard.-Jev. 65. 

15. |vv(opiK£v€Tai : prob. abridged from ^vj/wpiSi-xeijeTut ; cp. 
KO/u.i/'-€U/oi7r-i-/cws (E. 18), aix-<f)opev<;, (jKifx-irovi (N. 255) for *(tkl^- 

TTo-TTous and see Brug. 135, Herwerden Lex. Grace. Supplet. 

(1902) S.V. TpLfJ-'xTKOV. 

16. Equal bisection of iambic trimeter is shown by T. Goodell 
C/ass. Phil. I (1906), 145-66, to be neither infrequent nor vicious, 
as is often stated. It is effective rhetorically in pointing contrasts 
and hinting at heightened feeling. The instances in tragedy Pro- 
fessor Goodell has collected ; exx. in comedy with punctuation 
are E. 79, 671, 673, 1008, N. 16, 141, 1142, 1201, 1246, P. 847, 
879, Th. 186 ; with hiatus E. 75, N. 487, 780, 822, 11 77, V. 6, P. 
588, 694, 833 ; with natural syntactic detachment A. 1027, E. 750, 
1159, N. loi, 126, 181, 212, 814, 886, 1237. See further the 
exx. in n. on 51. 

18. irai : addressed to a slave, is regularly without w; so 132, 
614, T 145 and very freq. But in familiar tone it is tS -Koi as in A. 
432, 1136, 1137, 1140, Plat. Meti. 82 h,Symp. 175 h. (In N. 87, 
1 165, V. 290, etc. (3 Trat is to son, not slave.) On w c. voc. see 
J. A. Scott A.J. P. 24 (1903) and 26 (1905). 

21. <})ty cSw : by Arist. used only in quest. (22 times), e.g. 494, 
787, 847. For <^epe in quest, see n. on 218 ; for subjv., n. on 731. 

22. Tov : gen. of exchange ; N. 31, V. 1424, P. 848, Demos. 7. 
23, Plat. L^ys. 208 a, Xen. Cyr. 3. i. 37. K.-G. 2. 378. 

23. KOTrirartos : on substantives in -tia? see Curt. Stud. 9 (1876), 
and for comedy Peppier 38. Exx. : /Aao-rtytas (R. 501), orty/AaT- 
(L. 331), opo<^- (V. 206), KU.1TV- (V. 151), avKO(f>avT- (E. 437), 
TTwymv-, o'Xi^-? ^/tA-, (TTToyy-, etc. 

24. it,(K6in\v : iKKOTTTU) is the 710X propria for destruction of eyes, 
teeth, and trees! Of eyes : A. 92, N. 24, Av. 342, 583, 1613, 
Demos. 18. 67, 24. 140, 24. 141, Aeschin. i. 172, Luc. Tox. 24 ; of 
teeth: R. 548, 572, Phryn. frg. 68, Septuag. Exod. 21. 27 ; of trees : 
Hdt. 6. 37, 9. 97, Thuc. 6. 99.3, Xen. Anab. i. 4. 10, 2. 3. 10, 
Hell. 6. 5. 37, Lysias 7. 11, 7. 15, 7. 24, Demos. 53. 15 (of vines). 



NOTES ON TEXT 263 

26. TovT eo-Ti . . . TODTi : cp. P. 64, SopH. O. T. 1013. Yox thc 
quite diff. phrase tovt iKelvo see n. on 9S5. Different also is Av. 507. 

28. iroX€|iio-TT|pia : on prizes to the victors in the Panathenaea 
c. 400 B.C. see Huberts and Gardner II no. 169 (or Dittenberger 
2, no. 668), Mommsen J^es^e 85-98. Prizes for ittttol troXtfiiaT-qpioL 
were as follows : in the single-horse race, ist prize 16 amphoras of 
oil, 2d prize 4; in the 2-horse chariot-race, ist prize 30 am- 
phoras, 2d prize 6 ; for the 2 finest 2-horse chariots in the pro- 
cession 4 amphoras and i. 

30. tC xp*os 'P"* K-' • ^^ Euripides tC xp<os €/3a Sthfui, where XP^°5 
= XPVH^ ^^ often. For Euripides' love of the terminal ace. (no 
prepos.) note in Hippol. alone vv. 36, 108, 233, 760, 782, 836, 
841, 974, 1102, 1371. 

32. €|aX£(ras : cp. Xen. Oecon. II. 18. On horses and horse- 
manship in (ireece see M. H. Morgan's translat. of Xen. Trepi itt- 
ttikt}?, with fine essays and notes (1893). 

35. €v€xvpao-€<r0ai : in support of the aor. -o-ao-^at of the Mss. see 
1 141 StKtt'mfr 6*1X1, GMT. 127, and the long list of such aorists in 
K.-G. I. 195-97; note also the marks of old fashion in Strep- 
siades' speech, as ottws 60, toC irajTiTov 65, iKpivofjuOa 66. But in 
view of Kaehler's note here, showing that after <i>r]ixL in the sense 
o{ proinisint^, tiDrafcniiii:;, etc., Arist. uses the fut. inf. 27 times, 
it would be but obstinate to stickle for the aorist in two places. | 
On ivixvpa and debts in general see Gard.-Jev. 539. | «t€6v : used 
by Arist. in quest, only ; r.^. 93, 820, 1502, E. 32, 733, 1246, 1392. 

39. (TV 8' oviv KoiOcvSe : 8' ovv with imv. and av (or 3d person 6, 
17, 01, ai) in A. 186, N. 39, V. 6, 764, 1154, Av. 56,!.. 491, 'l"h. 
612, R. 31 ; Aesch. Prom. 935, Euiit. 226, 887 (c. potent, opt. 
/xeVoi? av) \ So])h. Aj. 114, 961, El. 891, O.T. 310, 669, O.C. 
1205, Tr. 329, 1 1 57; Eur. Androm. 258, Her. Fur. "jib, Rhes. 
868, etc. The ])ronoun to us seems hardly to admit emphasis ; 
see n. on 4 and 1364. Cp. also fir] itv ye L. 189. 871. 

39. lo-e' oTi : ])ractically an adverb, as if IjOoti, like ^-qXovoTL, it 
ignores syntax of /In, though sometimes ([ualified by ev, o-a<^', or 
TOVT ; P. 373, Av. 1408, Th. 12, PI. 183, 889. Adverbial also is 



264 APPENDIX 

(ev) otS' oTt in A. 555, N. 1 1 75, V. 134S, P. 365, 1296, etc. Sobol. 

Syn^. 120. Cp. also ttCx; Sokcis 881, ovk €<t6' ottoj? (ou) 802, 6av- 

/LuxcTTos-fVos, vTrep<f>v(i)<;-w';, and the like ; K.-G. 2. 353 f. and 415. 

40. €ts T11V K€<}>aX.Tiv : cp. A. 8^^, P. 1063, PI. 526, 651, Plat. 
Euthyd. 283 e. Demos. 18. 290, 19. 130. 

41. eWe : in Arist. c. opt. E. 404, 618, L. 940, 974, Th. 1050, 
Ec. 947 ; c. indie. N. 24, Ec. 938; c. oj^eAov (-es, -e) N. 41, V. 
731, P. 1068. R. 1382. Only three of these instances occur in 
dialogue verse (iambic trim.), viz. L. 940 (spoken by Kinesias the 
poet) and N. 24 and 41 (in the mouth of the old rustic) ; the 
other exx. are in lyric verse, dactylic hexam., or quoted from 
Euripides. In accord with this, et^e is certainly rare in Attic prose. 
I find it only in Xen. Mem. i. 2. 46, Hell. 4. i. 38, and Plat. 
Phaedr. 227 r. ei,'^' we^eAov (-es, -e) I do not find at all outside of 
poetry. Here therefore Streps, seems to fall into the tragic style 
of Euripides, who uses dQt. very frequently. 

46. Me-yaKXcovs : for the family tree see J. Kirchner Prosopo- 
graphia Attica (1903) 2. 53 ; in part as follows : 

MeyaxA^s {c. 633 B.C.) 

I 
MeyaxA^S 



KAttCT^e'vi;? ^ 'l-mroKpaTm 

I „ I 

MeyaKA^S MeyaxA^S 

Aeivo/xaxr} + KAttvtas McyaKA^S 

'A AKty8iaS?7S ^ MeyaKAiys * 

Notes : ^ Hence the family name Alcmaeonidae. 2 fhe Reformer 508/7 
B.C. •'^The great Traitor. * Contemporary with the Clouds and men- 

tioned by the comic poets (see Kock 1.418 and 704) and by Thuc. i. 126. 12. 
See also C.I. A. i. 122-24 and 148-50. Schol. on Find. Pyth. 7 says that he 
won an Olympic victory with chariot 436 B.C. Perhaps he is 6 Kot(n//)os in 
Ach. 614. 



NOTES ON TEXT 265 

48. eyKtKOLavpi»fj.ivr]v : cp. 8oo, A(-/i. 614. Schol. here : tOTi Se 
EperpiaKOV to ovofxa. avrr] 8k iyaixi]dr) IltKncrrparw eVi^eipT^cravTi 
Tvpaweiv. Hence she must have been a daughter of the 2d 
Megacles in the above table (Hdt. i. 60). But Lex. Viiuiobon. 
60 says of her : ryf iJ-y'jT-qp MeyaxXcou?, koI 'AAk/xuiWos ywr/. Hence 
the modern uncertainty, so great that Wilamowitz denies her 
existence {Ar/s/. tind Athen i. in). 

50. Itemizing diaeresis, as in 661, 1131, A. 31, V. 676 f. 
(anap. tetram.) ; cp. N. 212, 761 for probably a like meditative 
delivery. 

51. One word exactly fills the 2d half of the verse. Of this 
there are 28 exx. in the first three plays. But in only 14 of them 
is there any likelihood of a medial caesura between the two halves. 
Such likelihood is underscored in the following : A. 37, 63, 87, 
161, 194, 368, 374, 526, 603, 605, 871, 1089, 1176 ; E. 18, 37, 
62, 175, 611, 1152, 1155, 1157, 1 168 , 1370 ; N. 15, 5^, 166, 730, 

747; 

54. Q.V €<f>a(TKov : " iterative av," GMT. 162 ; a colloquial usage 
found over 50 times in Arist., not at all in Horn., Hes., Find., 
Aesch., twice in Soph. (P/iiV. 290, 443), once in Eur. (Phoen. 401), 
six times in Hdt., once in Thuc. (i. 71. 3), here and there in 
Xen. See R. C. Seaton Class. Rev. 3 . 1889), 343. Exx. in this 
play c. impf. indie. 54, 855, 979, 981 (?), 1385 ; c. aor. indie. 977, 
1382, 1384, 1385. 

57. -iriTTiv Xvxvov : if original with Arist., the metaphor was soon 
borrowed; see I'lat. com. frg. 190 wvT^o-o/iAai a-TiXfi-qv {an earthen 
vessel) rjrts /xt/ ttotk;. Cp. a8r;-<^ayos {big-eating, fu/l-grotun) 
applied not only to aywj/ta-Tr^s tTTTros by Pherecr. 197 and to ittttwi' 
l^f.vyo'i in official inscriptions {e.g. Dittenberger 2, p. 489), but also 
U) \vxy(><i by Alcaeus com. 21 and to TfHrifjr]<i by Lysias (frg. 103 
Hait.-Saiippc). 

58. KXd^s : /f> get ciiffftl or some other cause for weeping; so 
1415, 1418, 1436, 1439, A- 822, 827, V. 440, etc. ; espec. freq. in 
the fut. K\a\HT(.i anfl KAavrrtrai as a threat, as at 933, P. 255, 532, etc. 

59. Tu»v 0pvaX\(8«v ; " jiartitivc " gen., regularly c. art. as in 



266 APPENDIX 

French: " Donnez-moi du pain"; A. 184, 805, V. 239, P. 30, 
258, 772, 960, 962, 1 102, nil, 1 136, 1 145, 1 169, Av. 357, R. 
1263 (K.-G. I. 345)- Cp. gen. after iraparpwyu), Trapeadio) in E. 
1026, P. 415, R. 988. 

60. iiirws: in place of w? temporal belongs to Ionic prose (okw?) 
and to tragedy. It is found only here in Arist., perhaps as befit- 
ting the old-time farmer. Sobol. Svfi^. 154 notes oTrdre for ore in 
the mouth of another rustic, Dicaeopolis (Ac/i. 19), and i-n-ei 
temporal in frg. 403. Cp. further ottw? avwrarw ( = u)s av. ) in P. 
207 (as oTTws c. superlat. in Theogn. 427, Aesch. Agam. 600, 605, 
1350, etc.), and ottws in final clauses in tragedy, Thuc, and Xen. 
(GMT. 313. 2). I vi6sovTo<ri: no article is needed when the 
demonstrat. really points to something present here or there ; 
A. 130, 187, 960, 1049, E. 1 1 77, 1181, V. 262. So 68t in A. 908, 
V. 1 132, L. 1072, Ec. 27, and oSe A. 336, 454, 810, 985, E. 1166, 
etc. These exx. show that the demonstrat. does not tend, in 
Arist. at least, to take position after the substantive, as is stated by 
K.-G. I. 629. 

63. Cp. Eur. Pkocn. 58, where it is the mother who names one 
of her daughters. 

65. Tov irairirov: '^ from his grandfather," the gen. being the 
TraTpiKY) TTTuicris. "Die spatere prosa kann das nicht mehr sondern 
muss praepositionen, oltto, in 'las und kolvy] auch iiri, dem genetiv 
zusetzen " (Wilamowitz Em. J/erac. 31). Exx. of grandfather's 
name held by grandson are to be seen in Azl 283, Thuc. 6. 54. 6, 
Plato Zach. 179 a, Parm. 126 c, Theag. 130 a, Demos. 39. 27, 57. 
37, and in the genealogy of Aristophanes, Sophocles, Pericles, 
Cleisthenes, Alcibiades, Nicias, and the elder Thucydides. 

66. €Kpiv6|A€0a: for the sfense to dispute, quarrel, see Eur. Med. 
609, Hdt. 3. 120, Menand. Epitr. 529 (Korte) and cp. a.vaKpivop.a.1 
Hdt. 9. 56, BiaKpivofxaL Hdt. 9. 58 ; also the comic derivation 
of his name given by Agoracritus in Eq. 1258 ev rfj ayopa yap 
Kpivoptvo? ijSoaKoprjv. \ tu \p6va : adverbial and with art., as here, 
in 865, 1242, V. 460, frg. 198 ; but it is common without art., and 
regularly so in Aesch. 



NOTES ON TEXT 267 

69. iroXiv : often means the Acropolis, for the Athenians ; Thuc. 
2. 15. Used in Arist. in this sense it omits the art. if a prepos. is 
present; e.g. eis 7roA.1v L. 302, 9T2 ; Trpos irokiv L. 288; iv -noku 
E. 267, L. 245 ; Ik TrdXews E. 1093. See Starkie on Vesp. 492 for 
Aristophanic usage of article with tto'Ais, dyopa, -rrvv^^ dypo?, etc. 

70. M€-yaKX«T]s : whether the poet should or should not con- 
tract the nomin. of proper names in -kAe't;? into -kAt}? (as in prose) 
depended upon his metrical needs. In Arist. no contraction takes 
place if the 4th syllable from the end is short — hence always 
Ilcpi-, 2o<^o-, 'le/30-, Eevo-, ''^iXo-.) Xapi-KXsris ; but it does take place 
if this syllable is long — hence 'H/w-, ©e/u,io-To-KX,Tis. K.-Bl. i. 432 
Anm. 6, Kock on Eq. 283, Speck 34. | |uo-ti8 ex^v : opportunities 
were by this time rare for the old families of nobility to appear in 
the elegant costume of Marathonian days (Thuc. i. 6). Alcibia- 
des and his like might wear outlandish sandals, a trailing robe 
and long hair, but the sansculottic masses of Cleon's time were 
against it. See Neil on Eq. 967, Athen. 534 c, 512 be. 

■J I. }itv ovv: not continuative as in 66, but corrective (I'mo vero) 
as in 221, 1086, 1112, 1454; = /Ar/ (xAAa (Av. 109), /xu. At" dAAci 
(PI. 22, where see van I.eeuwen). | <})€XX€ws : jjrobably not a proper 
name as in L. and S., but any stony mountain-slope, such as that 
of Hymettus, where soil is thin and pasturage scant. Harpocr. : 
TO. TTtTfjotSr) Kdl alytfiuTa •^uipia t^eAAcas f.KaX.ovv. 

72. tvTi(i,(j.4vos : enwrapped in, seems to be the Ionic and poetic 
vox propria when one is clad in any sort of skin (8L<j)dipav, Xeovrrjv, 
7rup8aAr/i', vifipL^a, i/uKos, etc.) ; so Av. 1250, R. 434, Ec. 80, frgg. 
65, 253, Eur. /on 1490, Hdt. 7. 69, Luc. 7'/;//. 6, Jiaee/i. i, Here. 
I. Cp. iTr-aiJLfjifvo<: Hdt. I. 199, 8. 105. 

74. tcarixn: regarded as imperf in K.lil. 2. 570. 

76. 8ai(iov£us : cp. I'. 541, I'l. 675. Alex. 167 (K. 2. 358) ou'o; 
yipiDv Sai/xoi/tws. So Sui/xocw 1'. 588. Adjectives were fortified 
not only by the colorless adverbs Trdw, <rcf)6Si)u, /laXa, but by others 
of (originally) definite meaning, just as (ierman uses adverl)ially 
furelithar, tiichtig, riesig. Such were 8«ii'a>«;, ((r^j^iyjois, xfAcwq, 
ur£i^i/a»Si tViciKU)?, inr€fj<f>vws, OuvfiutrTM';, OaffxiuriMS, kuAcu?. C p. 



268 APPENDIX 

also adverbial phrases such as Jc^arov ws (<^/3ovt^os Av. 428), 

dpyaXe'ov ojs (croc^ds V. I 279), i'7rep</)ua)? ws (AeuKOTrAr^^rys Ec. 386). 

For a complete study see Schwab 482-495. 

80. 4>€i8iir'7r(8iov : a coaxing diminutive in friendly tone ; so 
'BavdiSiov R. 582, A.tjijll8iov E. 726, 1 199, 'Ep/aijStov P. 382. Others 
carry contempt as BotwrtSiov A. 872, AafiaxL-n-mov A. 1207 ; and 
others are meant to be comically impudent and quite improbable 
except in the play, as StoKpart'Sioi/ (N. 222, 237, 746), Ei/atTrtSiov 
(A. 404, 475). See Peppier 20-27. 

82. t8ov : means (i) there ! used when doing what is requested : 
255, 635, 825, and often ; (2) see there ! used when repeating some 
word or phrase of another to deride it: 818, 872, 1469, E. 87, 
344, 703, etc. ; (3) there, when handing or bringing something to 
some one: A. 434, 470, E. 909, 1166, V. 805, 851, etc. It is 
stressed by an added ye : 818, 1469, E. 87, L. 441, etc. 

83. Iloo-etSw TovTovC : so in 1478 there is an appeal to the statue 
of Hermes, and in V. 875, Th. 748, Pherecr. 87, Eur. Phoen. 631 
to Apollo ^01^0% or 'Ayuvs. 

84. jiTi '|Aoi -yt : the same phrase and with no verb 433, V. 1 1 79, 
1400, L. 922, Plat. Hipparch. 229 e, firjKir l/xotyt R. 1407 ; with 
verb E. 19. Cp. without ye or verb A. 345 /i.17 fxoi Trpd^uo-tv, 

Pherecr. 67 /xr/ fxoL (fidKOv;, Alex. 127 fxr] 7rpo<^ao-eis ivTavdd fiOL, 
Demos. 4. 19 pir/ /xot fjivpiov; ^ivovi, Arist. A v. 145 /XT^Sa/Acus "^jjuv 
TTupa Tr]v ddXaXTav, L. 938 ^jJi] 'fie ye, Plat. Pf'Otag. 318 b fxr] outws, 
331 r fjirj fxoi, Men. 74 it /XT/ yu-ot ourws. Soph. Ant. 577 /^^ r/at/Sas 
en. Cp. infra 196, 267 /tr/Trw ye. 

86. ovTws : a word coming in probably from philosophic discus- 
sion on TO ov Being, and to, ovtu.. Note Gorgias' treatise Trept rov 
fxr] ovTos. In Arist. it is found at N. 86, 1271, V. 997, R. 189, 
Ec. 786, PI. 82, 286, 289, 327, 403, 581, 836, 960, frg. 586, E. 
177 (doubtful) ; in Aesch., Soph., and Thuc. not at all, in Eur. a 
few times, in Antiphon once (2 ft 10), in Hdt. once (7. 143. 6), in 
Plato often, in Demos. 4 times, Aeschin. 6 times, but in no other 
orators. 

go. X^-ye 8^ : Sr; c. imv. very common, e.g. with \e$ov 340 ; 



NOTES ON TEXT 269 

aye 478, 636. 775; eiTre 500, 652, 683, 748, 778, 141O ; (ppovnCe 
700 ; (f>ipe 940, 1088. 

94. »|/vx«v : from Aristot. £>c Anima i. 2 we learn what various 
philosophers up to this time had held the soul to be ; e.g. Democri- 
tus TTvp, Thales kivt^tlkov tl a motive principle, Diogenes of Apollonia 
d»/p, Heraclitus a.vadviJ.ia(Ti<; fiery vapour, Hippo JSwp, Critias alfxa. 

96. irvi-ytws : Hippon's oven-doctrine of the heavens is put into 
the mouth also of the learned Meton, Av. looi. 

97. av6paK£s : for Heraclitus' comparison of men to dvOpaKes see 
Sext. ad?: Matii. 7. 129 f. in Ritter and Preller §41 or Diels 64. 

98. Against this identification of Socrates and sophists in both 
theory and practice see the protests of Xen. {Mem. i. 2. 31) and 
Plato {ApoL 21 d). 

loi. <J)povTio-To( : were attacked by the comic poets it would 
seem almost by concert. On the same day with the Clouds were 
exhibited Kdvvos by Amipsias and W-vt'ivi] by Cratinus. In Wvrivy] 
Chaerephon figured as a " dirty man and poor " (avxiJ-rjpo<; Kal irivr^^, 
schol. Plat. 331 Bekker) ; in Kdvvos the chorus was made up of 
<f>povTL(TTaL (See n. on 179.) By whomsoever originated the 
name <f}povTi(TT^<; stuck to Socrates as a stinging word of contempt. 
Xen. Conviv. 6. 6, 7. 2, Mem. 4. 7. 6, Plato Apol. 18 <^. | KaXoi re 
Kd'/a9o£ : the aristocrats of Athens took to themselves the names 

KuAoi KayaOoi, idOXoi, )(pr)(TTOL, yevvuloi, dpuTTOL, piXriaToi, oci^iot, 
oAi'yoi, eTTUiKCis, yvwpi/xoi. ewLffiuveis, tv-jropoi, erSat/tiOvcs- The masses 
(" i)Oorer class," " baser sort," " riff-raff ") were 01 ttoXXol, to Tr\rjOo<;, 
irovrjpoL, Trivr}T(.<;, )(tipov<;. See ps.-Xen. /?ep. Ath., Aristot. A/h. 
Pol., Neil's Equites, App. W. Such being the case, it is only in 
ridicule that .'\rist. here applies the noble term to Socrates and his 
fricnrls. 

102. alfioi : (TytTK.Ui.(T p.ov BrjKoniKou iTrtcf>6tyfJua mtpa AwpLCvaiv 
(P.ekkcr /Inecd. 360. 11). At present it is found only in Arist. to 
mark disgust and derision always except in Av. 1342 ; viz. A. 189, 
E. 957, N. 102, 829, 906, V. 37, 973, 1338, P. 15, 544, I 291, Av. 
610, 1055, '342- ^p- the variants (ufioi/iol P. 1066, iui/i^oi Iv 
891, V. 1338. 



270 APPENDIX 

104. Xaip«<t>J.v: 144-146, 156, 503, 831, 1465, 1505, V. 1408, 
141 2, Av. 1296, 1564, frgg. 291, 539, 573, Crat. 202, Eupol. 165, 
239, Com. Adesp. 26, Xen. Mem. i. 2. 48, 2. 3. i, Plat. Apol. 20^, 
and as interlocutor, in Gorg. and Charm. 

105. vT|in.ov : perhaps a word persisting in common speech, if 
not often emerging in written language. It has recently turned 
up in Menand. Epitr. 28 (Korte). But for this fact, we might have 
taken it as one of Strepsiades' old-time words ; for it occurs no- 
where else in Arist. exc. in dactylic hexameter (P. 1063). See n. 
on 868. 

106. d\<j>tTwv : as here 176, 648, E. 1359, V. 301, P. 477, 636. 
Cp. TO. a-LTLa E. 575, fia^a A. 732, jioaKuv for Tp€<f>eLv 33 I. 

108. tt. . . yt : when the verb is omitted in the main clause (espe- 
cially if negative), almost invariably ye appears in the subordinate 
clause (Sobol. Svfit 136) ; e.g. A. 60, 137, 296, 619, 966, E. 961, 
N. 108, V. 299, 1256, etc., Eur. /on. 961, Ip/i. T. 866, Phoen. 1347. 

109. (|>a(riavovs : Athen. 386 ^-87 /. ; V. Hehn Wanderings 
of Plants and Animals, Engl, transl. (1888) 274. | Acw^opas : V. 
1269, Eupol. 44, Plat. 106, Andoc. t. 17, i. 22 and throughout, 
Athen. 387 a, schol. here. 

no. dvOptoirwv : c. superlat. = TravTwi/ = /« the world ; Schwab 
433. I €|ioi : in form and posit, hints at para-tragedy ; cp. Aesch. 
Sllppl. 602 <j>lXtut ayyiXwv ifj.01, C/lO. 1 05 I, Soph. £1. 1 1 26, Eur. 

mppol 1333. 

112 ff. Diog. Laert. 9. 52 : Trpwros «<^»/ (Protagoras) 8vo Adyovs 
elvut irepl TravTo? Trpay/Aaros dvTiKei/tcVovs dAAr/Aois ; Eur. frg. 1 89, 

Xen. Oecon. 11. 25, Plat. Apol. 18 ^, 19 /', 23 d, Isoc. 10. i (if., Aristot. 
Rhet. 2. 24. II, Cic. Brut. 8. 30. 

1 20. iirirtas : see briefly G. Gilbert Constitutional Antiquities, 
Engl, transl. (1895) 320-24, or in full A. Martin Les Cavaliers 
Atheniens (1886), a book of 588 pages. 

123. IsKopaKtts: 65 is the fixed form of the prepos. in this 
phrase; K.-Bl. 2. 248, Sobol. Pi-aepos. 38. Hence the verb a-Kopa- 

124. \u: se. ovTa. The partic. usually present after irtpLopS) 



NOTES ON TEXT 271 

(GMT. 148, 885) is at times omitted, as also after rvyxavw, StareAw, 

aladavofJMt, opdi. 

126. With the spirit of Streps., who will not admit that he is 
"down," cp. that of the Marathonian heroes (E. 571-73) and of 
Pericles (Plut. Peric. 8). | ov8' t-yu : «^r will I either, no ?nore 7vill 
I (yield than you). | -n-to-wv 76 : prostrate, beaten, ye stressing the 
preceding word as usual. I cannot think it has occult connection 
with dAAa . . . ftevTot, nor in general with other groups such as kuI 
fjLyv, ov fi.ijv, ov fxivToi, rj fxi]v, dAAa fxrjv — as the incautious might 
gather from Neil's Equites p. 194. Cp. N. 53, V. 231, 268, 548, 
Av. 639, R. 1 198. 

127. dX\o: five dAAd's in five successive verses! They mean 
adverse winds and a chopping sea in the speakers' hearts. 

130. o-xivSoXdiiovs : cp. R. 819, (rfXiXev/jiaTa R. 819, TrapaTrpLafuiTa 
R. 881, aKufjL4>fj(TfjLOL R. 1497, ^^^ infra 320 AcTrToAoyw, (jTwoktayui. 

131. c^iav. keep on, continue to; so 509, A. 341, L. 945, Th. 
473, 852, R. 202, 512, 524, Ec. 853, 1151, Crat. 195, Eubul. 107. 
6 (K. 2. 201 , Plat. Euthyd. 295 c, Gorg. 490 e, 497 a, Phaedr. 
236 e, Hdt. 3. 52, Luc. Icarom. 24, Pseudosoph. i. The limita- 
tions of the idiom seem to be (i) that it is colloquial, (2) always 
in nomin. sing, except once (Arist. Th. 473), (3) always with a 
verb in 2d sing, except here and Px. 853, (4 always in disap- 
proval, and most common with AT/pti?, i^Ampci?, or a verb of 
hesitation, K.-(). 2. 62. 

131 f. rt . . . ov^l KOTTTci) : Why am I not knocking, why not at it 
already, why delay knocking? So the present after ri ov in A. 359, 
E. 1207, L. 1 103, 1 160, Plat. Protag. 311 a. Lysis 211 d. Distin- 
guish such from the aorist after ri ov in A. 592, V. 213, L. 181, 
906, 1 161, frg. 466, and in many exx. from many authors collected 
in K.-(i. I. 165 ; for the significance of the aor. see n. on 174. 

132. -rraiStov : the usual formula is irui ttoi (N. 1145, A. 395, 
1097 f., 1 1 18 f., V. 1307, Av. 57, R. 464). The diinin. liere is 
neither in coaxing nor contemjjt (see 80 n.), l)ut due to the needs 
of the metre, so Peppier 31. Blaydes on Plut. 227 collects nearly 
a hundred exx. of (liniiiiiitt. in -lOiuv. 



272 APPENDIX 

137. Socrates as an intellectual midwife ; Plat. Theast, 149 «, 
150 c. 

138. TTi\ov: probably a bit of Euripidean vocabulary. Prom 
Theognis to Theocritus he alone seems to have used it {Cycl. 
689, frg. 884), unless we except two tragic adespota (7,7, 94 N.). 

141. Oappuv : c. imv. very common; 422, 427, 436, 990, V. 

388, 547, P. 159, R. 7, 1005. ^appr/rras £.-623, Av. 461, 1512. 

The imv., tappet is used only seldom witjl another imv., though 
often alone. | «*¥" oiroo-C : the deictic ovrcai with the first personal 
pronoun, as here, in A. 367, E. 1098, L. 94, PI. 868. 

145. This flea-jump satire stuck in the memory. See Xen. 
Conviv. 6. 8, Luc. Prom. 6, Philopat. 12. For modern flea-jump 
measurement see Revue des Deux Mondes for 1867, p. 542 (Mar. 
15). The writers on Salivary Glands, etc., obtained master's 
degrees at Cornell University in 1902 and 1905. | aXoiro: so in 
RV. ; not oXKoito. 

150. Tw iToSc : biped is the beetle also in Pax 7. 

153. Tf)s XtiTTOTTiTos : causal gen. with or without art. after an 
exclamat., as in 364, 818, 925, 1476, A. 64, 67, 87, 1205, 12 10, E. 
144, 350, V. 161, P. 238, 239, Av. 61, 223, 295, 1 131, L. 967, 
Ec. 787, PI. 389, 1126-32. K.-G. I. 389. I «|>p€vtov : by the time 
of Arist. (/>p>/v was alien to plain prose except in the phrase 
voi's Kut </)p€Ves, as in L. 432, Th. 291, R. 535. In the 27 other 
passages where Arist. uses the word, all but this present are either 
lyrical or clearly in parody or para-tragedy. Hence here too tragic 
tone is probably intended. W. G. Rutherford New Phrynichus 
(1881) 9. 

154. t( SfiT av: for ellipse of verb after av see n. on 5. Cp. 
also ellipse after r'l Sr/ra A. loii, P. 859, 863. 

157. How insects " with no larynx or lungs and hence properly 
no voice (<^(uvr^) " can make noises, was a question that Aristot. 
took up {Hist, of Animals 4. 9. 2 = 535 b). 

158. Kara to vro^a.: kulto. = via, as in V. 141 {TprjfUL), Av. 1208 
(TTvAa?), Plato Rep, 359 d (OvpiBa';), Timae. 79 d (ptvas), Thuc. 
4.48. 2 {Qvpa<i), 4. 67. 3 (jrvkai). — This acoustical quest, is a 



NOTES ON TEXT 273 

satire on the physics and physiology of the day. For the guesses 
on sound and hearing see ps.-Plut. Moralia 902 b, 901 /, or bet- 
ter, Diels 177. 20 (for Empedocles), 325. 4 (Anaxagoras), 344. 31 
(Diogenes of ApoUonia), 336. 6 (Archelaos) \ or see Ritter and 
Preller s.v. czkot; in the index. 

161. Sia XeiTTov ktI. : cp. Hippocr. Aphor. 7. 51 (vol. 4. 592 
Littr6) explaining a sneeze : vtr(.pyiiTa.i ovv u arjp 6 cvewi', \}/o<ji£€i 
8e, oTi 8ta (TTti/ov rj Ste^oSo? uvTov iaTLv. 

162. €v0v : c. gen. = s/rai^'/if towards. Epic used i^u?, Hdt. 
iBv. Of the form tvQv I find but 23 exx, in the Indices — 15 in 
comedy, 5 in Plato (Ast), the other 3 in Thuc. 8. 88, 8. 96, Xen. 
Hell. I. 4. II. Lyric poetry, tragedy, and the orators are with- 
out it (exc. once in Eur. Ilippol. 1197?). Hence (.vBv would 
seem to be colloquial. In Arist. : E. 254, N. 162, P. 68, 77, 
301, 819, Av. 1421, Ec. 835, frgg. 161, 656; Eupol. 47, 183, 
304, Pherecr: no, Epicrat. 10 (K. 2, 286). H. Richards' article 
in Class. Rev. 15 (1901), 442 ff. (holding that dSv c. gen. in .\ttic 
prose was, as a rule, only a synonym of eis, w?, ctti, or tt/jos, with 
no such definite notion as straight for) I hold to be abortive. 

165. The o-dATTty^-notion Arist. could have got from Pigres' 
Batracho-myo-7tiachia 199 kui totc KwvwTre-; /xeydAus o-oATriyyas 
<i^ovT£? I Seivor (ad\iny$uv ttoAc'/uod ktvttov. 

169. 8< Y«: see Neil's Eqiiites p. 191, and my note in Selections 
from Plato on Apol. 22 d, Append. 

170 f. For the Thales-incident see Plat. Theaet. 174 a. Soc- 
rates dissuaded from overmuch astronomy (Xen. Mem. 4. 7. 4-6), 
which was rather the pride of Hippias the Elean (Plat. Protag. 
318 <-, /////. Maj. 285 l> c. Plato prob. has this passage in mind 
in Rep. 529 <^ r (di/oj KC)(r)vw<;, and f$ vtttlw; veuiv iv yrj), where see 
J. Adam. 

174. f\a-By\v : / like; i.e. (Ireek aorist = P^ngl. present. So 
rjadrjv in I 240, E. 696, P. 1066, Av. 570, 880; iduvfiuaa N. 185 ; 
iyiXumi \\. 696, ih<LKf)V.Ta Av. 540; (xdfjrjv Av. 1 743. So also in 
tragcfly the aorist of verbs of emotion and its result (as y\yrj(Ta, 
ckAuuctu, (infirTXXTu), of approving (as (irijvtrra or ijutdu, i6€$dfxr)v), 

AKISTOl'llANKS — I 8 



274 APPENDIX 

of bidding, advising, and giving oath (as cTttov, vTrtiTrov, Traprjvea-a, 
Karw/Aoo-a, aTTw/ioo-a) ; exx. : Aesch. Pers. 224, 844, 1000, C/io. 
887, Soph. AJ. 99, 536, £/. 668, 1322, 1479, F/ii/. 1289, 1314, 
1434, Eur. Alcest. 1095, Androm. 421, 785, 1234, ^/. 248, 622, 
644, Hec. 1276, Zi'i?/. 330, 664, 668, 673, Hippol. 614, Iph. A. 440, 
469, 509, 655, 874, Iph. T. 862, 1023, 1 161, Ion 1614, Cycl. 266, 
J/^^. 272, 707, 791, Orest. 1516, i()']2,Suppi. 1161, 1171, Troad. 
53, 718. — This same "dramatic" or " instantaneous " aorist for 
Engl, present is seen largely in other verbs; see Arist. N. 820, E. 
269, 1368, 1372, Aesch. Prom. 181, 277, 401, 773, Pers. 972, 
Soph. El. d-ii, Eur. Hel. 348, El. 215, Her. Fur. 177, Hippol. 
846, Troad. 887, 1046, Phoen. 679. K.-G. i. 163 f. — It would 
be well to win one point of view and one explanation for this 
"dramatic" aor., the question-aor. after tL ov (see n. on 131 f.), 
the Homeric aor. in comparisons, the " gnomic," the " empirical," 
the " general description," and the " future " aor. (GS. 255-263, 
GMT. 60-62, 154-158). That explanation is perhaps as follows: 
The Greek language has but few finite forms of any verb which 
merely name the action. They are usually clogged with temporal 
additions, and give a picture of the action as one that is or was 
or will be going on. When therefore the Greeks needed the verb- 
act stripped of time (d-opto-Tos) yet embodied in person and num- 
ber, their inflectional wealth encumbered them. Xafi^dvw = " I 
am taking," not " I take " ; eXaftov gives the notion " take," but 
throws it back in time to " took." — How then say in Greek " I take 
coffee daily," "Thanks," "He writes a good hand," "Why not 
knock?" "Murder!" "Faint heart never erects a trophy"? 
Either by using the present tense — which the Greeks also use — 
or idiomatically (shutting ear to augment) the aorist ; hence for the 
above sentences respectively, eAa^ov, iTri^vca-a, typaij/e, eKoipu, diro}- 
XofieaOa (Arist. Ach. 333), earrjcre. This refusal to hear the 
augment, this recognition of merely the verb-notion in the aorist- 
stem (especially easy in 2d aor. roots, as Xaft-, <t>vy-, <^ay-, etc.) 
was the easier because of the very large use of this d-opio-ros (or 
time-unlimited) stem in all other moods beside the indicative. 



NOTES ON TEXT 275 

(Observe also that in exclamatory passion the Greeks fled from 
the finite forms to the ace. c. inf. ; see n. on 268.) For exx. of 
the " gnomic " aorist see n. on 350 ; for theory of its origin, Carl 
Mutzbauer Die Grundlagcn der gr. Tcinpiislehrc (1893) 35, with 
review of the book by D. B. Monro, Class. Rev. 8 (i894\ 34 in 
complete agreement with Mutzbauer ; G. Herbig Iiidog. Forsch. 
6 (1896), 249 ff. espec. 261 ff. ; H. Melzer Indog. Forsch. 17 
(1904), 239 f ; M. Breal Man. de la Societe de ling, n (1900), 
278-80; K. Brugmann Vergleichende Gram. (1903) 2. 574. The 
older view of the gnomic aor. (a sample past instance) is still 
maintained by K.-G. i. 159, and P. Cauer Grammatica Militaris'^ 
(1903) lOI. 

176. tiraXa|iV|<raTo : a rare word; Eur. frg. 918 N., Xen. Cyr. 4. 
3. 17, Arist. A. 659 (in parody), P. 94 (probable parody of Eurip- 
ides Bellerophon), and here. The Indices report no further use. 
TToAa/iai = \i.r\ya.vai in V. 645- 

177-179. Teuffel-Kaehler read ■KoXaiarpa.'i for TpaTtit,-!]^ in 177, 

and TpaTr(^r]<; for TTuAatfTTpa? in I 79. 

178. 8iapT|TTiv : may some of the mystification lie in this instru- 
ment? Also in the hocus-pocus of Meton, Av. 1003, it plays a 
part. 

1 79. Cloak-stealing being easy, like modern arson, was severely 
punished, viz. by death (Xen. Afem. i. 2. 62, Demos. 24. 114, 
Aristot. Problems 29. i4);Eupol. 361 charges also the pilfering of 
a wine-ladle against Socrates. Though thieving was a common 
charge of the comic poets, and should have been discredited, yet 
probably some of Socrates's judges twenty-four years later may 
have fancied they had caught the thief at last. So to this day 
many Southerners believe that Benjamin Butler did steal spoons in 
New Orleans during the Civil War. | For the similarity in sound 
of 01 and V see K.-Iil. i. 53, Brugmann 48. In the 3d cent. h.c. 
Boeotians wrote fvKui for oiVm, Ktikv for kiiKoL \ The suggestion in 
the text-notes, that the pun dolfMiTioi'-OvixdTiov was inserted at the 
last moment, has something in its favour, if we recall the impromptu 
nature of comedy from its very origin. The same account must be 



276 APPENDIX 

given of Eccl. 1158 f., and also of Vcsp. 1025-1028, if van Leeu- 
wen is right in dating the fldAets of Eupolis as competing with 
Vespac. Miiller Striibing makes a like claim for Ach. 593-618 
(on which see Busolt 3. 1058). | The comic poets often pitched 
naturally on the same subjects at the same or about the same time, 
e.g. on Socrates in 423 B.C., Arist. in Niih. and Amipsias in KoVvos ; 
on Hyperbolus in 421, Eupolis in MapiKa?, Leuco in ^pdrepi^, 
Arist. in Pax; on Melanthius in 421, Arist. in Pax, Leuco in ^pd- 
Tcpes ; on Pisander in 414, Arist. in A?'., Phrynichus in MovdrpoTros ; 
on Cleophon in 405, Arist. in Ran., Plato in KAeo<^uJv ; on com- 
parative excellence of poets in 405, Arist. in Ran., Phrynichus in 
Movo-at ; on a sans-souci life in 414, Arist. in Av., Phrynichus in 

Moi/OT/307rO?. 

180. «K€ivos : the famous ; cp. 534, A. 708, K.-G. i. 650. 

181. dvvo-as: very common; 506, 635, 1253, V. 30, 202, 398, 
847, 1 158, etc. Cp. on the one hand OSlttov c. imv., on the 
other the large use of adjectives temporal and local for adverbs, as 
CTKorato?, Tptratos, ovtos, i-Tn/SiofJ.LO'i. 

183. (iaOiiTioi : like verbs in -taw expressing bodily malady, 
many are formed of a comic nature for mental ailments, or to in- 
dicate a strong or inordinate passion for a thing, as in our 
"school-fever," " inusic-mad," "stage-struck." Thus like d<^^aA- 
fxtdoi, XiO-, IXtyy-, (TKoroStviao), are formed yepovrtdo) to get the old-age 
malady, ySe/AySiKtaw to have the spinning-fever, fxtWo-vcKidw to have 
the Niky-dilly-dallies {^Av. 640 ; ; others, indicating desire for a 
thing, are o-Tparr^yiaw, (T■Kovhx.pyld^x^ {ojfice-seeking passion^, Bavaridia 
{enamouird of death), pMUTiytdw {to be piuirg for a whipping, to 
ivant a whipping). For -taw verb-lists see Blaydes here or L. 
Siitterlin Verba Denominativa in Altgr. (Slrassburg, 1891) 29-39. 

183. For presentation of a scene in the av\y] of a house Kock 
on Pherecr. frg. 67 cites A. 1123, E. 997 f., 1 164, V. 853, P. 1021, 
Th. 726, PI. 624, Arist. frg. 530. P'or the manner of changing the 
scene here I combine the opinions of Albert Miiller Berl. phil. 
Woch. for 1900, col. 924 and K. Zacher same journal for 1900, 
col. 70. For a like rolling back on revolving side-columns in the 



NOTES ON TEXT 277 

old fifth cent, theatre, cp. Th. 279 (v^an Leeuwen) and Aesch. 
Eiim. 64. 

186. Tois tK IIvXov : see Thuc. 4. 41. i, 5. 24. 2. | AaKwviKois : 
adjectives in -iko? derived from names of people or countries are 
rarely applied to persons. See C. W. Peppier A. J. F. 31 (1910), 
428 ff. 

188. poXpovs : cp. the comic accoinit by Epicrat. 11 (K. 2. 287) 
r. half century later of the study of the pumpkin by the pupils of 
Plato. 

191. t( -ydp : in such quest, yap is adv., not conjunct., still almost 
the original y' ap(a), well. So K.-G. 2. 335 f. [ e-yK€KV(|>6T€s : bend- 
ing over fo}-wards {Thesm. 236, Thuc. 4. 4. 2) ; ui/u-kuttto) is lo 
bend backwards {Tliesm. 230). 

192. cp<Po-Si<t>wo'i : cp. di'a-8t^uv, eK-8i^uv, and fjir))(av()-, TrpayfuiTo-, 
8iKo-8t'<^r;s, and Herod. Mi in. 3. 54 d<7Tpo-8t'<^r/9. 

196. y.i\-au> yt: SO 267, A. 176, E. 960 (fjii] S^ra irw ye), IIOO. 

198. irpos Tov dtpa : in the air ; cp. Trpos {jov) 7;Aiov 77 i, V. 772, 
P. 567, Ec. 64, frg. 603 ; Trpo? (to) TTvp A. 751, V. 773, P. 1131 ; 
TTpos TTi\v uldfjiav Th. lOOI, PI. I 1 29; Trpos eiAv^i' frg. 627; irpo<i 
Av;(voi' P. 692 ; Trpos rr/v (Tckrjvr]v Andoc. I. 38 ; Trpos ro <^ws infra 
632. 

200. irpos Twv Oewv: Trpos c. gen. in adjuration is used by Arist. 
chiefly, by Uemos. always, in entreaty, command, or question; 
only once in affirmation and that in a parody on Eur. (frg. 51). 
Beside Trpos twi/ ^ewv (the most frequent) Arist. uses Trpos ^twi', 
Trpos (toi^^) Aios, (tuiv) yoj/droji/, tj/s 'Ktrrius, at8o?s, t^s y»/S, t^s 
St^trxs, Toi;/ Kpcwv. Exx. in Nub.: 314, 366, 481, 784, 1103. 
S<jbol. Praepos. i 79. 

201. da-Tpovop,(a : the first appearance of the word, it is 
defined in Plat. Gorg. 451 c. Its use in navigation nolxxly called 
in question (Xen. Mem. 4. 7. 4, i'lat. Rep. 527 d) ; but when it 
ventured to establish the lualerial of the heavenly bodies (sun a 
stone, etc.) the people's view (jf it was i>robably expressed in Arist. 
Nid>. 1506 f., Xen. Mem. 4. 7. 6, lOur. frg. 913. See Plat. Legg. 
966 67, I'lut. Nil. 23. 3 f. 



278 APPENDIX 

203. iroTtpo : (or TTorepov) omits the alternate quest, also in V. 
498, Av. 104, 427, R. 69, 1052, 1 141, 1455, ^^ ^^ Plato. K.-G. 2. 
532. I On Athenian cleruchs and their land see Starkie on Fes/>. 
715, Gard.-Jev. 602 ; on the Lesbian distribution, Thuc. 3. 50. 2. 

204. ovK d\Xd: 258, 482, 498, 898, and very often. Cp. iJkictt' 
aXXd 316, 380; fxa Al' oAAa 330, 1291, E. 85, V. 297, 954, 1409, 
etc. ; fjiaXXd A. 458, Av. 109, Th. 646, R. 103, 611, 745, 751, Plat, 
Men. 75 a, Ak. I 114 rt'. In all these English drops dXXd. 

206. -yiis ircpCoSos : for the map of the world shown by Aris- 
tagoras of Miletus to king Cleomenes of Sparta 499 B.C., made of 
bronze, see Hdt. 5. 49. 

208. ircii : in Arist. always in a causal sense, never temporal, 
except thrice in parody (^Pax 660, 1092, 1283) and once in mouth 
of a rustic (frg. 403). As is the rule, the causal clause always fol- 
lows the main clause, never precedes. See Bachmann 9, Sobol. 
Synt. 154, Nilsson 114. The same rule for position of the clause 
holds also for the causal ws-clause ; n. on 551. 

209. ws : here and in like sentences (see infra) some supply 
before a>s a " never fear " and take ws causally, others supply laQi 
(as K.-G. 2. 372), though laQi is regularly followed not by is but 
by on (Sobol. Synt. 120) and on does not appear in this type of 
sent, until the Septuagint {e.g. Ex. 3. 12, Jdg. 15.7, 3 Kings 19. 2). 
Such explanat. by ellipse is too easy and isolating ; the true theory 
should connect this type of a)?-usage with all relative clauses which 
measure the truth of the main clause, or rather of the main 
thought, whether expressed or not. Such are not merely sentences 
of the ws . . . owTOJs type or of the Homeric wish-type ai yap . . . 
is (//. 8. 538, 18. 464, 22. 346, Oct. 9. 523, 17. 251, 21. 402), 
but also those relative clauses which are said to express cause (ws, 
oTi, OS, and are or ola or is c. partic.) or purpose (ws, ottws, os), 
or are translated as exclamations (is, oios, oo-os, etc.), and even the 
is- and oTi-object- clauses after verbs of knowing and saying. Cp. 
" ut tua est temperantia," "qua es prudentia." See Monro Horn. 
Gram. §§267-270, and for an explanation my Selections from Plato 
p. 446. — As for the present passage, whatever the psychological 



NOTES ON TEXT 279 

meaning may be of our reassuring "oh" when we say (replying to 
doubt or despondency) "Oh, he will be sure to come," or "Oh, 
you will be well soon," it exactly conveys the feeling of is here 
and in A. 333 ws dTrwAo/utea^a Oh, murder! 335 ws drroKTcvw Oh, F II 
kill him, P. 320, Ec. 1075, Soph. Aj. 39, Eur. Med. 609, Androm. 
255, 587, Phoen. 720, 1664, Hel. 831. (The other passages 
usually cited in this group are better explained otherwise ; see n. 
on 115S, 1207.) — This same measuring and exclamatory Oh, so, 
or how is in the ws of the ws wc^cAov wishes and lies at the root of 
such usage as is seen in Theocr. 2. 82 (ws (.'Sov, ws i/xdv-qv^, 3. 42, 
//. 14. 294, 19. 16, 20. 424. 

210. Kttl -iroii : Kill thus heading a quest, is very fretjuent, e.g. 
398, 1333, A. 86, V. 665 ; see n. on Kara 259, K.-G. 2. 247, L. & 
S. S.7>. Kai II 2. 

213. Subjugation of Euboea : Thuc. i. 114. 

214. -rrov Vti : some editors, with the Mss., write 'o-tlv, others 
'aO'. But in neither way could Streps, himself have thus accom- 
modated his word to the initial vowel of the following speaker. 
Pre-audition is too much to claim even for the Greeks. It is 
easier to believe that in daily speech the last syllable of iart was 
almost inaudible as in modern Greek a-Tacr (ov), and hence that ;i]l 
final shorts were rhythmically negligible, if the following speaker 
overlapped as in 652, 726, 729, 733, 778, and often. The writing 
Vr' is therefore here the one nearest to the heard word ; so in A. 
178, P. 187, Av. 90, 1495, R. 1220, frg. 18 i(TT ; in N. 1192 
wpofTidrjK, 12']0 yjyi'iiJMT , \. 793 £t7r', p. 275 SicriroT , 1054 tppdacr', 
L. 49 ttdt' , 736 KuTaAeAoiTT , PI. 132 tovt . 

214. oirov'o-Ti: almost invariably in repeating another's (ques- 
tion, the Greeks used the rclative-interrog. form of the adverb 

(OTTOV, OTTO)?, (ItTOI, CtC, for TTOV, TTOIS, TTOt) ', SO 677, 69O, 753, 76O, 

1248, 1495. I'or all exx. in Arist. see Kaehler on v. 664 Anhang. 

215. TovTo: preparatory, like eVetvo, to some following clause; 
rp. 380, 887, 1412, v. 47, P. 146, 1075, R. 1369, Th. 520, 556, 
'*'• 259, 573, 594. 898, 921. K.-G. I. 658 f. Cp. also the re- 
sumptive demonstr. 1262. 



28o APPENDIX 

217. olfiw|€o-0€ : a warning and imprecatory verb like kXoluv 58 ; 
oifiw^e in A. 1035, E. 891, Av. 846, 960, etc., fut. in P. 466, 1207, 
R. 178, 279, 706, etc. 

218. <{>cp£ : often in questt. ; 324, 342, 366, 370, etc. Cp. <^cp' 
tSoj 21. I KpefjidOpas : perhaps this was a platform suspended from 
above or supported by posts, accessible by ladder or stairs, of the 
sort still favoured in modern Greece. In the eating-houses of 
country towns they are large enough to accommodate a table and 
guests, serving the purpose of a semi-private dining-room. So K, 
Zacher in Ber/. phil. IVoch. for 1900, col. 72. 

219. avTos : the Seo-TroTT^s ; so frg. 268, Plat. Protag. 314 d, 
Pollux 3. 74 'Apt(rro<^avr/s Kara Ty]V Twv ttoXAwv (Tvvr]Q(.iav rov 
SecnroTrjv " avTov" KeKXrjKEv. | to SioKpttT€s : exclamatory vocat. ; GS. 
24, K.-G. I. 48. 

226. €-ir€iTa: in questt. of surprise or indignation, common; 
1249, A. 917, V. 1133, P. 1235, '^^^ 9^1' L. 914, PI. 1148; so 
KQiTretTu Th. 637, and etra (see n. on 259). 

227. ilirep: ellipse of the verb is common; e.g. Plat. /?e/>. 
497 e, Euthyd. 296 b, I.cgg. 667 a, 900 c ; so also after eiTrep -Kori^ 
ccTTts (R. 39), oa-n-tp (V. 404). Cp. i'cr^' on 39, and see K.-G. 2. 573. 

228. On Diogenes of Apollonia see Diels 341-54, Gom- 
perz 1. 371 ff., Philemon frg. 91 (K. 2. 505). According to 
Theophrastus De Sensu 44, Diogenes believed that we (^tpovdv 
Tw aept Kadapw Kal $y]pw ' kwXvclv yap rrjv lKp.d8a tov vovv. — 
OTL o€ ly vypoTTji dc^aipetrat tov vovv (Trip.elov 8toTi to. aAAa ^wa X^'P*^ 
TTjv SidvoMV ' dvaTrvtlu re yap tov dirh tyjs yrj<i depa, Kal Tpotfyrfv vypo- 
riiav irpoa-fhiptaOai. His own words are (Diels frg. 5) : Kai p.0L 

OOKtt TO TYjV vorjGiv f-Xov civat 6 dqp KaXo'VIX€VO<; vtto TWV dvOpwTTMV, 
Kal VTTO TOVTOV TrdvTa<; Kal KvlSepvacrdai Kal TrdvTO)v KpaTelv ' avTo yap 
fxoL TovTo $€o<; 8oK£t clvai. — But he was an eclectic, and combined 
with this doctrine of di]p (originally that of Anaximenes) the vovs- 
theory of Anaxagoras, the StVr? of Leucippus, and dvdyKrj from all 
alike. Hence the Aristophanic Socrates in this comedy is not 
the first syncretistic philosopher. Philosophy itself was jumbled 
in those days. 



NOTES ON TEXT 281 

228. op9us : the i)roud word of science; 251, 659, 742, 1186, 
Av. 690, 692. Hippocrates in his essay irepl ScatVr/s uses it ten 
times in the first chapter, three times in the first chapter of ncpl 
<^vai(yi av6pw7rov ; and in irepl vovawv the first sent, reads : os av 
irepl h)(TLO<i ideXrj ipwTav t€ 6p6w<i, Koi cpwrwvTt a.TT0Kpivt(T6a.L, koX 
avTiXiyf-Lv opdwi. ivOvp^eeaOai x^pr] raSe. But A. Dieterich {J?/l. Af. 
48. 281) takes it to be the " Schlagwort " of the Orphic sect. 

232. ov Yop dXXd : as if ou yap eariv (dAAo) oAAa — /or it is noth- 
ing else but — , for the simple truth is, for really, nam profecto. 
"dvTi rov Kai yo-P " (schol.). Cp. Ran. 1 180 ov yap [xovarlv oAA' 
aKovarda, there is nothing for me (to do) hut to listen ; Ran. 498 
ov yap ttAAa TreirrTiov, there is no help for it — / must obey ; Eq. 
1205 ov yap dAAd tov i:apaOivTO% rf ^lipi^, Keel. 386 ov yap dAA' 
vTripcf)vw<; w<;,for it 7C>as nothing short of miraculous how — . The 
other instances are Ran. 58, 192, Eupol. 73, Plat. Phaed. 84 a, 
Euthyd. 286 e, 305 e. Rep. 492 r, Phaedr. 276 d, Ale. I 124 d, 
Eur. SuppL 570, Iph. T. 1005, Baeeh. 785. — In connection with 
ov yap dAAd should be noted the other phrases, omitting eo-ri; 
such as Ti dAAo rj, dAAo Tt rj, ovBev dAAo rj, and especially that form 

of paratactic argu men turn ex eontiario ov \ ^', in which the 

I — oe 

negative belongs to both clauses together but not to either sep- 
arately, meaning ovk Itrnv, it is impossible that — ,• e.g. in Lys. 
12. 47, Demos. 9. 27, Antiph. 5. 63. 

The current explanation is different, viz. that ov yap uXXa, ov 
prjv dAAd, 0' //.eVrot fzAAd are all alike in being merely more forci- 
t)lc variations of oiV dAAd, as seen in v. 204 ; that is, ov denies the 
proceeding and dAAd introduces the substitute truth. 

It is true tliat Mss. sometimes punctuate after ydp (as in this 
passage in RV, and in the Clarkianus of Plat. Phaed. 84 a, /lie. I 
124 d), and also that ov ydp is a fixed phrase in answers — ■)dp of 
course being adverbial (see e.g. Plat. Crat. 406 d, Ale. I i i i e, 
II T39 a). But the difficulty editors have on the one liand of 
finding anything in most of the passage for ov ydp to deny, and 
the ease r)n the other hand of supj)lying Ittl, in( line me to this 



282 APPENDIX 

latter as the more probable explanation. — Only in Arist. Lys. 55 
ov yap /Ao. At", dAAa is it clear that ov yap strongly negatives the 
preceding (see van Leeuwen's note); but one instance, especially 
when marked apart by fia Aia, can hardly set the interpretation 
for a score of recalcitrants. It should rather be classed with ov 
fxa At" ak\d (P. 1046, Ec. 556, Plat. I/iJ>/>. 228 a) and ^a (tov) 
At" d\Xd (P. 6, Lys. 1090, PI. 22, III), which are indeed inten- 
sives of oi'k dAAa (seen, on 204). K.-G. 2. 286. 

234. irdo-xti. : often translated "do" like the intrans. irpaTTw 
and TTotew ; so 662, E. 346, 864, 888, V. i, 1014, Av. 1044, R. 
718 ; and so rt Trdday what am I to do ? (798). But here 7rao-;(£t 
is used and not Trotet, because the subject KdpSafm is inanimate. 
We say in Engl. " the rain came down in torrents " ; but Greek 
says, Kara^iptrai is brought down. (For iroiCiv intrans. = TrpareTiv ; 
see P. 1054, Ec. 624, PI. 1205.) 

239. KaTorC: P. 192, Av. 916, Ec. 542, 559, 604. Cp. Od. 3. 
72 Kara Trpij^Lv, OH business. \ For Socrates' mask see Haigh 292. 

247. TToiovs Oeotis : scornful ttoios ; so 367, 1233, 1337, A. 62, 
109, 157, 761, E. 32, 162, V. 1202, 1369, 1378, Av. 1233, 1346, 
L. 730, 922, 1 1 78, Th. 30, 874, R. 529, PL 1046. It is common 
also in Plato, but only twice, it would seem, in tragedy (Soph. Tr. 
427, Eur. Hel. 567). In the same tone ttoi Lys. 193, irov Eur. 
Ion 528, Herac. 369, 510. — With article, ttoios has its normal 
sense, as in 1270, Av. 418, 963. 

249. On the improbability of the use of iron money at this 
period see Naber in Mnemos. for 1897, p. 444. 

250 ff. The first to enucleate fully the details of the following 
initiation scene was A. Dieterich {^Rh. M. 48 (1893), 275-83) ; see 
also Rohde 2. 49. As Dieterich observes, a more comic mixture 
of heterogeneities can hardly be conceived. A modern approach 
to it might be some college burlesque introducing, let us say, 
Herbert Spencer, a Shoi-t Course in Evolution, Theosophy, 
Domestic Economy, a " Hoosier," an initiation into a college fra- 
ternity, the drum and fife of the Salvation Army, etc. Surely 
Socrates could no more have been hurt by personal satire as wide 



NOTES ON TEXT 283 

of the mark as this than a modern college president is when lam- 
pooned by his undergraduates. — F^or proof that this scene parodies 
Orphic initiation rather than Eleusinian, Sabazian, or others, see 
schol. on 260 and Harpocr. s.p. dTro/xarnuv. 

251. (iiTtp . . . yc so 341, A. 307, 1228, E. 1310; but ciTTCp ye 
696, 930, V. 1 153, 1263, Av. 1359, L. 992, R. 77, 136S, yvTrep ye 
E. 366. Cp. KaiTOi . . . ye and kuitol ye 876. 

256. «irl t( : CTTt of purpose = eh or ir/oos ; Av. 340, L. 22, 481, 
iioi, R. 168. Cp. eU 269. 

257. w<rir€p n€ : that such unemphatic and small street-gam/ns 
as fj.e, fiov, (Tov, uoi, ae, fxiv, avTov, etc. should thrust their way to 
the front of the sentence between the legs of larger folk is not 
abnormal, but immemorially normal. See J. Wacknagel Indog. 
Forsch. I (1892), 333 ff. Exx. : //. i. 201 Kai fitv ^cuvT/cras, 16. 
720, 21. 347, Callinus, i. 20, Terpender 2. d/A<^t /Aot, Soph. O.C. 
944, 1333 TT/ao? vvv ae Kprjvuiv, Tr. 436, P/u7. 468, Eur. £/. 264, 
/on 293, 671, Hdt. 6. 34 Ku'. (TfjiM'i a>s oL'Seis tKakee, Arist. A. 295, 
V- 3(>3, i"- 77. -^v. 95, 1550, L. 376, 753, 905, Th. 1134, R. 504, 

Lysias 17. 2 kul /aoi KaKei, Plat. Gorg. 506 C ku' fxe iau i$eX.ey$r}<:, 

Herod. Mim. 3. i^. See also i///ni 533, 595, 759, 795, 1025, 
1034, 1 148, and note such words as irov, irep, etc. 

257. oir«s ^■(\ 9v)o-€Tt : virtually an imv. (GMT. 271-76); 
824,882 (3d sing.), 1177, 1464, A. 741, 746, 955, E. 222,456, 
760, V. 289, 1222, 1250 (ist pi), P. 77, 562 (ist. pi.), 1017, 1330, 
Av. 131, 1333, 1494 (3d sing.), L. 289, 316, 950, 1 182, Th. 267, 
1204, R. 7, 377, 627,905 (oi-Tto . . . oTTOj?), 993 (3d sing.), 997, Ec. 
297, 953, PI. 326. — With dyt or dyert : A. 253, E. ion, N. 489, 
Ec. 82 (ist pi.), 149. — With fjiefj.vr](To : E. 497, N. 887 (3d sing.), 
1 107, k. 1520 (3d sing.). — With (fypwri^e E. 688. 

259. «lTa: fre(|uent in (|uestt. of indignation or surprise; 1214, 
A. 312, W 52. k. 21, 138, Pi. 45. So Kara 1292, L. 24, R. 203. 
Cp. iTTtiTa 226 11., K(u 210 n. 

260. X^-y«iv Tpififia : The inf. was freely used in comedy, and 
hence probably in daily speech to (jualify sul)stantives. A parasite, 
e.g. describes himself as tiittthv Kfpai'vu<;, (KTvpXovi' tiv uaTpaTn'/, | 



284 APPENDIX 

cfiepeiv TLv apas ai/e/xos, aTroTrvttat /8pd;(os | 6vpa<; /u.o;(Xev£tv (rc«r/i.os, 
eicnrrjBav dxpt's, | SeiTTveiv aKXr^roj /xma, etc. Antiphanes 1 95 (K. 2. 

94 or Athen. 238 d). Cp. also Aristophon 4 and 10 (K. 2. 277 
and 280). 

263 ff. While chanting this invocation the portly Socrates 
probably dances round his victim in the fashion of the swindlers 
who "initiated" the ignorant in Corybantic mysteries. Cp. the 
scene in Plat. Euthyd. 277 ^z' and Dio Chrysost. 12. 33 dwQaaiv iv 
TO) Ka\ovfxev<iiOpovt(TfJi<S KaOiaavTo; tovs ixvov/xivov^ 01 TcAofrres kvkX(o 
Tr€.pt.-^optv€Lv. See also the famous passage on Aeschines in Demos. 
18. 259. Dieterich (Rh. M. 48. 282) thinks it likely that the 
prayer is a close imitation of the Orphic invocations, comparing 
the Orphic hymns 31. 6, 43. 10, 51. 17, 46. 8. 

263. £ij4>'ri(j.€iv XP'*1 : ^ ^^^^ f'^r silence common to all Greek reli- 
gious services, whether for sacrifice or prayer. Cp. our " Let us 
pray." The formula varies: as here in E. 1316, P. 96, 1316, R. 
354; tv^-qp.dTe A. 237, 241, p. 434, R. 1273; evcft-qp^ia Vtw (or 
virap^eTw) V. 868, Av. 959, Th. 295 ; ev(f)rjfJio<; ttus eorco Aews Th. 
39; €vcf>r]/ji,€i N. 297. I liraKov'tiv : to listen to, pay attention to; E. 
1080, V. 317, Av. 205, Th. 628. Distinguish vTziiKovi.iv to hear and 
answer, to cotne in response {e.g. to a prayer or knock at the door) ; 
274,360, A. 405, V. 273, P. 785, L. 878, Ec. 515, Plato Crit. 43 a, 
Phaed. 59 e. Cp. irapaKovuv to overhear (by stealthy listening), 
R. 750. 

264. aval : only in p. 89 is it used of mortal man by Arist., and 
then of one who was soaring to heaven to confer with the gods. | 
T11V •yfiv |i€T«wpov : Plut. Moral. 896 d 'Ava^i/ieVr;? t^v yrfv (</>r;a-t) 8ia 
TO Trku.TO'i eTToxila-OuL t<2 aepi. Aristot. De Caelo 2. 13 (294 l> 13) 
" Avail ixevrj? Koi 'Ava^ayd/aas Kal Ar)p.6KpLTo<i (jrjv yrjv) <f>aa-iv iiri- 
TTwpxiTi^eiv (sits like a -jv^pM. or lid on) rdi/ atpa tov KaroiOev. 

265. Xapiirpos T Aie^p: nomin. for vocat., perhaps for mock 
gravity, or because ritualistic (OS. 12); cp. 11 68. — Cp. Eur. 
frg. 941 opus TOV vxpov TovS' aireipov aWepa \ kuI y^v tripLl; e^ovd 
vypais ev uyKiiXuK; ; | tovtov vop-i^e Z^i/a, tovS' rjyov 6e6v. Frg. 877 
dXX' aWijp TtKTCL at, Kopu, I Zeus os avdpwTTOL'; uvop.d^eTui. trg. 919 



NOTES ON TEXT 285 

Kopv(f>j] Sk deCjv 6 TrepL$ ^dov l;(aji/ | (^uevi'os aiOrfp. Frg. 839 aether 
is a.v6f)wirij)v Kat Otdv yeveTaip. Ill J^(7/i. 892 Arist. has Euripides 
pray to ulOijp ipov lioaKrjpm. 

268. TO IXOeiv e(jie : the exclamatory inf. ahvays betrays emo- 
tion. Put even ^uvov Ian before it, and the emotion is cooled. 
With article, as here: 819, Av. 5, 7, R. 741, Ec. 788, PI. 593, 
Plat. Syinp. 177 ^, Phaed. 99 b, Xen. Cyr. 2. 2. 3, Eur. Alcest. 832, 
Med. 1052 (GMT. S05, K.-G. 2. 46) ; yet sometimes without 
article : V. 835, Aesch. Eum. 870, Soph. Aj. 410, Demos. 21. 209 

(GMT. 787, K.-G. 2. 23). j ywv\\v\ Kvvr] = Kvvea, SC. Sopd ; SO 
d\o)ireKri, apKTrj. keovT^, XvKrj, p.on-^rf, vefSprj, TrupoaXrj, rpayr), etc. 

269. •iro\vTt}itiToi : usually applied only to divinities, adored, 
hallo7vcd; 293, 328, E. 1390, \'. looi, P. 97S, 1016, Av. 667, 
Th. 286, 594, R. 323, 337, 397, frg. 319. But it is given also to 
Hercules (.\. 807), Aeschylus (R. 851), and with comic effect to 
rriTos (A. 759) and lyBvhw. frg. 387, 9. | ds €iri8€i|iv : eis of purpose ; 
V. 369 ets awTrjpMV, 562 and 645 £ts diTOcfyev^iv, frg. 619 th ipl3o\r]v. 
Cp. i-TTL 256 n. 

271. "nKtavou Kf|iToi : see the pretty verses thereon in Eur. 
Hippol. 742-51, and cj). Hes. Theog. 518. | Nv|A<})ais : the dative is 
regular ('Apei, Y^tiK-^m, 6e<^, deo's, etc.) for the divinity in whose 
honour men dance or sing; .Av. 745, L. 1277, Soph. .//. 1045, 
£^ur. Bacch. 195. 494, Hel. 1380. 

272. irpoxoais : the locative dat. is too poetic for IMaydes, van 
r.eeuwen, and Soi)C)Ie\vski iPracpos. 6) ; they insert iv. See 
K.-G. I. 441. I irp<5xoio-iv : Tr^jox^os is contracted and inflected 
like vofs ; K.-lil. 1 . 401. 

274. x*P«*Kr*'' '■ thus used in i)raycr in Th. 314, 980, Eur. Iph. A. 

1525 is) TTori'iu, dvpucTLv fip(iTr]<TtOL<; )(iLpil(Ta, ir(p.\l/ov — , Soph. A/l/. 
149 avTi)((ipei(T(i. 

283 f. K«\a8f|fiaTa . . . K«Xd8ovTo : van Leeuwen finds the repe- 
tition unt-niliirahlc, and emends. Hutcp. 388f. Seivd . . . Seim, Soph. 
O. T. 23 f. <ra\tvo> . . . iraAor, A/. I 6 l -63 ya, 511-15 iuklil, 87 I-73 

17801'!/. See Jebb on .Sopii. O.C. 554 for citation of O.C. 631-36 
cK/StiXAw, 63S-40 rjhvs, 966-69 eVet', etc. Index ■d.v.Souiid-p/ay. 



286 APPENDIX 

287. diroo-cKraficvai ktc. : Mazon suggests that for a moment the 
Clouds here show themselves (but only to the Spectators) upon 
the dtoXoyclov , for which see Haigh 241, Poll. 4, 130 d-rro 8c tov 

OeoKoyeiov ovtos vnep ttjv aKrjvrjv iv vij/u iinipaLVovTai 6toi. 

294. ovTus : measures the cause by the effect. Had the clauses 
come in reverse order (" I so fear" coming first), then the effect 
would have been introduced by oVre. Cp. E. 530, V. 349, Av. 
466, 736, and a like use of the pronoun tolovto<; 1125. See my 
note, Selections from Plato, on Apol. \i a.\ Ttrptfiaivw : for pres. 
reduplications see van Leeuwen Enchir. § 138. It takes the 
ace. auras like other verbs which take on the sense oi fearing, 
as (fypLTTuv, ippiyevaL, ^^eXvTTcaOaL (A. 5^6)> VTrepTrvmrd^eLv (E. 
680), and fiSvXXeiv (L. 354). 

295. Verbs in -o-eiw are desiderative ; so dyopa-cretw, Akov-, /Spw-, 
ya/xrj-, yeAa-, Svaftr]-, Spa-, Sw-, iXa-, ipya-, Kivrj-, KXav-, etc. K.-Bl. 

2. 264, Brugm. 331, J. Wackernagel K. Z. 28. 141. Cp. verbs in 
-law 183 n. 

296. ov \i.r] <rKw\|rris : for my retention of ctkwi/^*^ of the Mss., 
despite the universal acceptance of o-Kwi/'ei, see GMT. 301. The 
ov p-rj construction is discussed in Classical Review for the years 
1896, 1897, 1902. Exx. of ou p,ri prohibition in Arist. are : A. 166, 
N. 296, 367 (note ouSe following), 505, V. 397, R. 202, 298, 462, 
524. A straw, perhaps, in favour of Elmsley's interrog. theory is 
the interrog. p-w ovk in Pax 281. 

300. Xiirapdv x^ova : Pindar had sung : w rai AtTrapat Kai Ioctt^- 
(fmvoL (cat dot8i/Aot', EAAdSos epeitr/xo, KXeival AOdvai, Sat/xovtov 

TTToXuOpov. Quoting this to the Athenians, ambassadors could 
wheedle anything from them (A. 636 ff.) ; cp. E. 1329, Eur. Alcest. 
452, Iph.T. 1 1 30. For discussion of the meaning of Xiirapo's and 
rejection of the allusion to olives as suggested in L. and S., see 
E. B. Clapp Class. Phil. 5 (1910), 100 f., who refers the adj. 
to the " clear " or " resplendent " atmosphere of Attica. 

302 fif. For Athens' preeminent devotion to much and expen- 
sive ritual see Plat. Ale. II 148 e, Soph. O.C. 260 ('A^^vat 
Oeoaeftea-TaTai) , 1006 f., ps.-Xen. Pep. Ath. 3. 8 ayovcnv (01 



NOTES ON TEXT 287 

'Ad-qvaloi) eo/aras SiTrAacrtows 7/ 01 dAAot ; SO Thuc. 2. 38 dyoivcs kuI 
dvcriai BieT-qmoL the year through ; Isoc. 4. -^t^ Trpos ra tcov/ ^euii/ 
fiae/SecTTaTa 8ta/c€i/xeVovs (tous ' A^T^i/atovs ) . | <r«Pas dpp'^Twv : prob- 
ably a case of substantive for adj., awful mysteries ; see n. on 
V. 2 yjir\\txL Twv vvKTWv. 

303, 86jios dvaScUvvTai : the verb thus used can be matched only 

by Soph. £/. 1458 cnyav avwya KavaS^iKvvvat Trv\a<;. 

307. irpdo-oSoi : = TTOfiTTai ; see L. and S. 

310. On Attic festivals wherein were competitions for prizes see 
E. N. Gardiner 227; for complete list see Mommsen I^este der 
Stadt A then. 

315. (i«v : often adds to a quest, a second one, doubtfully sug- 
gesting an answer to the first ; A. 329, 418, E. 786, V. 274, P. 281 
(/xtii/ ovk), 746, L. 1217, Ec. 348, 976. 

317. On the definition of yvoj/u.T^ and rules for their use in ora- 
tory see Aristot. Rhet. 2. 21. Orenfall and Hunt publish in The 
Hibeh Papyri, Pt. I. (1906), 13-16, what purports to be the 
preface to a collection of yi/ui/Attt by Epicharmus. 

319. ravT apa: 335, 353, 394, A. 90, E. 125, P. 414, 617, Th. 
168, 649, Xen. Cyr. i. 4. 27, Conviv. 4. 28. Grammatically TuDra 
is here an internal ace. with irtTrorqTui = this is the flutter of my 
soul, or translating it adverbially thus is my soul a-Jfutter. Cp. 
rovTo \uipoj this is my joy ; quid rides, what is your laugh ? So the 
oTt-clause after verbs of emotion as rjSoiMii on- (7 74), axOofxai. on- 
(P. 683), davixdiw oTi- (Av. 1 164). K.-G. I. 310. — But sometimes 
8ia TuvT ufju is found: Av. 486, P. 892, Plato Pro tag. 341 c ; liit. 
TOUT* !xpn I h. 166. 

320. Kairvov: first syllable long. What does this signify? — That 
a syllable shall be reckoned Icjng if its vowel be followed by two 
consonants is a rule fairly well observed in Homer, though if the 
first of these consonants be a mute (7ry3</», Kyx, t8^) and the second 
a liquid (\ftvp) the utterance is at times slurred and the syllable 
treated as short ( e.g. in aTpifiwi, I'nrfKpvif/e, Se kAiVt;). By the time 
of Arist. this more rapid treatment had become the rule, and the 
only combinations of mute and licjuid that still re(|uired the longer 



288 APPENDIX 

utterance were (i) that of a " middle " mute {i.e. fi, y, or 8, the 
middle one of the three in the above three groups) with either A, /a, 
or V (as in ciTrd/JAeTre, Se yi/ac^evet, SeSey/AtVo?), or (2) where a verb 
with liquid initial is compounded with the prepos. Ik, as in iKpoipetv. 
This habit of daily speech Arist. strictly reflects in his iambic 
trimeters, i.e. the spoken verses of dialogue, unless his words are 
a tragic parody or quotation. In that case we may expect to find 
the old Homeric quantities, which are of course retained for the 
sung choruses (fxeXr)) and sometimes, as here, in the chanted 
anapaests, e.g. Trdrpos 277, )8upu^po/xov 284, Kdirvov 320, wypav 335j 
UKpov 401, OTL TTporJKMv 5 1 4, KpcfxdOpwv 869. | «rT«vo-\€<rx<tv : Plato 
CrOf'g. 497 e. ipuyra 8rj av to. crp-iKpa. tc koL crT€va. ravTa. Hence 
cTTcvov is petty, paltry. 

321. vv^ao-a: seems by the Indices to be at this time only an 
epic word, though there was a proverb (date unknown) Ae'ovTa 

vijcrcrei?. 

326. The fiction of the play is often thus comically disrupted 
by reference to the spectators (890, 1096, A. 442, P. 962, R. 1475), 
or the lKKVK\y)p.a. (A. 408, Th. 96, 265), or p.rf)(u.voTzoi6<i (P. 174, 
frg. 188), or )(opr}y6<; (P. 1022), or as here to the eto-oSos (Av. 296, 
frg. 388). 

327. 7^Toi: 878, A. 947, E. 1054, V. 912, 934, 1 146, 1416, P. 
509, Av. 307, Th. 775, 887, Ec. 88, PL 1041. tol makes the 
emphasis of ye upon the word preceding it still more emphatic. 
See K.-G. 2. 153 and n. on 372 for yi tol St;. | KoXoKvvrais : van 
Leeuwen, after V. Hehn, inclines to think that the pumpkin was at 
this time a recent and striking arrival in Athens, since even a half- 
century later Epicrates makes it a subject of study in Plato's 
Academy (see n. on 188). But would not Epicrates' joke be even 
better if the pumpkin had been autochthonous ? 

330. (id AC. dXXa : see 204 n. 

331. Poo-Kovo-i. : is properly used of feeding beasts, rpecfxa of 
human beings. Cp. the Engl, words " food " and "feed." See 
Neil on Equit. 256. 

332. 0ovpio|j.dvT€is: Lampon is mentioned in an inscript. (CIA. 



NOTES ON TEXT 289 

IV I. 2"] b = Dittenberger 20, 48 = Roberts and Gardner 9. 47) 
as the mover of certain amendments to an Eleusinian decree {c. 
444 B.C.) on the intercalation of a month. For his mission to 
Thurii 443 see Plut. Moral. 812 d, Diod. Sic. 12. 10. He, the 
soothsayer, and Anaxagoras, the philosopher, once had an ever- 
recurring difference in interpreting a freak of nature (Plut. Peric. 
6). Cratinus (frgg. 57 f., 62) and others {e.g. Eupolis 297) ridiculed 
him for gluttony (Athen. 344 e, 307 d), but despite the discredit 
he and his profession receive from comic poets and progressive 
spirits such as Euripides (frg. 795 anci often), his name stands as 
the first Athenian signer of the Peace of 421 B.C. (Thuc. 5. 19, 5. 
24), and he obtains the honour of public maintenance in the Pryta- 
neum (schol. Pax 1084 and Av. 521 ). In Arist. we meet him also 
in Av. 521, 988, still alive ; and yet later Cratinus the Younger was 
making merry with him in his comedy Ne'/iecns ; schol. xAv. 521, E. 
il2J^\)'i> Harvard Studies 15 (1904), 61-75. 

332 f. I transpose the endings of these verses because the 
fX€Tttjjpo(f)evaKe^ are certainly a species of sophist, and are distinct 
from the uafuiTOKafXTrTUL, hence should not be allowed to separate 
these latter from their verb fi-ova-oiroLovcri. in 334. On the other 
hand, o-(^payiS-ovu;(-apyo-»co/xJ7Tui may well be an epithet for the 
foppish poetasters. P'urther, the transposition brings the " weather- 
projihets " and the "healing-artists" together; and these were 
sometimes identical, or should be, in the judgment of Hippoc- 
rates ; TTtfil aipu)v c. 2 Jin. : tl Si SoKt'oi n? ravra /xer£a»poXdyu tivui, 
el fjLtTatrTaif] Tii<i yvMfxr]<i, fui.BuL av on oiV eAa^itrroi/ fi(.po<; cruyu,/8uA- 
KtTui aCTTpovo/JiLr] e? Ir^rpLKriv, tlAAa -rravv TrXelarov. — For like trans- 
position of verse-ends see among others the emendatiuns of ^h/i. 
324 f by Ribberk and Hamaker. 

332. p4Tiwpo4)^vaKas : for the attention then paid to to. p.tT€wpu 
and the poijular susjjicion of the subject, see Pint. Piric. 5, where 
Pericles admires Anaxagoras, as kui \fyop.ivri<i /icTtw^oAoyiu? kui 
ptTiip(Tio\ifT)^ui<: vTroTnp.Tr\aiitvo<;. Pint. Ptric. 32 ij/ycfjuTpbii AiOTTti'^j/? 
iypiixpiv (i. 432 H.< . ) ei(Tayy(\t<T0ni Tor^ ra Otlii /xry vofii^uvTwi 1/ 

XljyUWi TTlpi TWt' /KTHpfTUDV Bl8d(T KUVTU<i . Plut. jV/c'. 2^ OVK rjVf.L^OVTU 

Akl^lUlHANKS 19 



290 APPENDIX 

(oi AOrjvaioi) tou; <^v(ti.kov<; kol /ACTewpoXeo-^as totc KaXov/xivov;, 
ws CIS atTttts dAdyou; Kj.t hvva.fji€L<; aTrpovoi]TOv<; koI KaTrjvay Kaa fiiva. 
irdOri BuiTpLftovTa<: to Buov. See also Plat. Phaedr. 270 «, Eur./r^. 
913. Aristotle's Meteorologica discusses milky way, comets, 
orbits, air, water, wind, rain, snow, lightning, earthquakes. See 
Introd. § 56. 

333. T€ : " re solitarium " is used freely by Arist. to connect 
either single words or clauses in any form of verse ; e.g. 359, 700, 
994, 1072, 1083, 1358, A. 93, 143, 265, 338, 348, 491, 504, 855, 
1062, etc. I ao-iiaTOKdixiTTas : what the musical Kafiirrj was, is prob- 
ably seen in the two ancient hymns to Apollo discovered some 
years ago at Delphi inscribed on stone ; £u//. de cor)', hell. 18 
(1894). These show that not one tone only was sung to each 
syllable, but sometimes two in succession of different pitch. In 
this case the syllable is twice written ; e.g. $otot/8ov, raao-Se, AetX<f>L- 
auv, Trpojwva, /Aaavreietov. Arist. parodies Euripides' employment 
of this novelty in J^an. 13 14 in the word eteieteutetAto-o-cTc — a 
Kaixirrj indeed, anticipating the flourishes of Italian opera! — For 
Clouds, Chaos, and Air, as the dependence of high-flying poets, 
see Arist. A. 1383-1400, P. 827-31. | o-<j)pa'yi8. : Arist. parodies 
the compound-word-making so dear to the dithyrambic " song- 
twisters." See n. on Introd. § 99 ; Plato's satirical etymology of 
ScAavataas (reXa-evo-vco-aei-a which he says {Crat. 409 ^) is Stdvpafj.- 
ySwSes ; Aristot. Rhet. 3. 3. 3, Poet. 22 (tuJv 8' ovop^axiav to. p.ev StTrXS 
fidXia-Ta app-oTTeL rots Si6vpdp./3oi<:) ; Smyth Meli'e Poets, xliii ff., 
especially Ivi. f. 

335. When Trygaeus mounts to heaven to visit Zeus, he meets 
no one " wandering round the air " save the souls of two or three 
dithyrambic poets gathering preludes or dva/JoAai' (/iz^ 828-31) ; 
of such dvafioXai we perhaps have specimens here. See, also, 
Bacchylides' dithyramb XV (Heracles). 

336. irpT)|iaivoii(ras : cp. Herod. Mini. 7. 98 ■jrprjp.yjvov and 6. 8 
irpiqpov^iXJav = ^iovcruv boiling, fiimmg. 

337. d€po-vT)x«is : cp. Av. 1385 d(.poZovf]rov% avul3o\d<;, 139301^6- 
po8p6fi(i)V oitx>vu>i', R. 1292 Kvcrlv depo(f>OLTOi<;. 



NOTES ON TEXT 291 

338. dvT'avTuJv; in compensation or exchange for ; 668, 13 10, 
E. 1404, V. 509, P. 580, L. 1 167, Th. 723, Ec. 1047. So avff w 
came to mean quam ob rem, as in 623, A. 292, Ec. 17, PI. 840; 
or also propterca quod, as in PI. 434. | KaTe'irivov : on chorus- 
training-tables, the banquets after the contest, and the meanness 
shown at times by the choregus, see A. 886, 1155, P. 1022, Eupol. 
306, Flut. Moral. 349 a b. 

339. On KidTpa and kix^t; see Athen. 323 and 64/; for kcxAt; 
also Arist. A. 961, 970, 1007, loii, 1105, 1109, 11 16, P. 531, 
1149, 1195, 1197, Av. 591, 1080. 

340. tC ira9ov<rai: the same formula at A. 912, P. 701. See n. 
on 402 and 1506. 

341. €i|a<ri: 343, Av. 96, 383; also in Eur., Plato, and comic 
fragments. On the form see K.-Bl. 2. 49 bottom and 410, Brugm. 
352 top. 

343. 8'o«v: E. 423, V. 92, P. 736, Av. 499, 577, L. 717, Th. 
477, Ec. 326; with imv. see n. on 39. An alternate is dAA.' 
ovv ... ye 1002. 

344. On the power of initial p to make a syllable long see 
Kaehler's full note on this verse (in Anhang). \ With the great 
noses of the C7^«</-masks cp. the beaks of the Aves in Av. 99, 
364, 672, and the " King's Eye " Ach. 94 ff. 

346. ti'Sti -rroT^ : Or rySr; or ^87; irwTroT€ C. ROT. 386, 1061, R. 62, 

931, and frequently from Homer (//. i. 260) to Lucian (Char. 
19); but also c. perf., as e.g. in 370, 766, A. 610, Hermip. 36, 
Amphis 27 (K. 2. 244), Alex. 273 (K. 2. 398). 

349. ol6vir€p Tov H€vo4>dvTou : attraction of case from nomin. c. 
cVti, as in A. 703, Ec. 465. K.-G. 2. 410 ff. 

350. ■n'Kao-av: "gnomic" aor, ; 352, 1200 (?), E. 263, 1130, V. 
574, 582, 586, 1257-61, L. 17 ff., R. 216, 229, 1068. Sec n. on 
174. I Cp. gnomic perfect : E. 718, V. 494, 561, 591, 616, 694, P. 
1176, E. 858, 1234, R. 970, PI. 569; GMT. 155, K.-G. i. 150. 
In Antiph. 204 (K. 2. 98) perf., pres., and aor. are mingled without 
difference. 

353. KX€<I»vu(ios : this ancient Falstaff looms into view 425 B.C. 



292 APPENDIX 

in A. 88, 844, and is a butt from then on in E. 958, 1292, 1372, 
N.353. 400, 673-80, V. 19 f., 592, 822, P. 446, 673 ff., (1172-86), 
1295, Av. 289, 1475, Th. 605, Andoc. i. 27. 

355. KXeio-OcvTis : A. 118, E. 1374, V. 1187, Av. 831, L. 621, 
1092, Th. 235, 574 ff., 763, 929, R. 48, 57, 426, frg. 407, Crat. 
195, Pherecr. 135, and perhaps Lysias 25. 25. | opas : often paren- 
thetic, as in Th. 496, 556; so fiavOdvea V. 385, Av, 1003 ; ev lctBi, 
or tv TovT '[(tOl pi. 216 ; otS' oTt, hrjXov on, ttcos SokeZs (n. on 881). 
K.-G. 2. 353. I 810 TovTo : ToivTo is resumptive (ep-ana-leptic), as 
in 395, 1199, 1262, E. 779, V. 653, 741, Av. 1176, PI. 1014. 
K.-G. I. 660. 

359. XeiTTOTdTcov \T|pwv Upeu : echoed in Dion. HaHc. De Corn- 
posit. 4 (of Hegesias) tovtmv yap twv Xrjpwv lepev'i. 

361. irXV T| • SO RV. here and in 734; so also Clarkianus in 
Plat. Apol. fin.; so Stein reads in Hdt. 2. iii, 6. 5. Cp. dAA' ^ 
(E. 780, 953, 1397, V. 984, P. 476, L. 427, R. 928, 1073, 1 130) 
and see K.-G. 2. 285. For ttA^v ei, which some editors substitute 
here, see Av. 601, Th. 532, Eur. Androm. 332 and frg. 325 N., 
Xen. Hell. 4. 2. 21, Metagen. 13 (K. i. 708), and K.-G. 2. 
487. i npoSCKip: he appears but twice in Arist. (here and Av. 692), 
often in Plato. See Crat. 384 b for his 50-drachma speech, Protag. 
337 rt; for his neat distinctions between koivo's and tcros, afi^ia-pryrtlv 
and epi'^ttv, tvhoKiixtLV and iwaivetcrOai, evcfypuLvofiaL a.nd r) 00 pai. Xen. 
Mff/i. 2. I. 21-34 tells his Hercules-story, and Aristot. P/iet. 3. 14 
his ruse for rousing sleepy auditors. See Diels 535-41. 

362. Ppev6v€i : aTTOO-ejavwetS (reavTov tcu (T)(y]ixaTL. KO/XTra^ets '<at 
vTrepoTTTiKois {3uLvei<; (schol.) Socrates kept his " strut " and his 
"glance askance" on the battlefield of Delium as well as on the 
streets (Plato Syinp. 221 /'). For his endurance of even Thracian 
ice barefoot see Plato Syinp. 220 a b, and cp. Xen. Mem. i. 6. 2. 

364. T€paTM8T)s : other adjs. in -ojSr/s in Arist. are Kpt/AvoiSr;? 
965, StiTToXi- 984, irpiv- V. 383, TTvp- Av. I 746, avOtfX- R. 449, <j>piK- 
R. 1336, yaarp- PI. 560, (r(J3r]K- PI. 561. 

365. "ydp Toi : E. 180, V. 588, 603, 787, Av. 1225, L. 46, 626, 
Th. 81, 171, 1130, R. 73, 532, Ec. 578, frg. 488. 9, and common 



NOTES ON TEXT 293 

in Plato. See F. Kugler De Particnlae rot ap. Plat, usu, Trogen, 
1886. 

368. €pL0i7« : " inepte hie videtur particula ye " (Blaydes). 

369. avrai S'HTrow : " these clouds, of cotifse.'' Sr/irov in Arist. 
m>f m quest. : N. 369, V. 663, 1375, P. 145, 350, 955, 1089, L. 
913, Th. 805, 819, Ec. 659, 661, PI. 491, 497, 519, 523, 582; in 
questt. always ov S^ttov or oi .. . Bt^ttov. E. 900, Av. 179, PI. 261, 
549, 587, and A. 122, Av. 269, Ec. 327, R. 526 (?). K.-G. 2. 131. 
Bi'/TTovdcv is found in V. 296, P. 1019, Av. 187, PI. 140. 

371. Plut. Moral. 894 a (= Aetius 3. 4. i) : 'Avali/Acvr/s (<f>rj(Tl) 
v^<f>iqyLvea6uL Tru)(yy0iv.-u<; on irXeicrTov row de/D09, /xaAAov 8' eVtcrwav- 
diVTw; €Kd\ifiea$aL rous ufxj3p()v<;. So Hippocrates (irepl depwv C. 8) 
tells how the first light clouds are formed, then to, 8e uyrurdev im<f>i- 
fjeTuL, KUL ouTO) TTu^vviTai K(u fJicXaLveTai Kai (TvaTpecfieTut. e? to avTo 
Kai VTTo ySapeos KUTappyjyvvTUL, kul up.(3poi yivovTai. 

372. yi Toi 8t| : R. 1047, Plato Crito 44 a, Phaedr. 264 b. Rep. 
476 e, 504 a, Soi)h. O.T. 11 71. Cp. 8?y rot . . . yt Plato Profag. 
31 1 <f, and see K.-Ci. 2. 153. For ye. toi see 327 n. | 'n-poo-€'<})D<ras : 

cp. Aesch. Suppl. 276 tuvt akirjOr/ vavru irpoacfywrw Ao'yw. 

376 ff. So had Anaxagoras exjjlained thinider as a avyKpiai'i 
v€(t>wv, while lightning was an tKTpuj/is vtcfiwi/ (Diog. Laert. 2. 9). 
See also Plut. Moral. 893 d, Aristot. Meteor. 2. 19, Lucret. 
6. 96 ff. I On the elevation of u.vu.yK-q to godhood {''kvayK-q) by 
the philosophers Pythagoras, Parmenides, Empedocles, Democ- 
ritus, see Ritter and Preller, Index s.7>. avayK-q. 

377. Venetus reads KuTuKpL/xva/xevai, jjerhaps correctly. See 
K.-i>l. 2. 466, van Leeuvven Enchir. ^t;^. 

380. i'or Sii/o? the drinking cup, see n. on 1473. On Kv-t] = 
I'ortix, Rotary Motion, dX this time a philosophic term containing 
a whole theory of llie universe, see Oomperz i. 337 ff and i. 53. 
'i'he doctrine of the Vortex, he thinks, went back to Anaximander, 
but had lieen elaborated by Leucippus and Deinocrilus. The 
I itter l)elieved TrafTu kut avayKiji' yivtirdtu, Ttj<i 6 vq<i uiTiu<; ovcrrj'i 
Tij'i yevurtM^ Triu'Tun', y'/y dray r;i' At'yti (Diog. I/iert. 9. 45), and 
that this motion was eternal (cuuKpie molum atomonnn iiullo a 



294 APPENDIX 

principio, sed ex aeterno tempore intellegi convenire, Cic. De Fin. 
I. 6. 17). — These notions were now being published to the 
people by Diogenes of Apollonia and by Euripides in his trage- 
dies (see, e.g. Troad. 884 and frg. 953). Arist. wishes to show 
how dangerous is a little learning, and to what misunderstandings 
protestantism in religion and popularization in science may lead. 
— For various references to Kvt] or Sivo? see Plato Phaed. 99 b, 
Aristot. De Caelo 2.13, and in Diels Fragmente, Empedocles 34. 
4, Democritus 167, Anaxagoras 12. 10 ff. (7re/3t;((opi;cris), Leucippus 
on p. 356, 19 and 28 and 30. 

384. Venetus reads vypor-qra, perhaps rightly. irvKvor-qra may 
be due to 406. 

386. nava0T]va(ois : CTret ej' TOis Ilava^T^i/atots iraaaL at vtto twv 
'AdrjvuLwv a-rroLKurdeiaat TrdAets /3ovv rvdrjcroixevov €7re/j,7rov, avve(3aLV£v 
aBtiav eivui tcov Kpewv (schol.). See also Gard.-Jev. 288. | tlra: 
linking partic. and finite verb; 149, 172, 178, 592, A. 291, 1166, 
E. 263, 281, V. 49, 379, 423, 1072, Av. 360, 1619, and often; 
GMT. 855 f, K.-G. 2. 86. —So iTreira A. 498, N. 1042, Av. 29, 
518, etc. — So Kara (kui' being adverbial to elra, and not a con- 
junct.?) N. 409, E. 354, 357, 392, P. 890 (?), Av. 674, 1455, L. 
560, Plato Gorg. 457 fi. — So KairtiTa N. 624, Av. 536, Plato 
Phaed. 98 c. Cp. eira 8e A. 24, E. 377, and see further n. 
on 860. 

388. Seivd TTOiei : 583, R. 1093, Hdt. 2. 121. 5, 3. 14. 22, 5. 41. 
9> 7- I- 5> 9- 33- 21, Andoc. i. 63, Thuc. 5. 42. 2. Distinguish 
from Setva irouladuii (= rjytZdOaL) as in ircpi iroXXov iroLiiaOai, iv 
oi'Sevt TTOulaOai. 

392. TvvvovTouC : with shortened penult, as in tovtovl (653, 

A. 246), \eiVOVL (p. 1 2 13), TOUTOJt (E. 490, 869), TOUTOJt (Av. 62), 

avTrjL (Av. 301), avTait' (Av. 1018). So also in <jiLXa9rjvuLo<;, SetAaios, 
oTToto?, etc. K.-Bl. I. 313, Christ Metrik 27. — rvvvovro<i in Arist. : 
A. 367, E. 1220, N. 392, 878, Th. 745, R. 139. 

394. -iropST) : always a matter of jest, and its mention not always 
held vulgar. See Hom. Hymn to Hermes 295 f, Dante Inferno 
21, 139, Hdt. 2. 162 (Amasis). Arist. is full of it: A. 30, E. 115, 



NOTES ON TEXT 295 

639> N. 9, 392, V. 394, 618, 1 1 77, 1305, P. 335, 547, Av. 792, 
R. 10, 1074, Ec. 78, 464, Fl. 176, 618, 699. 

398. Kpoviwv : Cronus is used chiefly to date things out of date ; 
929, 1070, V. 1480, PI. 581, Plato Euthyd. 287 ^, Lys. 205 c, 
Philon. 15 (K. I. 257) vvv\ Sc Kpoi/ou /cat Ti^wvoS TraTnr-€Trt-irainro'i 
vtvofjiuTTai, Timoth. in Athen. 122 ^; so also lapetus (998) and 
Tithonus (A. 688). — For the one-day festival to. Kpovia on Heca- 
tombaeon 12, see Mommsen Ees/e 32. | PtKKco-tXiive : Hdt. 2. 2 
tells the story of Psammetichus and his famous experiment for 
discovering the original language of the world. On the irpo- 
a-eXrjvot Arcadians see Apoll. Rhod. 4, 264. 

399. Cp. Lucret. 6. 386 and 416 on the impartial bolt of Zeus, 
levelled at good and bad alike. | 8iiTa: in quest, preferably stands 
next to the interrog. word (rt, ttws, ttoI, apa), as in 58, 79, 423, 
724, 904 ; but like ydp and apa (165) is weak in maintaining its 
rights, as in 403, 1151, 1196, V. 985, 1148. In E. 810 four words 
intervene, in E. 18 six, here twelve ! But many good Mss. read 
TTWi instead. See J. Wehr 79 ff., K.-G. 2. 133. 

400. 0^wpov: he appears in A. 134-73 as a legate reporting, 
after long delay but continued pay, from Thracian Sitalces ; in E. 
608 he is probably a gourmand (see van Leeuwen) ; in V. 42-51 
and 418 he is a KoXji^-Kopa^ soon to go es KopaKa'; ; in V. 599 he is 
bootblack to Demus, in V. 1220 and 1236 a parasite of Cleon. 
I'lxit forever Theorus {Show- man). 

402. tI fioe«v: so 1506, A. 826, V. 251, L. 599, PI. 908, 
homos. 10. 39, 20. 127, 29. 20, 45. 38 ; GMT. 839, K.-G. 2. 519. 
I'ut many editors change in all cases /MaBw to ttuOmv (as in 340) ; 
anfl AW so read here. 

404. KaraKXciorefi : SO the best Mss., not -K\r)a6rj. See Zachcr 
137, as against K.-Iil. 2. 460. | This account of lightning is not 
parody but veritable science of the time. Gonceriiing thunder, 
lightning, and hurricane, Anaxim.iiidcr believed (k tw vyevpuTi)': 

T(n>TL TTiivTiL (n)ii.fjiii'ytiv ' OTuv yap iTtpi\r)(f)Okv i'((f}(.i. irn^ti (iiurrdittvov 
iKWifTif Tij AcTTTop.ipii'a Kdl Kov(f>6Tr)Ti, TOTf. 7] jiiv prj^i<i ror t/")c/)or t/ oe 
OL'KTToKij TTf/yja Tijv p.ik(L\n'.av tov vi<f>ov<i tuv huivyiur jlov aTroTtAti (Plut. 



296 APPENDIX 

Mora/. 8g^ d = Aelins 3. 3. i). So later Lucret. 6. 175. See 
Park Benjamin T/ie Intellectual Rise in Electricity (1898), 563 ff. 
for interesting record of the views of man on thunder and Hght- 
ning. 

408. For the Diasia, celebrated Anthesterion 23 to Zevs 6 
/MetA.t;(tos, see 864, Thuc. i. 126. 6, Xen. Anab. 7. 8. 4, Mommsen 
Feste A,2\ ff. For a new derivation of the name and interpreta- 
tion of the ceremonies (8to for 8to-o = Lat. diro, having no connec- 
tion with Aids, gen. of Zeus), see J. E. Harrison 12 ff., or J.H.S. 
19. 414 n. I. 

409. 7ao-T€pa : haggis ; SO Od. 18. 44, 20. 25, and Hes. Theog. 
539, where Prometheus deceives Zeus into choosing white bones, 
because hidden by fat, rather than the good things hidden inside 
the yaa-TTjp. Cp. Koikia E. 160, 302, 356, and rjvvaTpov E. 356, 
I179. 

410. Sia-XaKTJtrao-a : XaKew (Tlieocr. 2. 24, iTnXrjKea) Od. 8. 379) 
= Aa-CTKO). Cp. KOfXTToKoLKvOo'; A. 589, KOfiTTO-XaKilv R. 961. 

412. 10 . . . wvepwire: SO 816, E. 726, V. 1512, P. I198, Av. 

1271 ; cp. L. 1097 w ^^atper' w AaKwves, Eur. Alcest. 234, Plato 
Euthyd. 294 b. \ This and the five next verses are quoted by 
Diog. Laert. 2. 27, as addressed to Socrates — a fact made much of 
in the discussion on the original form of the play. 

413. KaC: YCidjV'i 2. crescendo ; so 1239, 1302,//. 19.63 'EKTopt 
\xkv Kai Tp(i)(TL, Thuc. I. 116 6776 Kavvov Kat Kaptas, K.-G. 2. 247. 

415 ff. Cp. the qualities of the real Socrates in Plato Symp. 
174 ^/-75 c, 220; Xen. Mem. i. 2. i, i. 6. 2, 2. i. i, 4. i. 2. | 
(A^ . . . |iT)T€ : K.-G. 2. 288 bottom. 

420. owcKa : as for., as regards; A. 389, 958, L. 74, 491, R. 
iiiS, Ec. 170, 367, and often. K.-G. i. 462. 

422. dp.«\£i: 488, 877, nil, A. 368, E. 1213, L. 164, 172, 842, 
935' R- 532, Ec. 800. 

423. aXXo Ti . . . ov : cp. Plato Gorg. 503 d aWo tl ovk Hk-q 
ipd; is it not true that he 7vill not speak at random ? Hipp. Maj. 
296 b (xAAo Tt ouTot . . . iiVK av TTort l-noiovv ; IS it not true that 
these would never have done — ? K.-G. 2. 529. 



NOTES ON TEXT 297 

424. In Rati. 892-94 Euripides prays : al6r]p e/jiov /SoaK-q/jia koI 

yXwaa-q^ aTp6(f>iy$ | kul ivvtat Kal fJLVKTrjpe<; 6(T<f>pavTr]pLOL, | 6pdCi)<; fx 
eAey^etv mv av aTrrw/xui Aoyojv. 

426. tiriBeiTiv : the regular compound for this act of ritual ; V. 
96, R. S%&, Plat. com. 69. 9, Antiph. 164. 4 (K. 2. 78). 

430. Cp. R. 91 Ei'ptTTt'Sou TrAeiv rj crraStw XaXiarepa. 

433. X€'7£iv: held to be an imv. use of the inf. by R. Wagner 
Der Gebrauch des impcr. Infin. 38, and K.-G. 2. 510; see n. on 
850. But note the freciuent idiomatic ellipse of the verb after 
pjT], as cited on 84. 

434. oVa . . . <rTpe\(;o8iKfjo-ai : enough to. ... The sing. o<tov or 
orrov p.6vov c. inf. is more common; V. 1288, L. 732 (c. partic), 
Eupol. 250, Thuc. I. 2. I, 6. 105. 2, Xen. Anah. 4. i. 5, 7. 3. 22, 
Ocean. II. 18, Plato Protag. 334 c. K.-G. 2. 510 f. 

440. TO V «ii.ov <r«|Aa : Cobet and many editors read rovp.6v. But 
see K.-G. 2. 175, and cp. the use of ye in yow and yap (yc apa) in 
explicative clauses or appositive clauses. 

442. do-Kov Stiptiv : this same flaying in E. 370, Solon frg. 29. 
7 (Hiller-Crusius), Hdt. 7. 26, Plato Euihyd. 285 c. 

443. €l : c. fut. indie, is here equivalent to fxtWo) c. inf. '; so in 
452, 1035, V. 1264, P. 88, Av. 549, 759, 900, R. 13, 176, 1460, 
Ec. 471, 568, PI. 556, 878, 923. Sobol. Synt. 109. 

446. (TVY koX\titt|s : cp. E. 463 KoWwixeva, V. 1 04 1 ^vveKoWwv. 

447. irtpC Tpi(j.(ia : cp. Tpijjpxi 260. Trepi- is intensive, as in ntpL- 
KaXXrj<i, TrepL-rrKt\ri<i. Demos. 18. 127 calls Aeschines TrtpiTpip.fJia 
ayopas; cp. /1c/i. 937 TpnrTr]p StKwv. For the use of abstract sub- 
stantives as concrete see GS. 41, K.-G. i. 10. 

449. €tpwv : see Starkie on yesp. 174. 

450. K^vrpuv : cp. (TTiywv and ttc'Sojj/, also applied as Kivrpuw to 
slaves, according to the punishment deserved. Other comic 

names in -<»v are ydarputv, y\dp.-, y\i<T)(^p-, y\vK-, Ka.v6-, KvpT-, TTOO-^-, 
(TTpdft-. (l\). Shorty, Fatty, and see Peppier 33 f. | <rTp<i<j>is : 
Kick, Curt. Stud. 9 (1876), 177, treats of the formation in -t? 
which is not confined to comedy. | dp-yaX^os : = AvTrr/pos ; common 
only in II(;mcr, to judge from extant literature. 



298 APPENDIX 

451. For the sophist-parasite see Eupol. 146 on Protagoras: 

OS a\a^ovev€TaL filv aAtrr/ptos | irepl tw fxerewpoiv, to. 8e ;)(a/Aa^ev 
iadlei. 

455. €K jAov : the unemphatic pronoun after a prepos. is rare; 

E. 372 tK (Tov, V. 1358 irepi'. ixov. K.-Bl. I. 347. 

456. Tois <j)povTicrTais : ^/le Ruminatoi's. We might recall that 
a whole herd of these " ruminating" animals had probably just 
been exhibited by Amipsias in his Connus. See n. on 179. 

457. Xiifia: used eight times by Arist., it belongs to elevated 
style, as is clear from the context and spirit on each occasion : E, 
757, N. 457, 1350, Th. 459, R. 463, 500, 603, 899. 

462 ff. Cp. the evSaifjiovia of those initiated into the Eleusinian 
mysteries as told by Pindar frg. 114 Bergk" and Soph. frg. 753 
(Pint. Afom/. 21 f.). 

465. dpd Y€ : V. 1337, Av. 668, 1221. apa . . . ye V. 4, P. 114, 
Av. 307, PI. 546. Cp. dpa 8^Ta iN. 1094, E. 322. O. Bachmann 
s.v. 

470. €s X6>yov iXdiiv : SO E. 806, 1300 (iweXOeiv), but usually Ao- 
yovi, as in V. 472 and Herodotus often. Cp. 252. 

474. ci|ia <rfi <j)p«vi : a like dat. with a^tos in A. 8, 205, E. 616, N. 
1074, Av. 548. I o-fi <}>pevi : the article is rarely absent in prose when 
the possessive pronoun is used with a definite possession. But here 
the passage is lyric, as also 1166, Av. 456, 1759, L. 345 ; and Th. 
912 is a quotat. from Euripides. In A. 1232, E. 732, 1341, Th. 
514, the article is properly omitted, as the reference is indefinite. 
K.-G. I. 627. 

477. -yvioiitis d-iroTTtipd) : the same phrase Hdt. 3. 119. 5, Andoc. 
I. 105, Isoc. 18. 39, Polyb. 35. 6. 3. Cp. Plato FroAig. 311 d 
(pwfir]^ airOTrtipan-BaL) . 

479. avTov (I8ws oo-Tis to-xt : prolepsis ; A. 1 1 7, 375, 442, E. 926, 
N. 95, i45> 250, 493, 842, 1148, 1185, P. 1162, L. 376, 905, Th. 
1 134, R- 436, 750, 932, 1454, Kc. 1 1 25, PI. 55, 56, etc. K.-G. 2. 
577, and see n. on 11 15. 

480. «irl TovPTois : eVt' of succession; A. 13, P. 1085, L. 1295, 
Th. 1045, Ec. 82, PI. 57 (rdTTt TouVots in the last two exx.). 



NOTES ON TEXT 299 

483. r[ : by origin an intensive (HA. 1037. 9) like firjv ; = veiily, 
aXrjO!l)<;, ovtw<; (Hesych.). It had interrog. function as apa (from 
dpa, K.-G. 2. 144 (.) ; A. 749, 776, PI. 869, etc. Note dAA* 17 in- 
terrog. in A. 424.. 426, V. 8 (K.-G. 2. 528 f.) ; yet sometimes in- 
tensive (^=htit surely) in A. iiii, 11 12, E. 1162 (K.-G. 2. 145). 
Distinguisli from dAA.' rj after a negative expressed or implied (see 
n. on 361). Cp. r] TTov L. 10S9, PI. 970; Elmsley on Eur. Med. 
1275. I nvtijioviKos : on the new affectation of adjectives in -ikos 
among the "enlightened" see Peppier y^.y./l 31 (1910), 428. — 
The question of memory was held important by the historic 
Socrates, according to Xen, Mem. 4. i. 2. 

491. Tt SaC : Sat' is used only after rt {ji%) and ttws. Brugm. 547 
notes that Sut : St/ : : vat : vq. Being colloquial, it is found but 
once (if at all) in Aeschylus, once (if at all) in Sophocles, not at all 
in historians and orators, yet seven times in the colloquial Eurip- 
ides, and often of course in Plato and in Arist. e.g. 12C6, 1275, A. 
105, 612, 764, 802, etc. Cp. Tt 8e, Tt 8c 8}/, Tt S^Tu. Wehr 74-78, 
K.-G. 2. 134. 

493. 8«8oiKa p.T| : followed by indie, expresses no real fear, but 
conviction (sugar-coated) ; for the indie, is the mood of fact. 
GM'1\ 369, K.-G. 2. 394. 

496. dKapti : neut. \A\\x. as Bachmann Conject. Arist. 69, or 
ace. sing. {sc. yjiovov) as Blaydes, Kock, Kaehler, van Leeuwen. 

499. On personal and undress search for stolen property see 
Isae. 6. 42, Plato Legg. 954 a, Gell. Noct. Att. 11. 18. 9, 16. 10. 8 
(juaestio furtorum cum lance et licio. 

507. jicXiTowTTav : sc. fxa^av. A good list of common ellipses is 
in Starkie K<r.v/. 106, or K.-G. i. 265 ; see also n. on 1047. 

508. Cave-oracle of Trophonius : Pausan. 9. 39. 2-14, I'liit. 
Moral. 411 /, 590 <7-92 c, lldt. i. 46, 8. 134, Philostr. I'ita 
Apollon. 8. 19, Luc. Dial. Mart. 3. 2, Athen. 614 a. \ cts Tpo<t)ui- 
vCou : i.e. It/jw. Vot gen. (jf person or divinity after eis see 964, 
996, I'".. 1235, V. 123, 1250, L. 2, 621, 725, 1064, 1070, 1209, 
Th. 89, R. 69, 118, 172, T363, Ec, 420, PI. 411, ()2\ ; Sobol. 
Praepos. 45. — So iv c:. gen. E. 79, 400, 1238, N. 973, V. 642, L. 



300 APPENDIX 

407, Th. 83, 795, R. 774; Sobol. 10. — So c'k c. gen. E. 464, P. 
1 149, 1154, L. 701, Ec. 443, PI. 84, frg. 199 ; Sobol. 71. 

509. Kvirrdtcis : for frequentative and intensive verbs in -a^a>, 
-(o-)Ka^a>, -(a)Td^oi see van Leeuvven Enchir. 356, Monro on Od. 

13.9, K.-Bl. 2. 262. Exx. /AoATra^o) R. 380, oTTtt^w E. 200, ;^ao-Kd^a» 
V. 695, aapKOL^w (crat/ow) P. 482, KXaard^w E. 1 66, ptTrra^o) L. 27, 
vevard^w, dyvprd^w (dyeipw), /Safrrd^M, ovord^w, etc. 

510. d\X" IBi x^'pwv • 3. like formula in A. 1143, E- 488, V. 1009, 
P. 729. Exx. of the fairly complete parabasis in Arist. are A. 626- 
718, E. 498-610, N. 510-626, V. 1009-1121, Av. 676-800; of 
the incomplete form are A. 1143-73, E. 1264-1315, N. 11 14-30, 
V. 1265-91, P. 1127-90, Av. 1958-1117, Th. 785-845, R. 675-737, 
Ec. 1155-62. See Gleditsch 239, Christ 665. 

515. TTiv 4>vo-iv avTOB : unusual position of reflexive; so in 905, 
P. 880, Av. 475, frg. 590. K.-G. I. 620. 

518-62. With the poet's use of the first personal pronoun 
throughout this parabasis cp. those passages where the third per- 
son drops into the first : A. 659-64 (Trviyos of 1st parabasis), V. 
1284-91 (antistr. of 2d parab.), P. 754-74 (last part of parab. with 
Trkiyos) ; also in letters, as in Thuc. i. 128. 7 (Pausanias to king), 
I. 129. 3 (king to Pausan.), Xen. Nc//. 5. i. 31 (Artaxerxes). 

520. ovTw . . . ws : cp. " /ta me dii amant, /// ego nunc . . . 
laetor," Ter. Heaut. 4. 3. 8, Horn. //. 8. 538, 13. 825, Luc. Philo- 
pseud. 27, Arist. Thesm. 469 (without ws) ; K.-G. 2. 494. — With 
this piece of saucy assurance cp. E. 230 as explained by van Leeu- 
wen and accepted by H. Richards, Class. Rev. 16 (1902), 355. 

522. (ro4)WTaT \-%t\v : so Ix"*' i^trans. with superlat. adverb 
apiara (R. 1161, Th. 260), opdorura (Plato J?c/>. 297 e), with 
€T€p(i}<i (PI. 371), dvayKaiox; (P. 334), ovto), kuXuk;, etc., very fre- 
quently. 

523. dva-ytvo-ai : perhaps no more than ytvcrai. Cp. dva-irivu), 
dva-SiSao-Kw (Thuc. i. 32. i, where see Steup). 

528. t^ OTOv : A. 17, Av. 322. e$ oTOVTrep A. 596, 597, PI. 85. 
e^ ov E. 4, 644, V. 887, L. 108, 759. ii ovTTcp Av. 15 15, L. 866. 
c^ ou ye A. 628. i$ ore Av. 334. d(j>' ov PI. 968, 1 1 13, I173, frg. 



NOTES ON TEXT 301 

31. In all these passages the aorist is used exc. in A. 17, 596, 597 
(pres.), and A. 628 (perf. ). | ols ti8u Kal Xiytiv : many would emend ; 
the best suggestion by far is that of H. Weber Aristoph. Studien 
(1908), ots 17 StKr; Ae'yeiv whose right and duty it is to speak, i.e. the 
judges. 

530. Tiv : so the Mss. For its retention, and not y], see K.-Bl. 
2. 222 top. 

535- ■nvirov: e'av (or ci) ttws is more usual. GMT. 489. 

537 ff. Arist. here plays the " high-and-mighty-mannered man." 
See notes on §§ 67 (17) and 98 of the Introd. 

540. KopSaKa : a ilance ijns aicr^^pu)? Kivet ttiv 6a<f>w (schol.). 
It is 6 aTrov€vor}fxivo<; who is able op^ela-dai i'-i](f>u>v tov KopBaKa 
(Theophr. Charac. 6). Of rhythms, 6 Tpo-)(ylo<i KopBaKLKO}Tepo<; 
(Aristot. J?het 3. 8. 4). See also Luc. De Saitat 22, 26, Poll. 4. 99, 
Athen. 630 e, Bekk. Anecd. loi. 17, Haigh 355, but especially 
W. Downs Class. Rev. 19 (1905), 399 f., and H. Schnabel A'c^rfl'rti.r 
(19 10), who holds that the Kop&x^, «aA\a/3ts, and fioOwv were all of 
the same character and originated in pre-Dorian Peloponnesus, 
where they were primitively danced in honour of Artemis as part 
of the magic which induced fertility. — By various editors Arist. is 
believed to have had the Kojha^ (or poOmv) danced at A. 251, 341, 
E. 697, N. 1206, V. 1481, 1528, P. 325, L. 798, 1044. I €iXKv<r€: 
cp. P. 328, Poll. 4. 105 fT;)(to-Tas (6pxi](Tei<;) IXkuv. Schnabel Kor- 
dax 29 takes (Xkuv as the " drawing up of one leg close to the 
body," as seen in three of the dancers figured in Baumeister 
Denkin'dler 3. 1963. 

541. MTT) : verses, specifically those which arc simply declaimed 
or arc chantcfl in recitative with instrumental accompaniment, in 
contrast to those sung in tune (/xc'Aos). Thus Homer's verses are 
cTTj; (hence "cj)ic"),and in the drama all trochaic, iambic, and 
anapaestic dimeters, trimeters, and tetrameters (imless incidentally 
used in p.iko<i). Christ 158, 676, Zielinski 289. Cp. Arist. E. 
508, R. 358, 862, 885. 

547. Kaivds I8^as : see n. on Introd. § 99. 

550. ovK tToXjiTio-o : certainly it was not from magnanimity or 



302 APPENDIX 

pity as is sometimes stated (e.g. by Busolt 3. 1124) that Arist. 
refrained from "jumping on " Cleon again. Those feehngs are 
aHen to Old Comedy celebrating the Dionysia (see notes on §§ 67 
(27-29) and 97 of the Introd.). The poet's claim is not that he 
is magnanimous but that he never repeats himself — the os-clause 
(v. 549) offering proof of his pretension dd Kati/as tSeas da-cfiipMv of 
V- 547- 

551. 'YirepPoXos : first heard of <;. 428 B.C. in Cratinus' ^Qpai (frg. 
262) ; then, in order of time, in Arist. A. 846, E. 739, 1304-15, 
1363, N. 623-25, 876, 1065, Crat. 196 (UvTCvyj), V. 1007 (see too 
Andoc. in schol.). Com. Adesp. 2 (schol. on E. 1304), Eupolis' 
Ma/)tK5s (421 B.C.), Arist. Pax 680-92, 921, 1319, Leuco's ^pdrtp^'i 
(frg. i), Hermip. 'A/)T07rwAi8es (420 b.c), Plato com. "YTrepySoAos 
(419 B.C.), Arist. Nub. 551-58. In 417 he was ostracized (schol. 
^Y 855, Plut. Alcid. 13, Nic. II, Aristid. 7, Plato com. 187); 
in 41 1 assassinated inSamos (Thuc. 8. 73. 3, Arist. Th. 840, Polyzelus 
5 (K. I. 791), Theopompus in schol. Vesp. 1007). Lastly we hear 
of him in Hades {Ran. 569) as the patron of slaves. See also 
Isoc. 8. 75, Luc. Tim. 30, and an excellent account of him in 
Couat 156-61. On the date of his ostracism : Busolt 3. 1257. | 
(is: Nilsson 132 notes that in Arist., as regularly in prose, the 
temporal ws-clause always precedes the main clause, while the 
causal ws, like the causal cttci' (n. on 208), always follows. Exx. 
ofws temporal: E. 62, V. 673, 1304, 1308, 1476, P. 612, 632, 
836, etc. 

553. EvTToXis: greatest of Aristophanes' rivals, mentioned by 
name only here in the extant plays, but if we may trust the scholia 
constantly alluded to with the disapproval natural to a rival. | wap- 
€(XKw<re : irapa. as in irapa- /3a'.v€LV used of the comiiii:; forward (irapd- 
^ao-t?) of the chorus or of an orator upon the /3^/i,a. Cp. irap-dyu) 
R. 1054, Trapa-Kvirro) A. 16. 

554. The charge of literary theft is a pleasantry often indulged 
in : /n/ra 559, frg. 54, Crat. 200, 307, Hermip. 64, Eupol. 78, 
Lysip. 4 (K. I. 701). See n. on Introd. § 67 (17). | KaKos kokcos : 
so KUKo. KttKws E. 189, with variants in PI. 65, 418, 879; kuAt/ koAws 



NOTES ON TEXT 303 

A. 253, P. 1330, Ec. 730 ; ulaxpo^ aicr^cu?, ipv)^p6<; ipvxpCi<;Th. l68- 
70 ; TToXXrj TToXXov R. 1046. K.-G. 2. 602. 

556. 4>pvvixos : a comic poet of the second rank, competing 
with Arist. in 414 and 405 b.c. His MovoVpoTros took third prize 
when the Birds took second; his MoSo-at second when the Frogs 
took first. 

557. 'Epfifir-rros : known not only for his comedies, but also for 
his indictment of Aspasia on the charge of impiety and immoral- 
ity (Plut. Peric. 32, Athen. 589 e, Busolt 3. 828). 

559- ttKOvs : = e'/cdi/a?, as ixec^ov<; ^ fxeL^ovw;. For inflect, ei/cw, 
-ovs, acc. -w, see K.-Hl. 1. 497. 

562. tls Tois wpas xds €T€pas : C[i. R. 380 eh to.? wpas, Th. 950 e/c 
Twv wpwv CIS TO,? wpas, Eur. //>/l. A. 122 £19 Tuts ttWas topas, Hom. 
0(i. 9. 135 ei's wptts, Horn. Hy. 26. 12 80s S' t^/aSs xaipovTa<; £s topa? 
aJri? LKicrOai. | €/c 8' au^' a),:,aajv et? Tovi ttoAAoiis eviavTOWs, PlatO 
Kpist. 7. 346 ^/ /xev£ Tov ivinvTov rovrov, £is Se tupa? d-mOi, Theocr. 
15. 74 Ktl<; u}pa<; Kr/7r€LTa, <f>iX avBpuyv, iv KaX<2 £tj^s» Anth. Pal. 12. 

107 £ts wpas aw^is ayoiT£ kuAov. — For the various meanings of eh 
temj^oral, e.g. in £is kairipav, toward or /;/ or during or ///////, see 
Sol)ol. Praepos. 56, K.-G. i. 470. 

562. 8oKT|o-€Te : the poetic; forms himy'iato and iSoKrjaa for Sd^w 
and eSu^u are not used l)y Arist. in iambic trimeter; R. 737, 1485. 
In V. 726 BeSuKjjmu. K.-BI. 2. 403. I The Tri'iyos expected at this 
point may not have been written because the scheme of the Eupol- 
idean verse (the peculiarity (jf which is that it provides breathing 
places) does not readily lend itself to the construction of a long 
passage without breathing places. 

563-74. In tone, as well as in their opening phrases, metres, 
and otherwise, tlic pnrabasis-odes of Arist. seem to Rossbach- 
Westphal {Spriir/lc Mrtrik"' 402) to have parodied or at least 
strongly sugt;ested well-known lyric or tragic choruses ; e.g. A. 665, 
E. 1264 (from Pindar, schol.), N. 595 (Terpander, schol.), 1*. 775. 
(Stcsichorean, schf)!.), R. 675. Others of a hymnal character 
begin at E. 551. 581, Av. 738, 769. 

575. -irpoo-^x'T* : for this Ms. reading as against tiie proposed 



304 APPENDIX 

7rpocrx£Tc (also for Trpoo-exeVw 1 1 22) see Zacher 85. On the reso- 
lution in this 7th foot of trochaic tetrameter see Christ 295 f. 

576. )i<p.<)>6|t€o-6a : -/xecr^a is freely used in all metres when 
needed by comedy and tragedy alike. Speck 40 lists Aristo- 
phanic usage; see K.-Bl. 2. 61 Anm. Infra 1116, 1353, 1375- 

577. a)«}>£\ov<rai : this reading of R, adopted by Blaydes, is 
easily defended by A. 1165, V. 135, P. 1242 ff, Av. 47, 1293, 
Soph. O.T. 60, Xen. Oecon. i. 14, Hiero 4. 6, 6. 15, Anab. 7. 6. 37. 
K.-G. I. 47. 

579. aiTives : not ocTTts, but OS, is the commoner relative in con- 
cessive clauses. Sobol. Synt. 171 counts 11 exx. in Arist. of os 
concessive (E. 521, 535, 781, N. 1226, V. 684, Th. 793, 842, R. 
1058, Ec. 93, 402, PI. 282) and but 4 of oo-ns (A. 57, E. 876, N. 
579, frg. 221. i). For ocrrts causal see n. on 1158 infra. 

580. %<iv : only in parody and in lyrics does Arist. allow himself 
the old free use of avv, viz. in N. 604, V. 1081, P. 357, Av. 1722, 
L. 1039, Th. 102, 716, 1034, R. 444, 1207, 1289. Elsewhere he 
conforms to prose usage, employing it only in the phrases crw ^ew 
(^eois) V. 1085, R. 1 199, Pi. 114 ; o-iiv ottAois V. 359, L. 555, 558 ; 
crw oTrAtVais L. 1143 ; oiSevt (/xr^Sevi) (tvv vo) N. 580, as in Plato ; 
and finally in the sense including, frg. 100. 4. Sobol. Praepos. 
32-34, Starkie Vesp. 359. — The position of prepos. between 
adj. and subst. is fairly common in poetry (as in Latin prose), 
e.g., Aesch. Prom. vv. 2 (afipoTov ei? iprjfjiLav), 15, 66, 117, 143. 
K.-G. I. 555. 

580. «)faKd^o)x€v : in A. 171 the hioa-qpiia which causes the dis- 
missal of the iKK^rfata is a drop of rain. Cp. Aristot. Al/i. Pol. 
44. 4 (evcrriiJLia), Arist. £ul 791 ff. 

581. Those who force the text find real eclipses therein, and 
refer to that of the moon Oct. 9, 425 and of the sun visible in 
Athens March 21, 424 B.C. from 8 to 10.15 ^■^- (Thuc. 4. 52. i), 
thus fixing the elections here referred to as those of the spring of 
424, when Cleon was indeed elected general. So Busolt 3, 11 24, 
Beloch I. 548 Anm. 4, Keck Quaes//. Arist (1876) 61, Steup 
doubtfully at Thuc. 4. 52. i, Swoboda Hermes 28 (1893), 545. — 



NOTES ON TEXT 305 

But if the language be taken as in the text-notes, then the spring 
elections of 423 may be meant, just before the production of the 
original Clouds, though there is no record extant of Cleon's elec- 
tion that year. So Biicheler Jbb. f. klass. Phil. 83 (1861), 659; 
Kirchner Rh. M. 44 (1889), 155 ; van Leeuwen Nub. (189S). — 
If, however, these verses belong to the revision, they may refer to 
the election of 422 for the campaign against Amphipolis. So 
Gilbert Beitr'dge (1877) 201 ; Weyland Philol. (1876) 73 ; Kaeh- 
ler Nub. (1887), Kock Nub. (1S94). But in this case, since they 
refer to Cleon as living (591 ff.), they could not have been written 
(as were vv. 518-62) after the battle of Amphipolis; for in that 
battle Cleon was slain. 

583. A quotation in part from Soph. Teucros (frg. 520) ou/juvoG 

o OTTO I rj<jTpa{j/€, PpovTT] S' ippdyr] Si' a(TTpa7rrj<;. 

584. •qXios : had threatened the like in Horn. Od. 12. 383 Svao- 
fjuiL CIS At Sao Koi iv veKvecrcri c^aetVw. 

587. Athens' good luck despite her ill counsel was proverbial ; 
Ec. 473, Eupol. 205. 

588. irpotr-«ivai : used of qualities permanent and characteristic ; 
E. 217, V. 1075, Herod. M/m. i. 20, Plat. Menex. 234 c, An- 
tiphon. 5. 9. Cp. the use of Trpos c. gen. E. 191, V. 369, 1014, 
'Ih. 177, R. 534, 540, PI. 355, Xen. Anab. i. 2'. 11, Mem. 2. 3. 15. 

589. Mrl TO P«'X.Tiov : 594, Ec. 475. eVi to. (3€\tlw V. 986, tVt to 
ap.(ivov Demos. 43. 66, fVi to xelpov Xen. Cvr. 8. 8. 2. 

592. TovTov ri>v avx^va : Sobol. Praepos. iii finds this predicate 
position of toutou only four times in Arist. — A. 431, N. 592, 
L. 680, Th. 538. — viz. "cum genitivo sustinetur jjondus ora- 
tionis." K.-O. i. 619. 

593. «ts rdpxaiov : adverbial phrase; cj). £(9 Ta^o<i A. 686, et? 
(vT(\ciav Av. 457, cl<: kukAoj/ (= kvkKoctc) Th. 954, ctq tu noWd 
( - [)lertim(|ue) frg. 580. 2. Sobol. J'mepos. 61. 

594. o-uvoCo-trai : the middle voice belongs rather to Hdt. 
than to Attic usage. Proj)osed emendations are avp-f^-^trcTui 
(Kock), iiTTDfii'/iTtTiu (Kaehler), $v(TTriiTiTuL (van l^eeuwen). 

595. d|i4)i jioi auT« : OH the original Terpandrian prelude from 

AHIslMfHANl-.S 20 



3o6 APPENDIX 

which this is borrowed, see Smyth i68. Cp. Horn. Hy. 22 aix.<^L 

nocreioawva Qf.ov fiiyav ap^^Ofx det'Seiv, ^2) o.fJi<t)l Atos Kovpow; cAtKaJTrtSc? 
icnr€T€ M.ovaat, Eur. Troad. 511 d/u.^t /xot "lAtov, w MoCcra . . . 
deio-ov . . . iJi^av. Other dithyrambic passages where, after sus- 
pension, the verb does at last appear (unHlce the present passage) 
are : R. 708-14, Av. 739-45, 769-72, PI. 302-06. | ovtc: V. 1015 
(anap. tetram.), P. 1270 (dactyHc), L. 1296 (lyric). K.-G. 2. 
279, Starkie on Vesp. 1015. 

599. iidKaipo: incorporation into the relative clause, as in 863, 
P. 676, Av. 144, L. 61-63, 96, Th. 502, PI. 365, 933. HA. 995, 
K.-G. 2. 416 ff. 

600. oIkov: see Hdt. i. 92, 2. 148, Liv. i. 45, Dion. Halic. 
Antiq. 4. 25 for this older temple and its gifts from Croesus ; for 
both temples, older and later, Strabo 640 f., Pliny 36. 95. On 
the (sacred) dances of the Lydian maids, cp. L. 1308 f., Autocr. 
frg. I (K. I. 806). 

604. o-iiv ircvKais : is lyric for ixtra SaSwv (schol.), or SaSa? cxwv, 

as in 543. See n. on 580 for a-vv. 

609. The Cleon-xai/ae story told by the schol. here and on PI. 
322, and by Luc. Fro Lapsu 3 seems to have been finally ex- 
plained by G. A. Gerhard Phil. 64 (1905), 38 ff. Cleon in his 
despatch from Pylus to the Athenians had bidden them ^a-iptLv, 
then briefly announced his victory (cp. veni, vidi, vici), whereat 
the people rejoiced. Later, the victory proved a burden on their 
hands, whereupon Eupohs, probably in his Upvaovv FeVos (frg. 
308), twitted Cleon with being the first to bid Athens rejoice when 
causing her grief. (One need not follow Gerhard in altering 
Trpiros to TrptuTov.) Later again, in the first century a.d., a certain 
Dionysius wrote a book on Greetings, misunderstood the Eupolis 
passage, and explained that Cleon was the first to use " ^'^ipeiv " 
in letters. Hence the story of scholiasts and Lucian. 

614. 2€XT)vaCTis : on the Attic liking for forms in -ata, e.g. irvXaia 
for -rrvX-rj, itpaia for w/au, see schol. here, and Bekk. Anecd. 22. 28, 
73. 31. For the admissibility of the Ionic form -airj in troch. 
tetram., see H. Richards Arts/, and Others, 1 19 and 124 ; Zacher 



NOTES ON TEXT 307 

121 (on 'A^T/vaiT/ in Eq. 763), Speck 16, Smyth Ionic Dialect 

79- 

615 ff. On this passage see A. Mommsen Chronologic (1883) 

416-21. who assumes that it was written 419 B.C. On the other 

hand, Adolf Schmidt, Handbuch der gr. Chronologic (1888) 186 

and 610, dates the condition of the calendar as here described at 

424/3, and hence the passage may be part of the original play. 

Also Busolt 3, 1 184 dates Hyperbolus as if.pofivriixwv at 424/3. 

For the confusion wrought by a confused calendar see B. Keil 

Hermes 29 (1894), 344 ff. 

616. av« T€ Kttl Karci) : varied by omitting now re, now t(. kul ; 

A. 21, E. 866, P. 1 180, Av. 3, L. 709, Th. 647, Plato Phaedr. 272 

by 278 d, Gorg. 493 a, %\\ a, etc. 

622. Tov : by Weber 173 the Homeric hiqv is suggested as 
more fitting than the article to the Homeric Memnon. 

623. dv8' tov : = 810, quamobrem ; so A. 292, Ec. 17, PI. 840. 
In N. 13 10 (if correctly supplied by Reisig's conjecture) it is 
equiv. to dvTt rovTwv a. In PI. 434 it is equiv. to the on of Th. 
202, Ec. 394, the <I)s of V. 267, the o of Horn. //. 21. 150, the 
ovvtKu of 71 9. 505. Sobol. Praepos. 108. 

624. Amphictyonic League : Busolt i. 684-88, Bury 159 (very 
brief). For classical references see L. and S. 

626. So Solon ■^$io}(TCv ' A6r]Vuovs ra? rjiJ.epa'i Kara (TeXrjvrjv aytiv 

(Diog. Laert. i. 59). 

627. 'Avairvo^v: in his book Trcpi ^wfrco)? Diogenes of Apollonia 

says avdpwiroL Kul to. oAAxi ^wa avmrveovTu ^o'jti tw de'pi, Kui tovto (u'rois 
Ki' t/'i'X'J *'""''t Kol vdr;<Tis . • . TrdvTO}v twv ^wdv rj i/'i'X'/ ''"'^ "'''Tf irrriv, 
t\t](} Of.pii.<')Tf.p()<i fxkv TOV ($<i) (V (j> i(Tp.ev, tov fxevroc Trnpa t<Z rjXna 
TToAAoi' il/v^p(')T€pn<; (Dicls 34S f.). 

630. o-KaXaOvpiiiiTia : see n. on 1 30 a)(Lv8a\dp.nv<; . \ arra- collo- 
quial ; in .'\rist. and I'lato often (V. 55, P. 704, Av. 1514, 'I'h. 423, 
R. 173, 925, 936, etc.), in only a few orators and rarely. On the 
formation. K.-P.l. i. 611 f 

631. ofiws yt }i.'(\v : 822, L. 144 ; cp. o/io)s yt /xcVtoi V. 1344, R. 61 ; 
d\A' op.iD'i 5.S7, 1363, A. 402, 408, 956, E. 391, V. 1085, Av. 1224, 



3o8 APPENDIX 

L. 275, 292, 500 (dAA' . . . o/xoj?), 825, R. 43, 602, Ec. 413 ; ofim 
8e 1369, P. 1216, Th. 471, R. 870, Ec. 266, 326 (o/xws 8' ovv), 1105, 
1 137, PI. 1084 ; 8' o/xws A. 455, V. 951, P. 481, Av. 452 ; drhp 
0/i.ws V. 981 ; o/x<Ds V. 92, Av. 8^, Ec. 860, 889. 

^33- «6-<"- '• when an interrog fut. indie, is equiv. to an imv., 
ov or ovKovv (see n. on 1253) usually precedes (GS. 271) ; yet as 
here the negative is wanting in 1299, V. 671, P. 259, Av. 1572, 
Ec. 1083. Cp. oTTws c. fut. indie, n. on 257. 

636. One should compare Moliere Le bourgeois gentilhomnte 
2. 6 for the instruction of that other 6{j/Lfw.0-^<;, Mons. Jourdain, in 
the difference between poetry and prose. 

640. irap-tKoiriiv : as Trapa vo/xov means beside or off the line of 
the law, so ivapa. in composit. often means off, awry, mis-; it is 
the crazy prepos. as in Trapd-voia, Trapa-(f}poveoi, -\rfpi<D, -ttXtjttw, 
-Kpovo), -TraLU), -Atyw, -kottto), -iroiiw, -voSl^w, etc. 

644. oivOptoire : not wv'pwTrc ; K.-Bl. i. 331. 

651. Kar' cvoirXiov : Goodell Chapters on Greek Metric 188, 
Rossbach 129 f., Christ 153, 216, 391. 

652. VI] Tov Ai, dX\a : emotion often demands satisfaction first 
with an exclamation ; then follows the rational conjunction ; 1228, 
V. 217, 231, 912, Av. 954, L. 609, 927, Th. 259, R. 285, PI. 202, 
Plato Gorg. 463 rt', 481 c. So vocatives precede ; Av. 268 wya^' 
oAA' ovv, P. 250 iw StKcAta Ktti (TV Se, Eur. Phoen. 167 1 (a ^iXrar 
oAAa, Plato Rep. 328 c, Euthyd. 293 b, Legg. 890 d, 963 b, Xen. 
Mem. I. 3. 13, 2. I. 26, 2. 9. 2. K.-G. i. 50; n. on 1364 ; and cp. 
further V. 524 diri p.01 t'i 8e, Av. 88 ttVe /toi av 8e, A. 4 <f>€p' l8w tl 
8e, etc. 

653. aXXos dvxt : for aAAos 17 ; so in Aesch. Prom. 467, Soph. Aj. 
444, O.C. 488, Tr. 1226, Eur. HeL 574. So dvTt after KpCnrov V. 

210, -irporepov Ec. 925, etc. 

655- ciYpeios : only here and in Th. 160 in the classical period ; 
perhaps a metrical variant of dy/jio?. | oltup^ : has short v in Arist. 
(V. 1504, Av. 164T, L. 948), long V in Homer. K.-Bl. i. 307. 

659. appcva : Aristot. Rhet. 3. 5 Ilpwra-ydpas ra. yevrj toiv ovo 
fiaroyp Birjpti, appcva Kal OrjXia koX aKf-vrj. On the 6p6o€ircui of 



NOTES ON TEXT 309 

Protag. and his o^^ott;? in general see Plato Phaedr. 267 c, Crat. 
391 c, Protag. 339 a, Aristot. Poet. 19, Plut. Peric. 36, Diog. Laert. 
9. 53 f., Zeller Phil, der Griechen i". 1141 f., and (on the attempt 
of Protag. to rationalize grammar) by all means Gomperz i. 

443-45- 

666. On oXiKnap as feminine see Athen. 373 1?, Rutherford 

New Phryniciis 307. 

670. |id\' av0is : P. 5, Av. 14 1 5, PI. 935, Aesch. Agam. 1345, 

Clio. 654, 876, Soph. /%//. 793. Cp. Tza-Xiv av(6i<;), avdL<; av, and 

even uv ttoAiv av^t? i/i/ra 975. 

680. KAtwvvjiT) : other men turned women are 'A/aWu 690, 
^fjLLKvd-q E. 969, Pediatia (Hor. Sat. i. 8. 39), Gaia Caesar (Tac. 
Ann. 6. 5). 

681. ev €Ti 7€ -irtpC : according to Blaydes seven Mss. read It' en 
ye while RV and seven others omit It'. But Iti ye Trept' is unmet- 
rical. For ev Itl cp. V. 818, Ec. 655. Surely this makes a better 
verse than Itl 8c' ye Trept (Kock and Kaehler). As for Iti 8»; ye 
(van Leeuwen, Hall and Geldert) the collocation 87^ ye is very 
doubtful (K.-G. 2. 130). 

686. ^iXo^cvos : son of Eryxis, the KuTUTrvywv of V. 84, Eupol. 
235, Phryn. 47, and the unworthy pupil of Anaxagoras (Athen. 
220 l>), who wished for the neck of a crane, the longer to enjoy 
his food (Athen. 6 />). It is probably his son Eryxis, named 
from the grandfather, who is mentioned in Ran. 934. | MtX-rio-tas : 
possibly the son of Pericles' antagonist Thucydides, son of 
Melesias. | 'AjiwCas : son of Pronapes, assailed by Arist. in V. 74, 
466, 1267-74, by Crat. in ItpLf^mi (frg. 212), and by 1'j1]k)]. in 
lliiAei? (209J, as a (j>L\oKv(io<;, ko/xt/tt/?, TreVr;?, (lAu^'or, KoX.at, 
iriKO(f>dvT-q<;, and irupuTr/jerr/yeiTr/i; to the Thessalians. His course to 
the crows seems rapid ; he appears in Niihcs and disappears in 
Vespae. To this same period Eupolis' IIoAet? certainly belongs 
(van Leeuwen making it probable that it competed with Vespae), 
hence probal>ly also the jilay of Cratinus an<l ("om. Adesp. 39 ( K. 
3. 405). I see no rrasoii for not identifying him with the Amynias 
figuring in this pl:iy. In v. 31 he has been already selling off, in 



3IO APPENDIX 

1258 he suffers final bankruptcy. Immediately after the Clouds 
he perhaps got appohited on the embassy abroad — an old trick 
for young debtors, as Ach. 613-17 shows. But whenever he may 
have played the mis- (or Miss) ambassador to Thessaly (V. 1265 
if), he was back in Athens at the time of the Vespae, as proved by 
its v. 74 (ovTom), 1268 (ouTos), 1273 (imperf ^w^v). This last 
against Starkie ; Meyer 4. 404 i. 

692. ovKovv SiKaUs, ■HTis : the same formula in 1377, P. 865, 
PI. 1 1 24. I oi (TTpaTtvcTai : in his interpretation of this and other 
items here, Kaibel surely goes too far in Hermes 30 (1895), 
441-46. 

698. irapd : beside, except ; in the same negat. phrase with aXKa 
or aXko V. 1 166, P. no, Plato Phaed. 80 b, 107 a, Gorg. 507 a, 
Demos. 18. 235, and often; also freely after a comparative ex- 
pressed or implied, in the sense than. F. H. Rau in Curt. Stud. 
3- 75- 

699. o'l'av 8(KTfv - cp. Th. 651 KaKoSaL/xtov «yw, £is ol IfJuavTov 

ciVcKvAtcra irpdyfiaTa. Whether we translate by exclamat. w/iat or 
demonstr. sue/i, the logical relation to the preceding is the same, 
viz. causal, and measuring. See notes on 209 and 1158. Cp. 1208, 
V. 188 CO /xiapcjTaTos, tv virooiBvKe, Th. 878 w Swtt^vos, 01 TreTrAwKa- 
fiev, K.-G. 2. 439. 

704. itr aXXo ir^Sa : the same advice to Eur. and Aesch. in 

Ran. 1 103, dAAa /ai^ v rairw Kud^adov. 

707 ff. Mazon 57 shows it to be probable that the posture of 
Streps, (prostrate and covered) is as much a parody on Eur. 
Hecuba 154 ff. as his words. 

711 ff. Exx. of ofjLOLo-TiXevTov in Arist. are found in A. 199, 
269 f, 549-52, 595-97. 688, 1003-06, 1008 f, 1015 f, 1 126 f, 
1208 f, 1219-21, E. 115, 166 {., 1057, N. 13, 241, 335, 484 f, 
494-96, 711-15, 1456 f, 1504 f, V. 65 f., 968 f, 973 f., 999 f., P. 
152 f, 291, 320, 380 f, 540-42, 1330 fv Av. 1271 f, L. 457- 
61, Th. 198 f, R. 463, 740, 841 f, looi f, 1478, Ec. 838-40, PI. 
288, 513 {. ; Peppier 15. Cp. also A. 575 {X6<f>(ov \6x<^v), 1074, 
V. 277 {yepovTO<; ovtos), Th. 30 (-ttoio?, ttoio?), F1. 1034 f. {kutu- 



NOTES ON TEXT 311 

TerrjK, KaTaaecrr]7ra<;) , and see n. on 718. — For Homer, and a 
warning against too readily assuming sound-play, see van Leeuwen 
Encliir. 2. — From o/AotorcAenTov sprang modern rhyme ; E. Norden 
Die antike Kunstprosa (1898) 810-70. | On the sad anapaests 
here see Christ 262 f., Rossbach 154. 

718. <{>pov8a . . . 4>pov8t] : for comic iterations see P. 183, Av. 
115, 974, Th. 168-70, R. 1208, Ec. 221, 773, 799, 862, PL 9,12^. 

722. oXCyov : A. 348, 387, V. 829, Th. 935. K.-G. i. 387 in- 
cline to take the gen. as originally one of time within ivhich, then 
as adverbial, almost. Cp. iroWov 915, and tt6(tov -xpovov since 
when ? A. 83. 

723. ovTos : and avr-i] = there or here, are much used in 
addressing a person, either without an added av (732, 1502, Av. 
49» 57. 225, 274, 354, 658, 933, and often) or with av, as in A. 
564, L. 728, Av. 1 199, etc. Q,)^.\x.dX\^.n quella giovane ; see van 
Leeuwen on Vesp. i Append. Cp. also other Creek adjectives 
where English employs adverbs or adverbial phrases, as TrpwTo<;, 
SfKaTaios, a/coTaio?, fif.arifj./3piv6<;. K.-G. I. 273—76. 

727. |iaXeaKio-Wa : plural impersonal verbals in -re'u are found in 
A. 394, 480, L. 122, 124, 411, 450, R. 1180, PI. 1085. The 
whole nunvber of such in Greek from Mom. to Aristot. is very 
small. C. E. Bishop A./. P. 20 (1899), 125 ff. 

729. t(s ov 8iiTa is taken as the tragic wish-cjuestion (= utinam 
aiiquis) by Blaydes and Kaehler ; for the formula see K.-G. i. 
235. Van Leeuwen takes it rather as an indignant question {guis 
tandem), and otherwise interprets differently. It must be con- 
ceded to van L. that the almost invariable form of these wish- 
questions is not T15 av but TToi? av. I note but three passages 
where n? av is so taken (.Aesch. Agam. 1450, Soph. O.C. iioo, 
Eur. Ahest. 213), while irw? av is found in Soph. Aj. 387, El. 
660, O.T. 765, O.C. 1457, Phil. 531, 794, 1214, Eur. Ahest. 864, 
Her. I'lir. 487, llif^pol. 208, 345, Iph. T. 627, Med. 97, 173, Orest. 
1052, Suppl. 796, .Arist. A. 991, I''.. 16, 1324, P. 68, 'I'h. 22. Fur- 
ther, (n]Ta nowhere appears in these wish-<inestions (except in 
O.T. 765, if indeed that be a wish-cpicstion ), whereas it fre- 



312 APPENDIX 

quently appears in others, as after rU av in Arist. E. 1209, V. 11 76, 
after ttws av in E. 17, 82, N. 79, Av. 201, L. 912. — And yet the 
interpretation of Blaydes seems preferable. 

731. <j>€'p€ vvv dOpTjo-u) : for ^£/3e with aor. subjv. iSw see n. on 
21. With aor. subjv. of other verbs <^€pe is used in E. 113, N. 731, 
V. 54, 148, 848, 993, 1497, P. 234, 361, 959, 969, L. 238, 864, 
890, 916, Th. 915, Ec. 28, PI. 768, 964 ; with present subjv. V. 906, 
990, P. 252 cTTtxew (aor.?), R. 291, 502, Ec. 725, 869, PI. 790 
iin)^iiM (aor.?); with aor. subjv. in quest. E. 706, V. 826. 

732. (id Tov KT€. : the same verse-end in A. 59, loi, E. 14, 1041, 

P. 16, Av. 263, 439. Cp. yLto. TOI/ At", cyw [xlv ov Av. 1497, Ec. 553, 

PI- 359> 444, 971- 

739. <5irws ttv : c. subjv. as an object-clause ; GMT. 348, K.-G. 

2- 375- 

742. opedjs Siaipuv : on this Socratic and sophistic business of 
Siatpeo-is see Plato Charm. 163 d, Phaedr. 266 b, 273 e, Proiag. 
339 a, 341 c, Lack. 197 d, Xen. Mem. 4. 2, 4. 5. 12, and perhaps 
Thuc. I. 84. 3 where the Spartan Archidamus boasts that his 
people, unlike some others, believe ras irpouTnTrroyxTwi Tvya<i ov 
Aoyw Statperas- 

743. diropfis : admits not only the ace. of a neuter pronoun 
or adj. (ravra, n, etc.), but also a substantive ace, as t6 vvp diropu) 
Plato Cra^. 409 d. 

748. TO t£ : 775, V. 818, P. 696, 826, Av. 1039, R. 7, 40, PI. 
902 ; cp. 6 770105 1233, 1270, A. 418, 963. K.-G. i. 625. 

749 f. TO TraXaLOV wovto at <^apfixiKih€<i Trjv o-eXrjvrjv Kal tov -qXiov 
KuOaLpelv (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3. 533). See Plato Gorg. 513 a, 
Menander ©cTxaA?; (K. 3. 65) a comedy " complexa ambages 
feminarum detrahentium lunam," Verg. Er. 8. 69, Ov. Metam. 7. 
207, 12. 263, Tibull. I. 2. 43, I. 8. 21 ; Rohde 2. 88. | tl : sup- 
posing; cp. L. 191, and questions of the type rt S^t' av 154, 769, 
L. 399, or Tt 8' itv Th. 773. 

755. oTiri rl 8t| : quia quid? so PI. 136. Variations of the 
simple quest. tL for 8ta tL are numerous, as rtr/ (E. 126, 731, 
P. 927, Ec. 796, 1086), Tvi] Tt 8>/ (V. 1 155, P. 1018, Th. 84), oTi^ 



NOTES OX TEXT 313 

Ti (N. 784), OTLX} Tt hri (here), ort hi] tl yc (Plato Charm. 161 <-), 
oTi 8r; Tt /xaAitrru (Plato ^r/". 343 a), on Tt' /xoAio-Ta (Plato ^^^. 
449 r), tva Tt (P. 409, Ec. 719), Iva 8r] Ti (N. 1 192, Ec. 791). — 
tit; is from Tt ^ (K.-G. 2. 145)- 

761. tlXXt : whether the writing should be eiAAw or tAA.w is dis- 
puted ; K.-Bl. 2. 412. It is not common in Attic prose; dv-iX\<n 
and eV-tAAoj in Thuc, e^-t'AAw in Demos. ; but d7r-eiA.Aei is cited by 
Lysias 10. 17 from Solon's laws as an antiquated word needing 
interpretation. 

763. (iTiXoXovOiiv : ^wvtfiLov iaTL )^vai^ov Kovdapio o/jlolov, o Aa/u.- 
(ia.vovT(.<i 61 TTutSes ciTroSfcr/xoutrt AtVw kol eKirtravvvovdi (schol.). Cp. 
V. 1 34 1 and Herodas frg. 14. (Crusius) rj x'^^'^^V^ /"•o^ fivlav rj 
KvOprju Trai^et, | rj TrjcTi ixrjXdvOrjaLv a/x/i-aT' i^dtTTwv | tov k£(tk€OV fiot 

Tov yipovTa \o)/3rJTuL. See further Star.kie Ac/i. p. 254 for Eustath. 
1243. 33 and for continuance of chafer- sport in modern Crete. 

768. vaXov : then a rarity in Greece : A. 74, Hdt. 2. 69 (dpTi]- 
fjuara \W(.va x^'''°-)> Athen. 465 c. F^owler and Wheeler Handbook 
of Grk. Archaeol. (1909) 419 f. ; H. Bliimner Technologic 4. 382. 

773. oV : elision of -01 as in 1238 and often. So perhaps in 
/xoi after the verb apt'o-Kw (A. 189, E. 359, V. 776, etc.) ; see n. on 
elision of -at, v. 7. 

77S. Kttl 8t) Xt-yw : in ready compliance with a request, the verb 
of the refjuest is repeated (usually in the present) with Kat h-q ; 
" even noiv or a/ready I am doing it." So 1097, P. 327, Av. 175, 
550, Ec. 1014, PI. 227 ; see n. on 906, K.-G. 2. 125. Since rj hrj 
seems to be the original of r^h-q, and since vvv 8)7 {Just no7v) is 
often written wvhiq, we might write this formula KaiSv; ; cp. ^Voi, 
/xcVtoi, toivvv, hrjTTOv, etc. 

779. -irpoo-etv: "everywhere else in Arist., as in 'I'huc, has the 
local sense " (O. Hachmann Conjcct. Arist. 49), I^ut here, too, 
it may be taken locally, referring to the court-roster. 

784. va£ : in entreaty; cp. I'. 1113, ICnr. /lippo/. 605, Iph. A. 
I 247. K.-Gr. 2. 14S. 

7S5. KaC: before verb; see n. on 840. 

789. diro ({>0cpci : one may go €s Kopa/fus I)y the simple verb 



3^4 



APPENDIX 



<l>6ctpofmi, or by the compounds ano-, tK-, -n-poa-, or dva-, all roads 
alike leading to Hades. Also one can Ippav, /3aAAeiv, aipccr^ai, 
/JaSt'^eiv, TrAetv, or (T)(a.v ("put in to shore") c? Kopa/cas. " ws oXt 
Kol yairf ^wos vTreo-T 'At8r/s." For exx. of compounds see E. 892, 
P. 72, Av. 916, Ec. 248. 

791 ff. It is noteworthy how many Greek dramas at very near 
the middle point take up a new subject, enter a new phase, intro- 
duce a new personage as centre of interest, or proceed from 
prayer and preparation to fulfillment and result. If one is inter- 
ested, let him turn, having noted the whole number of verses in 
each play, to Aesch. Prom, 562, Fers. 526, SuppL 523, Agatn. 782 
(or 810?), Cho. 510, Enm. 566; Soph. 4/'. 719, O.T. 726, O.C. 
886, Ant 626, Tr. 662, Fhii. 729; Eur. Akest. 567, Bacch. 660, 
Bee. 657, etc. ; Arist. A. 626, E. 691, N. at this point, V. 760, etc. 
Here the centre of interest shifts from father to son. — The prin- 
ciple of symmetry seems to work as imperiously in the Greek 
drama as it does in a Greek sentence when dividing it into two 
balanced clauses marked by fxiv . . . 8e. 

792. diro . . . o\ov|iai: tmesis is said to be employed by Arist. 
only in epic and tragic phrases or parody, and in lyric passages, 
and usually with only single monosyllabic words intervening, as 
Se, Tc, yap, ovv ; A. 295, N. 792, 1440, V. 784, P. 1092, 1274, Av. 
346 (1070), 1456, 1506, L. 262, 263, 1280-85, R. 1047, 1 106, 
PI. 65. Bachmann Conjeet Arist. loi, K.-G. i. 535. But it 
should be noted that tmesis is practised by Hdt. (Ionian) and 
by Herodas Mim. 7 114. 

794. Zielinski 293 ff. makes clear the fact that iambic trim- 
eters spoken by the Kopv<^aio% are in tragic style, i.e. admit of 
few resolutions of the long syllables and next to no " cyclic " 
anapaests. Cp. 799, 1454 f., 1458-61. 

797. co-Ti (loi 7€ : so Thiersch with some inferior Mss., ye stress- 
ing not /xoi of course but cort; "I have a son, but — ." The 
reading ear' Ip-oiyt " I have a son," seems hardly the sense re- 
quired. 

798. On dX.\a . . . 7dp ktI. cp. V. 318 oAX' ov yap olds T fXfi 



NOTES ON TEXT 315 

uSetv, TL TTOL-qa-oi, Eur. I/^/. 1385-S7, Aftu/. 1344-46, Phoen. 89 1- 
94. j t( ird9« : Av. 1432, L. 884, 954, Ec. 860, PI. 603. 

800. T»v Koio-tipas : R. omits roiv, V. reads Ko.i for it. Van 
Leeuwen on Th. 289 makes it probable that all three readings are 

wrong. He suggests eor' Ik yvvatKwi/ evTrripojv kul {^.g. iTrrjp/xeviov). 

801. "fltX^: the standard form of Attic prose ideXw, not deXw, 
may be vindicated for Arist. if we do four things : (i) write 'OeXo} 
with aphaeresis after words ending in a vowel (e.g. A. 198, 318, 
355, 426) ; (2) make an exception in favour of the old phrase, 
yv ^eos dekr] (or el de6<; deXei) in P. 939, 1187, R. 533, PI. 347, 405, 
1 188; (3) allow $eXoj in tragic parody {e.g. Th. 908, R. 1468); 
and in extra-trimeter passages (Av. 407, 929) ; (4) alter the text 
in E. 713, L. 12 16, Th. 412. So van Leeuwen Fes/>. 493, K.-Bl. 

1. 187. 

802. ovK tVe' oTTws ov : A. 116, N. 1307, V. 260, p. 41, 188, Av. 
52, Th. 847, R. 640, PI. 871 ; OVK Icr^' oTTw? E. 238, 426, 879, 951, 
N. 1181, 1275, V, 212, 654, P. 102, 306, Av. 628, L. 1092, Th. 
404, 882, PI. 18, 51, 139; €(T^' oTTw? interrog. V. 471. Sobol. 
S}'fi/. 157. 

811. diroXdil/cis fut. indie, as imv., as in 1352, V. 1225; GS. 
269, K.-G. I. 176. Cp. the interrog. fut. indie, as imv. in 

814. ovToi : in .Arist. always stands first in its clause and verse, 
except in Th. 34 which Meineke emends; and always is followed 
by an oath excejjt in V. 1122 and Ec. 522. The passages are : E. 
235.409, 435. (>98, N. 814, V. 1366, 1396, 1442, P. 187, iii7,Th. 
533, 566, R. 42, 667, PI. 64, 364. Plato also makes large use of 
uvToi, but without oaths. P'or the derivat. of -rot from o-oi see Brugm. 
248, 529. I ^vraueoi : = (vTuiSu, not un-Attic ; 843, V. 1442, Th. 
225, and in Att. inscriptions. Meisterhans Gram.^ 147, K.-Bl. 

2. 304. 

815. Ktovas : the scholiasts say that only the stones of the 
house were left <jf .VIegacles' wealth, the rest being stiuandered, and 
that herein lies the jest. But the jest will stand, anyhow. 

817. Ala Tov . for this division of a tribrach, i)elween the 2d 



31 6 APPENDIX 

and 3d shorts, see Starkie Vesp. xl-xli — a brief clear summary of 
O. Bachmann's article in Philol. Siippl. 5. 239 ff. 

818. ISov : see n. on 82. 

823. dvT|p: in the full sense of the word; often, e.g. A. 77, E. 
179, Thuc. 4. 27. 5 ei ai'Spe? txtv 01 (TTparrjyoL, Hdt. 7. 210 Greeks at 
Thermopylae made it plain to Xerxes 071 ttoAAoi ixh avdpiairoi etev, 
oXtyoL 8e ai/Spe?. 

827. dXXd t£s : Other exx. of such dAAa : E. 955, P. 222, Av. 98, 
1015, Ec. 928. 

830. 6 MT|Xtos : i.e. Diagoras, for whom see Av. 1072 (with schol. 
and van Leeuwen), schol. on R. 320 (where probably 81' dyopSs 
should be read), Hermip. 42, ps.-Lys. contra Andoc. 6. 17, Diod. 
Sic. 13. 6. 7. His atheism won him mention in many later writers — 
Plutarch, Aelian V.H. 2. 23, Athenaeus, and others. Wilamowitz 
Textgesch. 80-84 has pieced together a coherent account of his 
hfe. Despite Av. 1072 some still hold that his flight from Athens 
when condemned for impiety took place long before the Pelopon- 
nesian War. So Meyer 4. 105. Smyth 345. 

832. iiaviwv: for plural abstracts see OS. 44, K.-G. i. 16 f. 

838. KaTa-\oii€i: for the inflection see K.-Bl. 2. 478, Rutherford 
New Phrynicus 274. 

839. viirt'p: not more in the sense pro than in the sense loco, 
ovtl; so V. 1419, Th. 752, Antiph. 2 ^ 6, 3 8 8, 483, Isae. 7. 8, 
Hyperid. i. 26. 15. 

840. Kal |id6oi : Standing before the verb (especially common in 
interrog., relative, and conditional clauses), kuC admits of various 
Engl, equivalents : af all, really, just, or an emphatic auxiliary verb 
do, will, can. K.-G. 2. 254. Exx. of Kai in quest. : 1344, E. 342, 
P. 1289, Av. 1446, L. 526,836, 910, Ec. 946, 1014, Aesch. ^^«;«. 
278, Soph. Aj. 1290, Tr. 314, Eur. Hec. 515, Phoen. 1354, Thuc. 
6. 38. 4, Xen. Anab. 5, 8. 2, Hell. i. 7. 26, 2. 3. 47, 3. 3, 11, 
Andoc. 1.4, I. 148, Lysias 12. 29, 24. 12, 24. 24, etc. ; in a relat. 
clause J-/c/ra 785, Th. 461 ; in a conditional clause R. 737, Av. 508 ; 
in the main clause infra 1499, where see n. 

841. aXTi0€s: used thus ku.t et/jwi/et'uv in A. 557, E. 89, V. 1223, 



NOTES ON TEXT 317 

1412, Av. 174, 1049, ^tc. ; also twice in Soph. {O. T. 350, Ant. 
75 S) and twice in Kiir. {Cycl. 240, frg. 885). 

845. On tlie five initial short syllables see Rossbach 229, who 
cites Av. 1283, L. 1 148, Th. 285. 

850. KttXciv: after one or more imperatives of the 2d person, 
a substitute inf. continues the command in A. 257, looi, N. 
1080, P. 1 153; without introductory imv. the inf. stands as 
such in N. 850, V. 386, 12 16, Th. 157, R. 133, 169, and in the 
hexameter oracle-parodies E. 1039, ^^- 91'^~1^^ frg- 29. The 
difference, if any, between imv. and inf.-substitute is still an 
open question; K.-G. 2. 19-22, GMT. 784 f. — Also in prayers 
to divinities the inf. with subjectacc. {^sc. 80s?) follows impera- 
tives in V. 878-83, P. 1000-15, L. 318, R. 390-95 ; without introd. 
imv. A. 250-52, 436, 817, Th. 288-91, R. 887, 894. — Further, 
in proclamations and decrees {sc. eSoie) the inf. with subj.-acc. 
of the 3d person stands in A. 172, V. 937, P. 551, Av. 449 f., 
1040, 1074 f, 1661, 1666, Th. 376, 378, Ec. 419. 

857. KaTa-7rc({>p6vTiKa : other squandering compounds in kutu- 
(= German ver-) are: KaT-apunav, -f^i/SpwaKeiy, -eadUiv, -^et^yo- 
Tpo(f>e'iv, -rjSvTradelv, -LTnrOTpo(f>€lv, -Kv^eveiv, -XrjTovpyiiv, -X-rfpelv, -pui- 
rrarrOiu, - fxurOo(j>op€ii', -fxijipaiveiv, -oxpo^aytiv, -TratSe/auoTeiv, -TrtVeiv, -pa- 
drfifAi'. -mKf.\i'Z,(-i-v. -)((i)i'.t,i('''0(iL, -)(opriy€iv. 

859. els TO 8€ov : Wilamowitz {Arisfot. u. Athen 2. 247) and Busolt 
(3. 429) deny that this fiscal joke refers to the bribing of Pleistoanax 
so many years before, as stated by schol. here (see Plut. Peric. 23). 
P>ut old Strepsiades remembers old things, and in v. 213 he goes 
l),u k to this same Pleistoanax ])eriod in speaking of Euboea. 
l""urther, Pleistoanax had been recently reinstated in Sparta (426/5 
li.c), thus recalling the old cause of his exile (reception of a bribe), 
as H. I'crrin remarks in I'rans. Am. Phil. Assoc. 34 (1903), p. xx. 

860. tlra: Kof k, Kaehler, and van Leeuwen take this as the 
eiTtt common between partic. and verb (386), and give the ordo as 
■m6f'>ii.tvo<i lira i$dfiapT(. Hut does not eiTtt rather connect Iwfiev 
and i$dp.(ipTi as in Iv 1036 u> rav aKovaov, etru ^laKpivov t6t€, V. 
2 77) f'^/'''' 06, 750, etc.? 



3i8 APPENDIX 

863. ipoXov: for its incorporation into the relative clause see 
n. on 599. I TjXiao-TiKov : Aristot. Ath. Pol. 27. 3 eTroirjae 8c koi 
lxi(Tdo<f)6pa TO. 8iKacrTT]pLa tlepLKXrjs TrpwTOS. 

865. Ti(j.Tiv: the initial phrase not only of an oath (R. 1470) 
but also of any strong asseveration (V. 278, R. 104) or threat, in 
which case it is followed by a personal pronoun (N. 1242, V. 258, 
643> 1332, Av. 1259, Ec. 1034, PI. 608, frg. 198. 3) as here. 
Bachmann Lex. Spec. With 17 p.r]v cp. kox ixrjv, just as with rj 8?/ 
(= rj^-q) was compared koL 8»/ in n. on 778. 

868 f. vTiTTVTios, rpipwv : probably borrowed from Euripidean 
wardrobe ; for of the tragic poets he alone uses the word Tpi/3<Dv 
in the sense experienced, and he, far more than the others, uses 
the epic vt^ttios- Arist. here outbids him with vqirvrwi ; and fur- 
ther in Kpf.pja.Bpwv (869) allows a smooth mute with liquid to make 
" position," which Euripides does " more than the other trage- 
dians " (K.-Bl. I. 306). 

870. Tpcpwv . . . Kp€|Aaio : for the process of the fuller see 
Hippocr. -Ktpi 8iatT7;s I. 14 (Littr^ 6. 490) : ot yra^e'es . . . XaKTi- 
^oiKTi, KOTTTOva-iv, kXKOvai, XvpaLv6p.€voL Icr^vpoTepa irouovaL, KCt'povres 

TO. vir(.pi)(ovTa koI TrapaTrXiKovTa KaXXio) irotiova-L. See also the im- 
precation in Herodas Mim. 4. 78 ttcSos Kpipuair ckcZvos iv yi/a<^eo)s 
oiKO). — The tone of the word in the sense necessary here and in 
V. 1429 is difficult to establish, as it would seem to be a usage of 
the street, yet is found in Euripides several times {Bacch. 717, 
EL 1 1 27, Cycl. 520, Med. 686, Rhes. 625) and in Hdt. 4. 74. 

876. KaCroi -ye: juxtaposed, as tiTrep ye (251) ; SO Xen. Mem. 
I. 2. 3, 4. 2. 7, Cyr. 3. I. 38, Plato Rep. 332 a, 440 d, Antiph. 5. 
74, Lys. I. 42, 8. II, 26. 16, 31. 10, Andoc. i. 72, Lycurg. 90, 
Aesch. 3. 131, Demos. 7. 12. K.-G. 2. 152. 

880. (TVKtvas : Naber's correction of the Mss. o-^vrtVas. 

881. irws 8oK£is : a little group that has shrivelled to an adverb ; 
A. 12, 24, PI. 742, Araros frg. 13 (K. 2. 217), Eur. Hec. 1160, 
Hippol. 446. So Tras otei R. 54, ttoo-qv Sokcis Ec. 399, oiS' on or lO"^' 
OTt (see n. on 39), ovk laff ottojs (802), 8^Aov oVt, ap.i\u (422), Bav- 
/Axo-Tws ws, etc. K.-G. 2. 354 and 415. See also n. on et 8e /xi; 1433. 



NOTES ON TEXT 319 

885. irdo-t) T^X"!] : c. imv. or equiv. 1323, E. 592, L. 412, Th. 
65, R. 1235, Ec. 366, 534, Lysias 19. 11, 19. 53 (tt. t. koI mX^^^v)- 
Cp. iravToj? c. fut. indie. 1352, 

887. p.€p,vTio-o, oirws : 1107, R. 1520; = fi€fivr]cro c. inf. E. 496. 
Cp. the independent oTrws-clause 882 and 257 n. 

889. For game-cocks and cockfights see A. 166, E. 494-97 
(c. schol. on 494), 946, V. 1490, Av. 71, R. 935 (?), Xen. Conviv. 
4. 9, Hesych. and Suid. s.v. eo-KopoSia/xeVos, Aehan V.H. 2. 28, 
Phny 10. 21, A. Dieterich Pulcinella 239 fif. Note also the cock- 
fight carved on the chief seat in the theatre at Athens, and on the 
calendar of the Metropolitan Church in Athens for the month of 
Poseidon (J. Harrison Mythol. and Monuments 278). Also vase 
paintings present cockfights or cockdances ; see the frontispiece 
of Merry's edition of the Birds. \ Arist. was not the first to imagine 
in contest the principles of Good and Evil in embodied form. 
Cp. the Adyos and AoytVa of Epicharmus, the 'Aperrj and Kukm of 
Prodicus contending for the youthful Hercules (Xen. Mem. 2. i. 
21 fif.) ; and so later Zethus and Amphion in Euripides' Antiope 
representing Life Active and Life Contemplative, and again 1900 
years later Virtue and Vice staged in endless ways in the Morality 
plays of the fifteenth century (P^. K. Chambers 7%*? Mediaeval 
Stage 2. 149 ff.). Cp. also the debate between Hevia and the ad- 
vocate of IIAovTo? in Arist. Plutus. 

892. Here the usual diaeresis between the feet of an anapaestic 
dimeter is not observed ; so in 947, A. IT43, V. 1482, 1487, 
P. 98, 100, 987, 1002, etc. See Christ 252 for the exceptions in 
both tragedy and comedy ; cp. n. on 987. 

896 f. Cp. Acts of the Apostles 17. 21 'A^v^vatot Se 7rai'Tt9 kui ol 
iTri6r)iMOvvTC<i ^ivoi ti<; ovBkv trcpov rjt'Kuipovv r/ \eycLv tl ij aKoveiv Ti 
Kaivorepov. 

905 f. Horn.//. 14. 203 Kpovov ivpvoTra Zirk | yaiy}<i vipdc Kadtlai 
Kux arpvyiToio duKcurarj'i. Aesch. Elim. 641 (of Zeus) auTo? 8* €8j;<r€ 
TTUTtpa TTpttrfivTqf Kpoyov. 

906. Kal 8^ : — v^v ' Kut' being an intensive adverb (^rr;/ w^Tt^). 
Cp. V. 492, 1224, 1324, 1483, I'. 17S, 942, Av. 268, 1251, L. 65, 



320 APPENDIX 

77, 6oi, 909, 925, Th. 266, 769, 1092, R. 604, 647, 1018, 1205, 
Ec. 500, 514, 582. For the whole clause see V. 1483, R. 1018. 

907. Cp. Crat. 251 fJifOV (38e\vyfi,LU (J l\W, TTTipOV Ta^£(DS TIS 

Koi XeKtxvTjv eVeyKaro), A. 584 ff. , Poll. lO. 76. 

915. iroWoii : E. 822, R. 1046, Eupol. 74. Cp. oXtyov 722. 

916. Sid <r€ hi : an anapaest is rarely resolved into four shorts in 
anapaestic systems, though more freely in melic verses; cp. E. 503, 
V. 1015, Av. 688. Christ 242. Blaydes on Ec. 1156 compares 
Av. 1752, V. 1 169 and would relieve the situation by pronouncing 
Bid as a monosyllable, ^uasi t,d as in Aeolic. 

922. For an excellent summary of Euripides' lost play Telephus 
see Starkie Ach. Excursus VI. 

923. €K inipi8£ov : to be construed probably with yvw/xa?, not with 
the verb ; for the definite article is not indispensable to a substan- 
tive when .qualified by a prepositional phrase. Cp. A. 86 oAovs Ik 
Kpi/3dvov ftov't, E. 1 1 78 i(f>d6v tK ^(DjjLov Kpeas,V. 1 36 7 i$ o^ovs Slkyjv. 

Sobol. Sy/it. 82, K.-G. i. 610. 

932. ta : with synizesis. Christ 27, K.-Bl. 1.226. It may occur 
when the first vowel c is in the gen. sing, and plur, -ews, -cwv {e.g. 
TToAetus in ace. sing, -ea {YlrfXia, 'HpaKXea Th. 26), in noniin. -ews 
(Aeojs, rXews, re^vews), in adjectives of material in -cos (xpvo-iov, 
a-iBrjpea), and in manifold other forms (dtov, viov, etc.). 

933. x"P' «'>ripd\XT[js : for conative sense of the present cp. L. 
359, Ec. 261,670,1023; Sobol. Synf. 22. — Oihtr noli-me-tangere 
phrases are (beside x'^^P ewLf^dXXav L. 440, Crat. frg. 277) : x^^P"- 
irpoafiaXXeiv (Eur. Med. 1254), ;)(£rpa Trpodt^ipeii/ (L. 359, 436, 444, 
471), x'^P" Trpoadyeiv (L. 893 , X^^P'^ fiaXXcLv ev tlvl (Eur. Med. 
I 283), aTTTeaOuL Ttvo9 tw 8uktvXw (L. 365), dTTTeadat tlvo^ aKpu) (Plat. 
com. frg. 128), 'irpoa-Tidevai (Th. 569). 

935. €7r£8€i|ai : addressed to each separately (av re . . . av re) ; 
cp. V. 452 d<f>€(; p.e KOL av kuI av, Av. 131 ottws irapeaei fxoL koI ai) 
Kal TO. TratSi'a. K.-G. I. 79. 

943. pr)p.aT£oi(riv : used by Arist. only contemptuously of the 
deceiving phrases of demagogues and the clever epigrams of 
Euripides: A. 444, 447, E. 216, V. 668, P. 534. 



NOTES ON TEXT 321 

945. dva-ypvtT) : from ypv. The present compound is used in 
Xen. Oecon. 2. 11, the simple is frequent: E. 294, V. 374, 741, P. 
97, L. 509, etc. Neil on Eq. 294 will not allow connection between 
ypv and grufif. 

949-1104. The other dyiove? or word battles in set form in 
Arist. are E. 303-460, 756-941, N. 1345-1451, V. 526-728, Av. 
451-637, L. 476-613, Ec. 571-708, PI. 487-626. See M. W. 
Humphreys A. J. P. 8 (1887), 179, Th. Zielinski Die Gliederung 
der altatt. Kotrioedie (1885), H. Gleditsch Metrik der Griechen 
und Romer^ (1901) 238; and for dywvt? in freer form P. Mazon 
Essai sur la composit. des comedies d'' Arist. (1904). 

955* k£v8vvos dvtiTai : cp. Soph. frg. 369 crvos fxiyidTov XPVt"- ^^' 
Oire'ojs yms | avrJKi ArjTOV'i Trais eKry/3oAos dtd- 

957. -irc'pi : the sole prepos., barring the "improper" prepos. 
€vtKa, that prose allowed to stand freely after its case. Others so 
placed in Arist. are sporadic and only in parody or quotation, and 
only with the gen., as airo Av. 15 17, Kara R. 1212, vno L. 1145 
f, K. 1244, Ec. 4, vwep V. 1 1 18. Starkie Ves/>. 1118, K.-G. i. 

554- 

960. avTov : = (TcavTov; K.-O. I. 572, Brugm. 421. 

963. For a well-bred Athenian lad see Xen. Conviv. 3. 12, where 
Autolycus speaks only briefly and with a blush (dve/av^/jido-u?) ; as 
for the Laconian boys, (KuvtDv 7/ttov uv (fuDvyi' aKov<Tai<i »/ rwy Xidtvu>v 
(Xen. Rep. Lac. 3. 5). 

964. Cp. ps.-Luc. A/nor. 44 utto t^? Trarpoxi? eo-Ti'u? i^ifj-^trai (o 
TTuisj KaTOi K€Kvcfiii><; Kut /XTjoiva Twv uTrui'Tioi'TiDi' TV fjocT (iXttriMV ■ Alex, 
frg. 263 (K. 2. 393) eV yap vofii^to tovto twv ilveXtvdifjujv \ iivui, to 
fiaOi^€iv appvO fJi(D<; iv Tuis oSoi?. 

965. Kufi^ras : Isoc. 7. 46 huXuiitvot TijV filv ttoXlv /cutu koj/liu?, 
Tryj/ 0€ ^wpuv Kara or/p.011?. 

966. P'or the things taught in (ireek schools see Plato Protag. 
325 d-2G, 312 />, 7heag. 122 /" ypafiiMiTu. re kuI Ki6api^iii' kuI 
TTtiXuitiv Kul Tifv dkKr^v I'lyoivuLV, Arist. E. 1 88, 985-96. (iard.-Jev. 

30 ' 13- 

967. ITaWdBa kt«. : the beginning of an old song, perhaps 

AKisfoiMANi-.s — 21 



322 APPENDIX 

hymn, composed by Lamprocles, contemporary of Aeschylus and 
the Persian wars. See briefly Smyth 70 and 340, more fully 
Bergk Poetae Lyrici Graeci* 3. 554 and 561, VVilamowitz Texi- 
gesch. 84 f. I TtiXt'iropov Ti : composed probably by Kr^SetS);? (985 n.), 
though the schol. here writes it KuSta?. Blass in Neue Jahrbb. 133 
(1886), 456, holds the IlaAAaSa to be a specimen of the rhythm 

KttT € vottXiov ( — w w — w ^ IlaXAaSa TTCporeTToXiv /cXjy | ^co tco- 

\cfui86Kov dyvdv), and the Ti^XcVopov ti /8da/i.a Xvpas, an example of 
the Kara SaxTuXov (_wv^_v^v^_w>-y _), as referred to by Arist. 
in V. 651 supra. 

968. cvTciva^jkcvovs • is the regular word for stretching (i.e. setting) 
words or voice to rhythm or tune. Plato Phaed. 60 d (Socrates 
made poems) ivretvu^ tows toC Kla-iiyrrov XoyoDs, Protag. 326 b ot 
KidapLCTTai . . . TTOLiqTiiiv dya6u)v TroLrjixara StSacTKOvcrt, ixcXottolwi/, 
CIS TO, KidapLo-fjMTa fi/TetVoiTes, Plut. Sc/. 3 (Solon at first held 
poetry a pastime) vartpov Se kol yvoyp.a<i ivireive <^iXo(ro<^ovs . . . 
tvioi 8e <j)iaLv oTt kol tovs vd/xows cire^et'/aTycrev evTttWs eis cttos {/'Ut 
into verse) e^eveyKciv. Cp. lvapp.Qrr(.tjQai E. 989. | cLp(iov(av : har- 
mony meant for the Greeks the fitting together of high tones and 
low (d^v and fiapv) in succession (i.e. as the modern melody or 
"tune"), not simultaneously, as in modern "harmony." See 
Arist. E. 985-96, Plato Svni/>. 187 a b. Rep. 398 d. Lack. 188 d, 
Aristot. Polit. 1342, 1290, Heracleides Ponticus in Athen. 624 c- 
26 a; D. B. Monro Modes of Anc. Grk. Music (1894). 

969. Kajiir^v: as in 333 n. Not only Eur. affected this 
"Grecian bend," with a new turn for every sign in the zodiac (R. 
1327 Kara, rd %uiZf.Kap.-t]yavov Kvp-qtfrj<i /xtXoTroiwv) , but young Agathon 
was soon to trill "ant-runs" (ixvpfxyKos dTpairovs Th. 100), and 
even old Cratinus had quickened his tempo (6 tux^s dyav rrjv /xov- 
a-iKrjv A. 851). 

971. On Phrynis see schol. here (he took a prize as kitharode 
at the Panathenaea in 446 B.C., not 456), Pherecr. 145, Aristot. 
Metaphys. i. i. i, Plut. Moral. 84 ^j-, 220 r, 539 ^, 1133/^, \\i,\ f, 
Agis 10 (the ephors of Sparta cut out his added two lyre-strings, 
to reduce the instrument to the Terpandrian seven), Athen. 638 c ; 



NOTES ON TEXT 323 

Smyth Ixvi, Wilamowitz Tiinotheos 65 f., 73, 88 f., 94, Weil and 
Reinach on Plut. De Miisica % 307, Proclus Chrestoin. 320 <z, t^t^. 
972. TToXAas: see n. on 507 for the elhpse. 

981. oiv€\eo-6ai : to help oneself to food; A. 810, Hdt. 4. 128, 
Theophr. Cliarac. 10. 8, Luc. Cotiviv. 42. 

982. T«v irpto-puTc'pwv dpirdStiv: the gen. of the person despoiled, 
as in P. 1 1 18, Av. 1460, Ec. 866; so with KXiTrreLv V. 238, 1369, 
1447. 

983. KixX'tO'V: Bekk. Anecd. 271. 30, Ki;^At(r/Aos : TropvtKos yeAw? 
7roA.i)9 »cai aKocr/xoi. Add to Other exx. cited in L. and S. Hero- 
das Mim. 7. 122 avT-q (tv . . . rj /u-e'^oi/ lttttov tt/sos dvp-qv Ki^Xi^ovau, 
Clem. Alex. Paed. 2. 5. — The interpretation, to eat klx^ui, i.e. 
dainties or dessert, has little to support it, especially here where it 
would merely duplicate o^^o^ayCiv. 

984. On the Dipolia and Bouphonia see J. Harrison iii, or 
Mommsen Feste 512. | t«tt(y«v: E. 1325, 133 1, Thuc. i. 6. 3, 
Athen. 512 r, 518^, 525/, Luc. Navit:;. 3, Aelian V.H. 4. 22; 
Studniczka in Classen-Steup Thuc. i. 6, or briefly, ^L M. Evans 
Chapp. on Grk. Dress (1893) 63, Oard-Jev. 65. For a new 
interpretation of Timi as = <jT\tyyi%, a golden or other metal 
frontlet rising above the forehead in front of the ko^u/a/Sos, see 
F. Hauser \w fahreshefte ties oesterr. archaeol. Instituts 9 (1906), 
75-130, with a criticism of the same by E. Petersen Beiblatt 
thereto 78-86. 

985. Kti8tC8ov: Mss. Kr/Kct'Sou. For the inscript. mentioning 
Kr^Sei^T/?, of about 415 H.C., see CIA. IV i. 2. 79, No. 337 </ ( = 
I )ittenberger 2, No. 702 = Roberts and (Jardner No. 182). | AXX' 
ouv : A. 620, V. I 190, 1434, R. 1298; dW' uvv . . . yc N. 1002, 
V. 1129, Av. 1408, Th. 710. Sec my note in Selections frdni 
Plato, on Apol. 27 r, iJlaydcs on Nitli. 1002, K.-(i. 2. 287. Cp. 
8' Mi% 343 n. I tuOt' 4<rTlv ^K«iva : cp. 1052. I'siially the jironouns 
are singular and the copula omitted — tuW tKeico, as in .\. 41, 
820, P. 289, .Av. 354, L. 240, R. 1342; but tort is present in 
P. 516, R. 318. C|). 08' (Vtti/o? I 167, E. 1331, Soph. O.C. 138; 
T08' IkCivo Eur. Meil. 99. K.-('i. 1. 650. 



324 APPENDIX 

987. In Greek anapaestic tetrameters Stat'/oco-is is so regular 
after the 4th foot that but three exceptions are usually conceded, 
viz. N. 987, V. 568, Av, 600. Christ 265. Yet even here Blaydes 
and van Leeuwen follow an inferior Ms. and read i/AaTtots -n-poSi- 

988. For the iryppLxy at the Panathenaea see Lysias 21. i and 
4, and the inscript. cited on v. 28 : H Trato-i/u, TTvppi-)(i(TTai<i fiuvr 

H dyevetbis 'irvppL-)(i(TTai<i f3ov<; ' H dvBpdai TrvppL)(iaTaL<; ^oDs- See 
also Athen. 630 d~^i c ; J. E. Harrison Myth, and Mon. 347; 
VV. Downes Class. Rev. 18 (1904), 101-06, who doubts if at this 
time the Pyrrhic dancers carried spear or sword ; " the play was 
defensive, not offensive." 

988 f. avTovs . . . a|x€\T) : the same shift from plur. to sing, in 
975. V. 553, 565, P. 640, L. 358, 1 1 19, Th. 797, R. 1075, Ec. 302, 
420, 665, 670, PI. 331 ; K.-G. I. 86 f. But the emendat. of n? 
for T^s after ap.€\rj is probably correct. — For the form TpiToyevetr]^ 
see n. on 614. 

990. irpos TavTtt : c. imv. or in exhortation, common ; 1433, 
A. 659, E. 760, V. 648, 927, 1386, P. 416, 765, 1315, Ec. 851, 
Aesch. Prom. 915, 992, 1030, 1043, ^^c. Cp. tt^o; raSc 1030, 

P- 305. 

991 ff. On the youth of olden time see Isoc, 7. 48 f., Plato 
Theaet. 173 ^. 

993. Cp. Xen. Mem. 2. 3. 16. 

994. ircpC : c. ace. = erga, in one's dealings with ; very com- 
mon, e.g. A. 663, 696, E. 764, 812, 831, 873, 1208. Sobol. 
Praepos. 206. 

995. a^aXp-a : cp. Plato Syt?ip. 222 a, Demos. 25. 35. | AvairX^- 
o-€iv is the reading of R, not dvairXaTTuv, as commonly reported. 

997. p.TjXu> pXtiOeCs : cp. Theocr. 5. 88, 6. 6, Verg. Ec. 3. 64. 
999. TT)v T]Xi.Kiav : exx. of any save pronominal ace. after pvrj- 
aiKUKelv seem to be lacking. Blaydes suggests here the gen. i^s 

rfXlKLUS- 

looi. On Hippocrates, son of Ariphron, see Thuc. 4. 66 to end 
passim, Xen. Mem. 3. 5. 4, Diod. Sic. 12. 66, 12. 69, Plut. Nic. 



NOTES ON TEXT 325 

6, Vit. X Orat. 833 d, Pausan. 3. 6. i, 9. 6. 3. For his sons see 
Arist. frgg. 112, 557, Eupol. 103, Dion Halic. /ja^. 8, Athen. 96 ^. 
I ct{€is : fut. perf. ; K.-Bl. 2. iiof. | pXiTOHLa|iH-«iv : schol. on Plato 
Ale. I 118^ "EdvdLTnros Koi IldpuXoi ol YlepiKkiois vloi, ous Koi jSki- 
TOfidfiJu^ eKaXovv. 

1005. 'AKa8T|ji«iav : a gymnasium often mentioned, ^.,^. in Xen. 
Nc//. 2. 2. 6, 2. 5. 49, Lysias 18. 10, Plato £js. 203 a, Demos. 24, 
114, comic poets in Athen. 59 1/, 336 f, 509 r, 610 r (= K. 2. 287, 
257, 306, 327), Pint. Su//. 12, Pausan. i. 29. 2. 

1006. KttXanip \ewKa. : Theophr. //ist. Plant. 4. 11. 4. 

1007. (iiXoKos : Av. 216, Theophr. Hist. Plant. 3. 18. 11, Plin. 
Nat. Hist. 16. 153. I d-irpa-yiioo-vvTis : Av. 44 ; so other odours, as in 

50-52, A. 190 (if. ( Trapao-KCi'^? viM)v, Trf)la/3€o)v) , E. 1332 (o-ttovSwv), 
V. 1059 fSe^idrT^ros), P. 529 ff. (oTTwpas, rpayw^mK Xen. Convw. 2. 
4 (KoXoKuyuiOias). Cp. redolere, sapere. \ (j)vX.\opo\ov(riiS : Kock 
suggests <f>v\XoKoixov(rr]<; because trees do not shed their leaves 
((pvWov, ftdWo)) in the spring (^pos iv wpa 1008). True, in 
Theophr. 4>v\X()/36X.o<; is leaf-shedding in contrast to a£t-(^vA\os, 
(f.^- ///>/. Plant. I. 3. 5. But another compound, dvOo-fioXtw 
dvdo-(i6\r]crL<i, means not shedding, but shooting or putting forth 
/lowers (deopon. 9. 10. 8, 10. 2. 10, 10. 59. 3), and the aKaj/^o- 
piikov poSov is a rose putting forth its thorn (Nicander in Athen. 
683 b). P^ustath. 1295. 9 quotes Nicander's phrase and explains 
the epithet by dKdvBrj^ 7rpoy8oA»/r. Further, Trpo f3\-i(TTov Trpo^oA^s 
(Oeopon. 5. 25. \)= before the putting forth of the bud; and so 
mVou iK^ok-f] in Thuc. 4. i. Hence here (f>v\\o- ^okovtrr)^ =putt/n!^ 
forth its leaves. (Merry and van Leeuwen take it to mean tossing 
Its leaves ; Teuffel-Kaehler : " sie wirft freundlich neckend ihre 
Pilatter nach ihm," quoting Hor. Carm. 3. 18. 14. Hut for this 
interpretation is it not better to quote schol. on Pind. 01. 8. 76 
ol viKuwT(.<i i(f}i'\K(>fto\o}VTn ; I'^tym. Magn. 532. 46 TrdXai €<fiv\\o- 
filikovv Toi's viKwi'Ta<i dno T>'>v niif} iKti/itviDi' <f)vWti>v {TripfHTTTOvi'Tc;?) 
loio. Thf phrase 7rpo<T(x<'> tw vhvv regularly takes the dat., not 
Trpfk c. dat. ; hence here Kaehler suggests kuI /jltj tovtw (sc. tw 
Ad'.Kw Aoyw). 



326 APPENDIX 

I020. Archelaus, pupil of Anaxagoras and teacher of Socrates, 

taught TO Slkulov etvat kol to ala^pov ov cf>vcreL aAA.a vofXio (Diog. 

Laert. 2. 16). See Introd. § 45. 

1030. irpos ovv Td8' : is the clear reading of RV. Blaydes seems 
uncertain of them. 

1034. As Arist. distinguishes here AtKaios and "ASikos by the 
metres they use, viz. anapaestic tetrameters 959 ff. against the 
bickering iambic tetrameters 1034-88, so he distinguishes Aes- 
chylus and Euripides in the F;vgs (905, 1004), Cleon and the 
sausage-seller in Knights (761, 841). 

1036. Kttl jjiTiv : for its double function (ist yea verily assevera- 
tive, 2d and yet adversative) see K.-G. 2. 137. Exx. of the first 
as here, with the following word emphasized by ye, are in vv. 4, 
1353, 1414; of the second, likewise with ye, in 1185, 1441. | 
•irdXoi : c. imperf. is variously rendered, not always according to 
GS. 222. Exx. in Arist. : E. 125, N. 1036, 1312, P. 414, 475, 
Av. 1019, 1670, L. 55, 1033, etc. 

1037. airavra ravra : cp. E. 99, P. 319, Crat. 186. 

1041. -irXeiv t| : is beyond the pale of syntax; after it may stand 
a nomin. (Av. 1305, R. 90, PI. 1184), gen. (as here), dat. (R. 18, 
90), or ace. (A. 858, E. 444, 835, N. 1065, Av. 6, 1251, L. 589, R. 
1 1 29, Ec. 808). On equivalent modes of expression see K.-G. 2. 
311, or O. Schwab 196, who counts about thirty different ways of 
saying " not more than 500 soldiers " ! On the form ttAcii/, K.-Bl. 
I. 216 and 641, Brugm. 210. 

1045. Warm baths: Crates 15, Hermip. 76, Plat. Legg. 761 c, 
Gard.-Jev. 314. 

1047. twvo-xes : intrans. and absolute ; as in E. 847, V. 829, R. 
522, 851 (cp. supra, 495) ; c. gen. Av. 1200 {rov Spo/xov), L. 742 
(tov tokov) ; in fut. ec^e'^ei? = Trawet E. 915. | trt [Utrov : resolution 
of the fourth foot just before the diaeresis is rare, yet see 1063, 
1067 (cp. 1083), A. 1040, Th. 537, 542, 567 ; Christ 340. | For 
the wrestler's phrase e^w rtva fiea-ov (pass. €;)(o/xai yueVos) cp. A. 571, 
E. 388, R. 469, Ec. 260. On a<l>vKTov passive see H. Richards 
Arist. and Others 27. 



NOTES ON TEXT 327 

105 I. The schol. quotes the poet Pisander on Heracles : to* 8' 
iv &€pfJLOTriX.7jaL dtk yAavKaiTrfj 'Adr^vrj | ttoul depfjia XotTpa iraph. 

prjypuvi daXda(Tr)<; ; see also Hdt. 7. 176, Athen. ^12 c /. 

1052 ff. In Ran. 1069 f., it is Euripides, " mouthing " these 
arguments in his tragedies, who empties the palaestrae. 

1053. 8i' T||wpas : so V. 485, P. 56, R. 260, 265, Ec. 63 ; with 
added oAr;s P. 27. 8t' howi V. 1058, 8ta vi'KTos frg. 13. 

1055. €v a^opa Ty\v 8iaTpipT|v : an emphatic leaping forward of 
attributive matter into predicate position (instead of T171' iv dyopa 
8.). Cp. 107 1, P. 1305, PI. 338, Soph. O.T. 139, 269,819 f., Eur. 
Andro/n. 215, Thuc. i. 133 end (ck tov Upov), i. 137. 4 (7raA.1v), 
2. 7. 2 (e^ IraAtas ktA.), 2. 18. 3 (Kara ttjv dWrjv iropuav), 2. 38. I 
{^Kad y]p.ipav). 

1056 f av . . . av : repetition as in 977, E. 17, V. 171, P. 68, Av. 
127, 505, 829, 1 147, L. 191, 361, Th. 196, R. 914. (iMT. 223. 

1057. d-YopTiTT|v : for such word-play, concerned with the ambi- 
guity of some single word, see K. Holzinger De Verhorum Lusu 
ap. Arist. (1876) 21, where among many instances he cites A. 435, 
759, N. 260, 479, 545, 639, 1496, 1507, V. 189, 191, 194, P. 42. 

T058. avei|i,i : so used in formal speech in Eur. Herac. 209, 
Ion 933, Phocn. 1207. Cp. Traptt/xi 1075 /'(A'^, o-Kt'i/^at 1043, 1071, 
and the formal disposition of his matter {Tzp6B(.(n<i) that Va\x. 
makes in Ra?i. 908. These phrases and the whole tone of the 
present speech show how self-conscious and self-confident and 
schooled an art rhetoric had become even as early as 423 H.t:. 
I Si^Ttt : I know no other instance of S^ra used as here. It is not 
the S^ra either of quest, or of answer, nor that which enters into 
phrases ; nor is the tone the same as in v. 6 (imprecation) or v. 269 
(prayer), where also it follows a verb. A temporal or transition 
word is wanted. Hut 8^Trx is neither. 

1064. On Peleus and his troubles : Pind. Nem. 4. 56, 5. 26, 
Apollodor. 3. 12, Hor. Carm. 3. 7. 17. 

1065. ovK : for like use of c'k see E. 181, N. 47, \'. 266, 526, I*. 
1 185, Av. 13, Va:. 432, 684, 686, PI. 435. | T«iv Xvxvwv : i.e. the 
lamp ntarkel; so ra opvca, 01 l)^Ov€<;, to. Aap^ava, ra (Tr'jirapM, tov- 



328 APPENDIX 

\aLov, 6 otvos, ai )(^vTpai, ai fivppivai, to. (TKopoSa, to. KpofXfjiva, etc. | 
r\ rdXavTa -iroXXa : vail Leeuwen reads rj eKarov TakavTa, I.e. 
HHTAAANTA, where H = Uarov. But this H disappearing by 
haplography, iroWd \yas supplied to fill the verse. 

1066. ov (id AC ov : R. 645, 1043, PI. 704, Xen. Oecon. i. 7, 21. 7, 
Conviv. 2. 4. A like dva-StTrAwo-is, or repetition, of the negative 
with intervening words in 1470, A. 421, E. 1309, V. 1496, R. 493, 
1308, K.-G. 2. 204, Rehdantz on Xen. Anah. 7. 6. 11. 

1074. The quest, was not new. In old Ionia Mimnermus had 

asked rt? Se ^tos, tL Se repTrvov a.rip ^pvcfy]<i ' A(f)pnSLT7]<: (frg. l). 

1076. The condition is expressed in parataxis, not hypotaxis 
(/>. co-ordination, not sub-ordination) ; so Av. 78, Th. 405, Ec. 
179, 197, Hdt. 4. 118, 5. 92, Eur. Androm. 334, Orest. 646, comic 
poets in K. 2. 148 (frg. 34. 4), 277 (frg. 4. 4), 453 (frg- 6. 13-16), 
512 (frg. 107), Demos. 3. 18, 18. 198, Paul Epist. Corinth. 2. 11. 
22, James 5. 13 f., etc. K.-G. 2. 233 f. 

1077. A like picture of the defendant, helpless from lack of 
rhetoric, in Plato Gorg. 486 d. 

1080. «Tr-av-£v€-yK€iv : the characters of Euripides thus " refer " 
the precedent of a crime to the gods in Troad. 948, Hippol. 451 f., 
474, Iph. T. 390, Bacch. 28 ff. Cp. Plato Legg. 941 b, Euthyph. 

5 e. 

1 1 03 ff. The text- note follows van Leeuwen. 

1 1 15. Tovs Kptrds : other exx. of this syntactic fusion (and con- 
fusion) : 1 148, Av. 652, 1269, L. 63, 408, PI. 200. See n. on 479. 
— For like direct appeals to the judges see n. on Introd. § 98 
toward end. 

1 1 17. €v «p^ : betimes, in good season ; V. 242, 689, P. 122, 
Ec. 395. But lypos i-v iapi supra 1008 is different. 

1 1 19. KapTTov : a collective singular, as K«pa/u.os 11 27; so ttXiv- 
Oos, Ka.Xafxo<;, 8/?, a(TirL<i, tTTTTOS, etc. GS. 56, K.-G. I. 1 3. | rt Koi 
rds : the MSS. have tov Kupnov TeKovaa<i (l/XTreAous, much like 281 
Kapirok T apSofx-evav Upav x^ova. It may be the true reading, but 
seems rather jjoetic for the business-like irpthra p.iv . . . etra and 
the prose level of the whole passage. 



NOTES ON TEXT 329 

1 1 20. a-yav tiro(iPpCttv : adverb used as adjective without article. 
This is rare : 1203 Trpo/Sar oAAws, 1492 <7<^d8p' dAa^dves, Thuc. i. 
122. 2 avTLKpvi SovAet'ttv, 4. 31. 2 Xi6o)v \oydorjV, K.-(j. I. 609. 

1 122. irpoo-€x*T« : seen. 011575. | irpos : c. gen. of agent ( = u7ro) 
only here in Arist., whether with passive verbs or intransitive 
(Sobol. Praepos. 178). It is common in Hdt. {e.g. i. 36, 47, 61, 
114, 120, 159) and in tragedy {e.g. Aesch. Prom. 92, 650, 761, 
767, 1072), and is found in some writers of Attic prose as Xeno- 
phon and Plato (K.-G. i. 516 bottom), but is not so used by Thuc. 
or the orators. 

1 1 24. TjvU' av 7ap : since conjunctions regularly yield position 
to av in this group, we might write y]viKa.v, as orav, cTreiSav. Cp, 
y]viK av U P. 1 159 (despite RV), 11 79, Ec. 273, PI. 107 (despite 
V), Eur. ////. T. 1 217. 

1125. iraiT|(roHL€v : Blass (K.-Bl. 2. Ill f. and 585 and in Verb 
List) distinguishes between ttuitJo-w and iraima, ^aWrja-u) and (3aXw, 

K\aLi](T(j) and KXuvcrofjuu, TVirrrfCTiji and TraTa^w, eX^ot and iXKviTw, €$w 
and (Txww, x'^'-PW*'^ ^"'^ x"^py'i<ToiJMi, by making the first in each 
pair a " present " or " durative " future, the second an " aoristic " 
future. 

1 127. K^pajiov : the same collective sing. (1119 n.) in Thuc. 
2. 4. 2, Herodas M/f/l. 3. 44 dAA' o KepLiio<; ttS? oja-irtp IrpuL OXrJTaL. 

1 130. av . . . Tvxti" : av c. inf. after (iovkopxa; (IM T. 211. 

I 136. d-ir-oXciv Ka^-oXtiv : cp. P. 366 aTroAwAas c^dAwAas, 1072 
($w\r)<i oLTToXoLo, and in Latin />ereo intcreo (Nonius 422 " perire 
levior res est et habet inventionis spem et non omnium rerum 
finem "). 

1 137. T€ lUrpia : so flreen for the Mss. p-irpta t«. 

1 146. TouTovl : Zielinski 45 understands not QvXamw with schol. 
and all modern editors, but pirrdov, referring to 876 (rdkavTov). 

I 147. ^•m-eaujidtfiv : the simple verb often means /<> honour, e.g. 
Eur. /•/. S4, 519, .lA,/. 1 144, Isoc. I. 10, Demos. 19. n'^. With 
the comjjound, where cVi- is besides, in aJdition to, cp. cV-ayw, 
€7r-tifrayo), i.tv-ani.M, (Tr-dpx'o (Xen. Cyr. I. I. 4), (-rr-cy-KairTO) (Arist. 

Ey. 493). 



330 APPENDIX 

1 149. Sv : may well enough call back to vlov over the nearer 
\6yov, since vlov stands high in the thought (hence its prolepsis), 
while Xoyov lies low almost in parenthesis. Good delivery will 
guard against misunderstanding. 

1151. w<rT€ : c, opt. and dv, A. 944, Av. 1126; c. fut. indie. 
1342. GMT. 602. 

1 152. K€l : Streps, is referring to his own case, hence el c. indie, 
the mood o{ facts. In the next verse Socrates generalizes for all 
cases, hence kov c. subjunctive. 

1 154. Quoted from Euripides' Pe/eus, frg. 623. — : For ropo, not 
Tapa, see K.-Bl. i. 331 Anm. 3. 

1 156. Sweeping imprecations upon an enemy {avT6<;, yeVas, oiKta, 
TratSta, etc.) are common: Antiphon 5. 11, Andoc. i. 98, Lysi^s 
12. 10, Demos. 23. 67, 47. 70, especially the comic one in Arist. 
J?an. 587 f. 

1 158. olos : a relat. clause in causal relation to the preceding, 
as in 699 after an exclamation. See also n. on causal ore 7, causal 
oo-Tis 42, concessive os 579, ws 209, and os 1226. The type here 
is a common one from Homer down ; cp. Od. 4. 611 ai/Aaros eis 
aya^o'o (fitKov reKos, oV a.yopev€i<;, " you are of good blood, dear lad, 
the way you talk." The antecedent is no particular word in the 
main clause, but the main clause itself, the truth of which is meas- 
ured in so far as the relat. clause is true. This is usually expressed 
in Engl, by the demonstr. si/ch, so, etc. Perhaps the Greeks also 
felt the connection as parataxis rather than hypotaxis, the relat. 
stem being by origin demonstrative. See my Selections from Plato 
446 f., K.-G. 2. 371, and for further exx. Arist. Thesm. 461, 712 
(van L.'s reading), 878, PI. 775, V. 1451, Eur. Hippol. 1079, Ion 
799, Soph. O. C, 1428. 

1 165. Eur. Hec. 171—74 w tIkvov, w Trat SvoravoTaTas /xarepos, 
UeXG" Uf.XB' oiKtov • ate ixaT€pos avSdv. \ irai, eg- : hiatus (with no 

correption or elision) is permissible in interjections and address ; 

A. 971 eiSes (u etSe? w (cretic), V. 297 (3 TraTTTrtu • r/8iov. K.-Bl. I. 197. 

1 166. <rov Trarpos : see n. on 474. 

1 1 68. to <j>CXos : need not be a nomin. for voc, but an exclam- 



NOTES ON TEXT 331 

atory nomin., as A. 27 tS ttoXis, V. 900 w /xtapos ovtos. But there is 
emotion either way. 

II 70. lov : TO lov i-TTL X"P«5 TrepiairaTai (schol.). If this is true 
— and from analogy of aXr]di<i — dA7;^es, ^ — tlyj, and other such 
shifts and changes there is no good reason to doubt it, we should 
accent lov in N. i, 1321, 1493, E. 451, V, 931, P. no, 1191, etc., 
but lov in E. 1096, P. 317, 345, Av. 193, etc. In N. 543 it is in- 
different, in R. 653 there is comic ambiguity. Yet see Ellendt- 
Genthe Lex. Soph., or Bekk. Anecd. 1237. 

1 172. |i«v 7€ : no contrast expressed ; so A. 154, L. 1165. See 
also n. on 1382. | c^apviiTiKos : for a parody on the fashionable 
formation of adjectives in -iko? see E. 1378, V. 1209. 

1 175. dSiKOvvra . . . KaKOwpvovvra : from Plato Crito 49 /^ <• it is 
clear that the difference was more in word than in deed. | 0I8' on : 
see n. on 881. 

1 1 76. p\«-iros : van Leeuwen on R. 562 lists many " looks." One 

could look (fiXiTTttv) SpLjxv, xXiTTTOv, dvfifipo<j>dyov, vav(f>apKTov, aarpa- 
Tra?, vairv, KapoafUL. (Tkityj, ottov, TTvppL')(rjv, ulkluv, optyavov, vwoTpip-fia, 
'Apr], ofKfxiKwi, TLixav (V. 847). 

1 1 78. 8c 8^ : we/i no^a, but then, well but. With 8>; we mark a 
point or stage in our progress, finishing something and making a 
fresh start. It is a collocation frequent in the reasoning Plato ; 
see my Selections from Plato on Apol. 24 d. In Arist. it appears, 
perhaps by accident, only in questions, except in Av. 1660, viz. 
N. 1 1 78, V. 858, P. 227, Av. 67, 112, 155, L. 599, Th. 60S, R. 
158, 805, 865, Ec. 542, PI. 264. 

1 183. ct jiT| irtp -y* : the same order in Xen. Oecon. i. 13, 7. 17, 
showing that sometimes the affinity of d-p.r] prevails over that of 

ll-TT(.p. 

1195. v-n-aviJjvTo : reciprocal middle ; GS. 149, K.-G. i. 107. 

1198. irpoTt'veai : Mommsen Feste 33S, Athen. 171 c. 

1 199. v4)€XoiaTo : Ionic form of opt. found also in E. 662, P. 
209, Av. 1 147, L. 42. K.-1}1. 2. 78. As all exx. stand at end of 
iambic trim. exc. E. 662, perhaps metrical need suggested its use, 
as with -fieada (576 n.). 



332 APPENDIX 

I 202. T)|i.^Tcpa . . . Twv (ro({>(ov : so A. 93 tov ye aov tov Trpc'cr^cws 
(6<f)$a\fi.6v), PI. :^;^, Horn. //. 3. 180 Sarjp avr' c'/aos €(tkc Kwwn^tSos, 
Soph. O.C. 344, 7>. 775, /%//. 1 1 26, Eur. //<'^. 430, ^5"/. 366, 1195, 
Cvd. 244. K.-G. I. 282 f. 

1203. dpieiios : Mere ciphers; so Eur. Herac. 997, Troad. 
476. I aXXws : with subst., frequent; Blaydes cites some thirty 
instances from prose and poetry. K.-G. i. 610. 

1205. «ir' «vTux'a«''>'V : IttL of cause or occasion, with (rvix(f)opais, 
ayaOrj rrxj], vlktj, etc. Sobol. Praepos. 152 cites E. 406, 41 1, 655, 
1318, 1320, V. 869, 1046, L. 1276, 1293, Th. 1049, Ec. 
1 181. I |jioviYK(d|iiov : crasis of -ot and e- ; so oiyu,oi E. 1003, 
ixovxprjo-t V. 159, KaiTovuTL V. 599, fjievTOvyw R. 971. K.-Bl. I. 222. 

1207 f. 0)5 .. . xolov : instructive on the parallel functions of <Ls 
and olov. Cp. Th. 702 f, and see n. on 1158. 

1214-1302. In the two scenes here following it is Streps, him- 
self who plies sophistry successfully against his creditors, and not 
the young graduate, as we might expect. It has been argued 
from this that the education of Pheidip. formed no part of the 
original play, since it is matter of record that the dywu between 
the two Aoyot was absent therefrom. 

1 2 14. avSpa : = 0/ie = German man = French on; so Av. 13 19, 
Plato Fhaed. 114 d {dis), Symp. 178 d, Soph. O.T. 314, 504, Phil. 
1228, and often, especially when joined c. partic. as Plato Phaed. 
63^ a.vi]p iv ^tAoo-o<^t'a Stax/ati/^as, 76 />, Gorg. 484 a, Lach. 188 C. 
See Ast Lex. Plai., EUendt-Genthe Lex. Soph. 

1 2 15. t6t£ : often needs care in translation, even when clear in 
its reference ; so 1456 {in the first place), E. 483, P. 694, Av. 24 
{before), R. 136, 550 (///<?/ time), PI. 834, 11 17, etc. Thuc. i. 
loi. 2, 3. 69. I, 4. 46. I, 4. loi. 3, 5. 4. 4, 5. 6. I. 

1221. KaXov|iai : cp. Av. 1046, V. 1417 for this formula — ace. 
of person, gen. of charge or of claimed damages, es c. ace. of 
time. 

1226. ov: a use of the relative by no means rare, where the 
antecedent is easily felt, though not at first sight found. Such 
relat. clauses often give the circumstances quasi-causally, like ore- 



NOTES ON TEXT ^^^ 

clauses (see n. on 7), and may be translated 70/ien I {you, he, etc.). 
See 1044, 1377, 1380, E. 1275, V. 487, 518, P. 865, L. 661, Th. 
706, R. 1058, Soph. O.C. 263, AJ. 457, Thuc. i. 68. 3, i. 140. 5, 
2. 44. 2 (wv). 4. 26. 4, 6. 68. I ; so the os av common in Thuc, as 
2. 44. I {to S' tvTvx^<;, dl av), 6. 14, 6. 16. 3, 7. 68. i, Andoc. 2. 18. 
1235. Sxrrt : = £^' wtc, as in P. 333. K.-G. 2. 504. 

1237. To support his view that there is here a hint at the lack 
of salt {i.e. wit) in Pasias' words, van Leeuwen cites frg. 151, P. 
1073 f. 

1238. x^tts : i-^- xo^"^- K.-Bl. I. 498. 

1 24 1. Zcvs o|ivv)i.€vos : a// oath in the name of Zeus. On this 
substantive value of the partic. and its large use in Greek see my 
Selections from Plato on Crito 50 c, Monro Horn. Gram- § 245 ; 
exx. are frecjuent from Homer down : Od. 5 . 97, 24 . 474, Theogn. 
509, Pind. 01. 3. 6, 9. Ill, Pyth. 2. 21, 3. 102, 11. 22, A^em. 4. 34, 
Soph. AJ. 76, Eur. Hel. 94, Hippol. 798, Iler. Fur. 732, Arist. V. 27, 
47, P. 605, Hippocr. Prognost. 2 fin., 9 /////., 9 fin., Xen. Cyr. 
4. 5. 21, Antiphon 5. 35, Lysias i. 7, 4. 10, Isae. 2. 7, Demos. 18. 57, 
Strabo 486 (Kopu'^o? KuTao-»cu<^etrr«), not to mention Herodotus. 

1252. oo-ov -yt ji' €l8€vat : cp. V. 1288, P. 857, Th. 34, Ec. 350, 
Thuc. 6. 25. 2, Plato Theaet. 145 a; GMT. 778, K.-G. 2. 511. 

1253. owKowv : c. fut. indie. = imv. ; P. 261, 274, 950, Av. 
991, 1260, R. 193, 200, 201, 339, 480, 649, Ec. 43, 1 144, PI. 71, 
974, frg. 617. 

1256. irpoo-aTToPaXtis : tt/jos adheres very loosely to its verb 
being much used as a free adverb. Cp. A. 701, 1229, E. 401 
578, V. 1320, 1420, P. 19, L. 628, 1238, R. 415, 61 1, 697, PI. looi 

1260. Cp. iMir. Ilel. 541 la, TLii ovTo<; ; ov rt rrov ktX.., Hec. 501 
It, Ti? o'tos. For ta see P. 60, Av. 327, 1495, Th. 699, 1 105, PI 
824. I oin-i -irow : p. 121 1, Av. 443, L. 354, R. 522, 526, Ec. 329 
372, 756. 1 )istinguish from ou Sr/n-oi; in (lucstion : A. 122, Av. 269 
R. 526 (?), Er. 327. For this distinction see Stallbaum on Plato 
Symp. 194 /' ("oi*! hi]iTov est suspicantis, ou tl ttov auteui mirantis et 
indignnntis "), FOIiendt-Genthe Lex. Soph. s.v. -rrov, Smytli 480. 

1261. (Jii ('arrinus the dancer and his three act()r-s<;ns (one of 



334 APPENDIX 

them being also a tragic poet) see V. 1501 ff., P. 782 ff. with 
scholia; also Th. 440, Plat. com. frg. 134. For Xenocles the 
tragedian son, composer of the Licymnius here ridiculed, see fur- 
ther Th. 169, R. 86, Aelian V.H. 2. 8, who tells us that Xenocles 
won the prize over Euripides in 416/15 b.c. 

1 263. Kara o-eavrov : Kara separative, akin to its distributive use ; 
so 194, A. 1019, E. 513, V. 786, 1021, 1493, Av. 564, Ec. 837, 
and often in Plato e.g. Phaed. 64 c, 66 a {Ins), 66 e. 

1267. w rdv : E. 494, 1036, N. 1432, V. 373, I161, P. 721, 

1113, 1220, 1264, Av. 12, R. 952, 1243, etc. K.-Bl. i. 520 f. 
" Erklarung bestritten." 

1269. (x^vToi : inserted in the phrase aAA.ws re Kai as in Plato 
Apol. 35 c. So 7rai/Tws in Aesch. Prom. 636, Pers. 689, Eum. 726, 
etc. 

1273. With the play on k-n ovov and aTro vov cp. Diog. Laert. 
2. 118 6 StiAttoiviSw tov K/jaT7^Ta ^et/xwvos (TvyK€KavfXivov, (oK-pa.Tr]i 

CITTC, SoKClS /AOt ^UOV €X^"' IfMlTLOV KMVOV ' OTTCp 7]V VOV Kai IfJUOLTlOV. So 

Diogenes the Cynic iSwv IfxaTioKXiTTT-qv iv tw fSaXavtiw e(f>r] Ett 
d\€LixfxdTiov 7} i-K oAA' i/xartov; (Diog. Laert. 6. 52). Athen. 616 r 
Lysimachus jeered concerning his wife Arsinoe by changing the 

verse kukujv Karap^ets rryvSe \xov(to.v ttcraywi/ tO ti^vS i/xovaav. 

So Arist. Ran. 304 Ik KvixdriDv yap uv6L<i av yaXrjv opu) is a comic 
perversion of yaXrjv opw. 

1274. €t povXo|iai : expresses the condition of XrjpC} not as a fact, 
but as a judgment : " Do you judge that I talk nonsense, if (or 
because) I wish, etc. ? " Hence ei here = the ort of v. 7 (see n.). 
Sobol. Synt. 90 b so classes the conditions with d in 1284, 1339, 
A. 307> E. 347, V. 62, 442, 466, 503, 535, 956, 1050, Th. 540, R. 
1449, Ec. 1098, PI. 910, 1 146. 

1276. w<rir£p : as it 7vere ; A. 193, V. 395, P. 234, Th. 869, 
Plato Phaed. 66 b, 88 d, Apol. 18 d, 22 a, and often. 

1279 f Aioye'vT^? o ' ATruXXwvLa.Trj<; (c^v^crij/) vttotjXlov dpTrd^cadui to 
v8wp T^s 6uXdcr(Trj<; (schol. Apol. Rhod. 4. 269). o yXio^ dvdyei 
Koi dvapTra^ei tov v8aT0<; tu re Actttotutoi/ kui Kou^oraTov (Hippocr. 
TTCpi de'pwv C. 8 I Hit.). 



NOTES ON TEXT 335 

1287. tL h' aWo y r\ : SO 1447, 1495, P. 103,923, Av. 25, R. 
198, Ec. 395, 771, PI. 1172, Aesch. &//. 852, Plato Phaedr. 268 h. 
Cp. Ti 8' oAAo y' d /XT/ E. 615 ; qvk aXkori rj = mefr/y, only, and 
the quest.-phrase dAAo n rj. 

1288. -irX^ov irX^ov : Bekk. AlieCiL 108. 7 fxiKpov fiLKpou, avrl row 
del Kura /xtKpov, 108. 5 /xaXAov /auAAov, olvtI tov del kuI (/. kutoi) 

/AaAA.01/. Cp. R. 1 00 1, Eur. //>/i. T. 1406, Xen. Cyr. 7- 5- 39 (6 8' 
o;(A.o? ttAciW Kat TrXctwv iirippf-L), .Aesch. /??;x 981 {fivpfu fxvpia, dis- 
tributive duplication), Mark 6. 7 Svo Svo. See Schwab 367 f. — dcC 
c. comparat. is common, e.g. X.tn. Anab. i. 9. 19 del TrAetw, 6. 3. 6 
del TrAct'oves, Cvr. 7. 5. 5 dei eyyvre/jov, 8. 2. 2 2, 8. 3. 50. 

1292. Cp. Anaxagoras frg. 5 Diels (=14 Mullach) yivwiTKeiv 
Xpr} oTi TrdvTa oi'hev iXuiTdoi iarlv ovBk TrAet'w (ov yap dvvaToi^ TrdvTwv 
TrAetw elvui), dXXa Travra lo-a tivui. | SCKaiov : for a good Study of 
StKT/, StKaiov, see Weber 168-71. 

1293. On the Greek attempt, here ridiculed, to base ethics on 
nature, see Introd. § 45 and note. 

1295. irXciov : on the forms of TrAct'wi/ in -ct- (required by Arist. 
throughout, except in ttAcW) see Starkie l^es/>. 662, K.-Hl. i. 571. 

1299. imaXw : used also V. 1348, P. 432, frg. 552, Phryn. i, 
Thuc. 5. 77. 8. 

1301. €(i«XXov : kne^v I was to — . A. 347, V. 460, R. 268. 
OS. 215, or in full A. }^\dX\. Joiini. Phil. (Engl.) 21 (1893), 39 ff. 
I apa : = dpa. confirmative; so V. 3 (?), 460, 839, 893, Av. 161, 
1308 ( ?), 1688, L. 933, Ec. 462, 672 ( ?), PI. 579. Bachmann Le.x. 
Spec. So used also in lyric and tragic poetry (a matter of metre) ; 
K.-G. 2. 318. 

1302. avTols xpoxois : 7vith very wheels, wheels and all ; K.-G. 
I. 433 and 654, Brugm. 408. In Arist., without art. as here: I'^. 
3, 7, V. 1288, Th. 826, K. 226, 476, Ec. 691 ; with art. : E. 849, 
N. 1302, V. 170, 1449, R. 560. 

1300. dSavfCo-aro : for the syllaha anceps -to- see Christ 130. 

1308. Cj). iiippocr. /',/iidiin. 1. 26. 6 TrvptT()<: ('>$m tKufit. i. 26. 8 
TTvp iKajU. I. 26. I 1 /nyos- lAufii, etc., very frcfiuent. 

1309. t<r«s : not in the Mss., l)Ut, in its very inconciiinity with 



336 APPENDIX 

oiiK iad' oTTws ov (mos/ certain/}'), a conjecture very appropriate to 
this obscure and comically ominous prophecy. 

13 lo. dv6' «v : see n. on 623. 

13 1 2. irdXai iroT^ : in Arist. only in the proverb 7ra\ai ttot -tjcrav 
oAki/xoi MtA.7^crtoi PI. 1002, 1075, V. 1060 (varied), in a tragic line 
P. 133, and in the present chorus ; hence is probably not a prose 
phrase. Bachmann Conject. Arist. 47. 

132 1. That Streps, brings with him his Sivos is the suggestion 
of Huidhues Neue phil. Rundschau for 1898, p. 387. 

1323. d|ivvd9€T€ : K.-Bl. 2. 178 f 

1324. On KaKwo-i? yoveW see R. 149, Andoc. t. 74, Aeschin. 
I. 28, Xen. Mem. 2. 2. 13, i. 2. 49 ff. 

1326. Kttl fidXa: = /AttAio-ra; Alex. frg. 116. 8 (K. 2. 338), 
Philem. 64 (K. 2. 494), Straton i. 26 (K. 3. 362). It is common 
in Plato. K.-G. 2. 540. 

1332. Iv 8£Kti: 1379, E. 258, V. 508, P. 628, Th. 830; in a 
double sense V. 421. 

1345. o-ov tp-yov : 1397, 1494, Av. 862, R. 590, etc. 

1352. irdvTcos: A. 347, 956, E. 232, 799, V. 603, 770, P. 1147, 
1 194, Av. 935, L. 495, Th. 805, 851, 984, 1012, R. 263, Ec. 604, 
704, PI. 273. I 8pdo-€is : fut. = imv., 811 n. 

1355. On symposiac singing and recitation see V. 1219-49, 
1476 ff, E. 529, P. 1267, Ec. 679, frg. 223, Eupol. 361 (schol. 
Nub. 96); Smyth xcv ff. Theophrastus {Charac. 15) regards the 
refusal to sing or dance as a mark of avOdSeua. 

1356. Kpiov : perhaps the Crius of Hdt. 6. 50, 6. 73. 

1357. So Socrates and Euripides thought the symposium no 
place for music, but for sweet reasoning; Plato Protag. 347 c-e, 
Symp. 176 ^, Eur. Med. 190 ff. 

1358. toxrirtpeC : SO N. 1360, A. 876, E. 270, V. 129, 1 107, Av. 
51, 151 9, L. 115, always c. subst. except Av. 51 (c. partic). | 
•yvvaiK dXovo-av : on songs to lighten labour see Smyth 49 1 , who 
mentions those for reaping, binding, winnowing, sowing, drawing 
water at the well, rowing, pressing grapes, etc. 

1359. -ydp . . . dpa : protected by V. 1299, P. 22, 566, Ec. 91. 



NOTES ON TEXT 337 

— The anapaest in the 4th foot is put beyond suspicion by the 
exx. cited by Christ 340 bottom. 

1360. For the legend of the song-loving reTTtyes see Plato 
Phaedr. 259 <^. 

1364. dXXa : c. imv. very common; often prefaced by nv Se, 
ii/i-eis Sc, 6 Se (see n. on 39) : 1369, A. 191, 1033, P. 660, L. 904, 
Antiph. 163 (K. 2. 77), Eur. Hec. 391, Herac. 565, Ion 978, 
Med. 942, Rhes. 167, Phoen. 1667, Xen. Hell. 3. 4. 26; cp. also 
(c. imv.) Soph. El. 415, O.C. 1276, Tr. 320, 801, Phil. 1071, 
Eur. Phoen. 618. — Other exx. of aXka. at least : Arist. Thesm. 424, 
449, Soph. El. 1013, Tr. 201, Eur. ZT*?;-. Fur. T,T,\,Ion 426, 1304, 
Orest. 1562, Phoen. 1671 ; in the phrase dAAa vPv Arist. Av. 1598, 
Thesm. 288, Soph. ^/. 411. 

1367. o-T6(n|>aKa : for some 50 nouns in -a^ see Blaydes on 

Vesp. 135, among them <f>iva$, a-.'ij(f)a$, duXdfJiu^, <TTVTnra$, fuxpu^, 

Tr\ovTu$. Cp. l.a.Uu///rax, bivax, edax. For their vulgar tone see 
Peppier 42. | Kpiijivoiroiov : in R. 929 the sentences of .Aeschylus are 

called prjfWid linroKprffivu, a ^vfifiaXeiv ov pa8i r/v. In E. 628 
Cleon is said to Kpqixvov<; ipeiBciv. 

1369. Tov 6vp.6v SaKwv : R. 43 BaKVO) y ipuavTov ciAA' 6pu)<; ycAw, 

Horn. Od. I. 381 o8a^ iv xetAfo"' c^wres. These passages refer to 
self-restraint ; but V. 287 /xr/S' ovtoj atuvruv t<r6u, 374 SaKtiv rrjv Kup- 
Bluv, 778 SaKvwv (TtuvTOu, Hom. //. 6. 202 uv 6vp.ov KureSwi' have llie 
sense o(/ret/tng oneself, eating' one's heart out. \ o-v8'd\Xd: 1364 n. 

1371. •go-c : Zielinski 302 cites this in support of his contention 
that the trimeters of Greek tragedy were delivered in recitative, 
or chanted ; i.e. midway between a sung tune and the declamation 
of prose. Christ 681 holds that they were " einf:\ch declamirt " ; 
VVilamowitz Timotheos 85 apparently thinks the same. 

1372. On the prohibition of marriage with half-sister born of 
same mother, though allowed with one born of same father, see 
J. (). Frazer Lectures on the Early Hist, of the A'///;,'.*//// (1905), 

245- 

1373. j^apdrrw : < ]). Sf)ph. /'////. 374 Kayut ^it\u>dt\'; €v6v<; y/purtiuv 
KUKOl<: I TOis iraiTiv. 

AKISKJI'llANKS — 22 



338 APPENDIX 

1374. ^vT€v9€v : from that time on: temporal also in E. 131, 
543, A. 528, 530, 535, 539. V. 125, P. 426, 922 {kvrtvB^v'i), R. 

154- 

1376. For the large use of Kat, etra, eTretra, KaTreira in plain 
tales by plain people, see 408 ff., V. 790-93, Av. 494-98 ; and 
the Gospel of Mark for long strings of Kat 's. 

1378. iS . . . tC <r' €tirw : at a loss for a name is also Demos. 18. 22, 

to . . . Ti' av £i7r;i')v (re Tts updui% TTpoatiTroi. So P. 520, Alex. 1 08. 4 

(K. 2. 334), Xen. /fe//. 2. 3. 47, Andoc. i. 129, Demos. Epist. 3. 

37- 

1379. TVTrTT|<rop,ai : only by violence can one maintain Blass's 
distinction (K.-Bl. 2. 585) between the true fut. pass, in -Orjaofxai, 
as an " Aktion der Vollendung," and a fut. mid. //^r^/ as pass., to 
express " Aktion der Dauer." Starkie lists the instances of such 
fut. mid. in Arist. on Vesp. 893. But dpaveva-irai E. 369, (.kkv- 
KXrja-Ofuu A. 408, Kakov/xcOa V. 544, and crrad firjaerai R. 797 may 
all be taken as causative middle and not passive. So rvTrTrja-ofjuii 
here \% I shall get myself a beating. In R. 817, ojxfxuTu oTpofiyjaeTai 
is merely he will roll his eyes. 

1380-90. Cp. these details of infant-nursing with those 
deemed proper to epic poetry, in //. 9. 488-91, and to tragedy in 
Aesch. Cho. 750-60. Are all three passages mock pathetic in 
varying degrees, or was such realism taken gravely in the grave 
poetry? In Arist., of course, there can be no doubt of the 
tone. 

1382. |i.4v Yc . . . S^ . . . Ss': in this scheme ye confirms the 
foregoing statement by citing instances (" asyndeton explicati- 
vum "). If only one instance is to be adduced, ye commonly ap- 
pears in the form -^ovv (ye ovv) or yap (y' apa), though sometimes 
alone, as in Av. 720. As here, so V. 564, Av. 1136, 1608, L. 589, 
720, Th. 804, R. 290, Ec. 60, PI. 665. See Frohberger-Gebauer's 
Lysias 13. 27 Anhang ; and on ye Neil's Equites, p. 192. 

1384. ovK €4>eTis <t>pa,o-ai: on the very rare inf (rather than 
partic.) c cftOdvoi, see K.-G. 2. 76 ; cp. the difference between 
inf and partic. with aiVxi'vo/xui. Since here the youngster was 



NOTES ON TEXT 339 

always anticipated, and never got to the act of " phrasing" at all, 
the inf. seems to be preferable. But many editors write <fipdaa<; ; 
and GMT. 903. 8 thinks the inf c. <f)ddv(D " more than doubtful." 
— On ovK (cf>6r]<; . . . Kut, see K.-G. 2. 65, and cp. Isoc. 4. 86, 5. 
53, 8. 98, 9. 53, iC. 37, 17. 23, 19. 22. 

1388. I^wt^-: a like pleonasm in Av. iio-j, ivSov iv-, Th. 265, 
and PI. 231 e'.ffw £10--, PI. 238 KctToj Kara-, etc. Bachmann Co/i- 
ject. Arist. 50. For a long list of redundancies see van Leeuwen 
on Th. 830. 

1392. -miSdv. b Ti\ i%i\. : the Engl, often supplies to see, know, 
etc.; cp. A. 361, V. 1424, Av. 121, PI. 678, and the kdv ttw^ type 
{in ease, fnaybe, perhaps^ in A. 1031, V. 271, 399, 1409, 15 15, 
R. 399, 644, 15 1 7, Ec. 107, 123, etc. GMT. 489, Sobol. Synt. 
48. 

1396. dXX.' ov5t : i.e. (not only at no high price) but tiot ei'cii. 
K.-G. 2. 287. Cp. Demos. 19. 37 uAA' 0118c fiiKpuv, 21. 114 dAA' 
oi'S' oTiovy, 25. 5, 43. 49, proem 48 dAA' oi'Se to fjiLKfjoTuTov; com- 
mon also in Lucian. 

1402. irpCv: c. inf, though the main clause is negative; so 
only thrice in Arist. (here, P. 307, Px. 589), while 54 other infin- 
itives are normal in following an affirmative clause. Sobol. Synt. 
156, GMT. 629, 62 7. 

1415. With this interruption of the recited tetrameters by a 
ridiculous spoken trimeter, compare R. 665, where the spoken 
trimeters give place to a bit of song, and Av. 864 or Th. 295, 
where prayers are offered in prose, and .\v. 1661, where a law of 
Solon is likewise given in prose. | 8oKtis : /" M////- n\'/it, to apf^rove, 
the personal Sokw being sometimes >ised in the same sense as the 
impersonal SoKti. (^n this see A. T. Murray in Class. Phil. 5 
(1910), 488 93. 

1427. ToXXa rd PotA: a duplication of the article is common 
with (lAAos. and indeed the rule, if an adj. or ])artir. be used as 
its substantive ; see V. 665, 939, L. 999, !•".<. 914, I'i. 996, Thuc. 
I. 90. 4, 6. 15. 2, etc. K.-G. I. 635. I TavTi : not always visible 
or present is the thing indicated by the demonstrat. ovroa-i Kock 



340 APPENDIX 

cites Pherecr. 145. 20, Menand. 462. 3, Metagen. 6. 5 (K. i. 706), 
where the things referred to are absent. 

1429. 4'i1<t>'<''K'°''r<'^ ■ E- ^3^3^ '^v- 1289, Ec. 812-22, frgg. 217, 
584 also touch on this mania for decrees. See Starkie's good note 
on Fes/>. 378. 

1431. Ttiv Koirpov : the ''Philosophy of Dirt" indeed ! 

1433. €t 8* \t.-f\ : used so much (and properly) after afifirmat. 
clauses in the sense othertvise, it came to be used, regardless of 
context, after negative clauses as well ; as here, so P. 384, Av. 133, 
R. 629, V. 435. Exx. after an afifirm. : E. 69, 1158, N. 1194, V. 
428, 972, 1444, P. 262, etc. So fixed it became in form that it 
was used where lav Sc /ai; would have stood, had the clause been 
written in full. GMT. 478, Sobol. Syni. 118. See also n. on 881 
for like petrifications. 

1449. pdpaOpov : opvy/xd tl iv KciptaSlv Sry/Aw t^s Oij/r/iSos <f>vXyj<i, 
ets o Toi)? CTTt Oavdriti KaTuyvwo-6ivTa<; ivefSuWov (Bekk. A need. 219. 
8). " The long ravine (now filled in) to the west of the Observa- 
tory is undoubte lly the ancient Barathron. ... It is partly artificial 
and is perhaps the oldest quarry used by the Athenians " (Bae- 
deker's Greeee^ 71). See E. 1362, R. 574, PI. 1109, Xen. Hell. 
I. 7. 20, Plat. Gorg. 516 d \ W. Judeich Topog7-aphie von A then 
(1905) 375. Cp. es Toi/ KataW Thuc. i. 134. 4 with Steup's 
note. 

1456. Tj-yop€\i€T€ : the Att. prose usage of this verb is carefully 
defined by Rutherford New Phrynicus 326. 

1458 ff. This is the Greek doctrine from Homer down : //. 19. 
137, Theogn. 403, Soph. Ant. 621, Tycurg. 92, Trag. Adesp. 296 
N.^ In both directions, ets koKo. r) et's k^ko., the gods helped those 
that helped themselves. Aesch. Pets. 742 dAA' orai/ a-rrcvB/] rt? 

1473. TovTovC : from Homer down, a contemptuous t/ii's or t/iat 
(I'ste) is ouTos, not oSc; V. 89, 210, R. 429. See Monro Horn. 
Gram. § 251, Rehdeutz Index Demos., K.-G. i. 644. On 
Meineke's suggestion tovtovC {i.e. .Socrates) adopted by Kock, see 
Sobol. Praepos. III. | Sivov : Kepufitovv fSudv ttotijplov, o KuktiTui 



NOTES ON TEXT 341 

Sivos oTTcp avto €vpvT€pov ttv KttToj ct's o^v XrjytL (schol. on 3S0) ; Athen. 
467 c/ <' (= Kock C(>;/i. Fragm. i. 720, 2. 427, 3. 276), 503 c {t6v 
if/vyea (koXovv ci ap)(uioL Sivov). For its supposed form see H. B. 
Walters J/is/. of Aiic. Pottery (1905) i. 173, Fowler and Wheeler 
Handbook of Grk. Archaeology (1909) 414 (No. 8). 

1474. ore: explains the exclamat. Cp. P. 196 t?; Ir], ore-, A. 
401, and see n. on 699 and 1158. 

1478 ff. So the statue of Hermes was consulted at Pherae in 
Achaea (Pausan. 7. 22. 2 f ). Cp. Plant. Menaech. 841-75 for like 
interview with Apollo, and Moliere Le malade imaginaire 2. 12 
where Argen consults his petit doigt. 

1482. SiuKaGw : used in V. 1203 and a few times in Plato, was 
probably obsolescent. See n. on d^wa^w 1323. 

1490. The l>urning of the followers of Pythagoras in the house 
of Milo in Croton took place after 440 B.C. and perhaps only 
shortly before the Clouds was produced, if indeed it was not still 
later. For this scene, as we learn from Hypoth. ft\ is due to the 
revision of the play, and the comic poets habitually seized on the 
freshest events at hand. See Polyb. 2. 39. i, Aristox. ap. Iambi. 
249, Zeller Phil, der Griechen i. i.* 336. 

1491. Tivd : when you darkly refer to your definite enemy as an 
indefinite ri?, the thing is ominous. Cp. R. 552, 606, 628, 664, 
PI. 382. 

1492. K€l o-<|>66pa : V. 1333 x-fx (T<f)6Sp' el viuvuk;. Cp. cl w<i 
fiaXuTTa or oTi iMoXuTTu L. 146, Antiphon 5. 27, 5. 62, Lysias 22. i, 
22. 10, Plato Euthyph. 4 d, 9 c. On concessive clauses in Arist. 
see Sobol. Synt. 55 ff, 115. 

1499. tovt" avri : "just that it is that I do want." So tovt' uvto 
\w E. 779, ih. Si, I'I. 38, 340, 414, Tarr' aura L. 46, 888, «iV6 
Torro N. 1038, R. 75. After this colhjcation ydp (as here) or 
ydpToi often follows; and after tliis again kul with the verb ; rp. E. 
180, L. 46, Th. 81, R. 73, frg. 488. 9. Xcn. Afem. 3. 5. 19, Eur, 
Androm. 906, Soph. 7>. 600. l-'or this Ktti which emphasizes the 
verb as does our auxiliary do or am (e.g. " I am reading "), see n. 
on 778 and 906. 



342 APPENDIX 

1506 f. See n. on 201. | t£ -ydp |iae6vT€s : n. on 402. It is an 
idiom of the (ireek showing correct logical feeling which asks the 
reason for a fact in this subordinated participial form and sets 
forth the important thing, viz. the fact itself, in the indie. ; so in 
the stereotyped questions tl /jmOwv, tl tto^wv (340 n.\ and in 
others such as E. 342, 351, 1209, 1320, Av. 112, 407; K.-G. 2. 
100 f. 

1508. 8(wK€, pa\\€ : cp. A. 281, E. 251, V. 456, Av. 365, Eur. 
/?/ies. 675, 685. 

151 1. TO 7€ TTJiicpov : cp. V. 833 TO yc irapavTiKa, P. 856 to. vvv, 
Ec. 823 TO 8' (.vay)(o<i. K.-G. I. 315 and 595. 



GREEK INDEX 



(The figures refer to the notes in the Appendix, as numbered by the verses of the 
play. References to tlie text-notes are marked t.) 



a.yo.v used as adj. 1120. 

d-yoptvoi Att. prose usage 1456, 

d-YopT)TT|s play on 1057. 

d^ptios 655. 

dc( c. comparat. 1288. 

-oXjia verbs in 509. 

-d9« verbs in 1323, 

-ai elided 7. 

al^i 102. 

dX^KTcup 666. 

dXtiBcs .S41. 

dXXd begins quest. 827; c. imv. 1364; 



dva-ypv^o) 945. 
dva(po|xai, 981. 
dva^ 264. 
'Avairvof| 627. 
dv(i|i,i rhetorical use 1058. 
dvTJp = vir 823; = one {rls) 1214. 
dvOpaKcs 97. 

dv9pwir«v c. superlat. no. 
dvrC after dXXos = ^ 653; = in ex- 
change for 338; dv6 tiv 338, 623. 
dvvo-as c. imv. 181. 
dvo) (t€ Kttl) Kdro) 616. 



in quick successicjn 127; = at least \ -a^, substantives in 1367. 



1364. 
dXXd . . . ^dp 798. 
dXX' tJ intern )g. 483. 
dXX' Tj = nisi 361. 
dXX' o^us 631. 
dXX' ou8^ 1.596. 
dXX' ovv . . . Cy€) 985. 



a|ios c. dat. 474. 

dir' ovov 1273. 

•AiriXXcov (fid tov 'A.) 732. 

diropu c. ace. 743. 

dpa (ravT dpa) 319. 

apa = dpa 1301. 

apd 7€ 465, 



dXXd: |xd Ai' d. 204; (it] d. 204; vt] dp-yaX^os 450. 



TOV AC' d. '152; ovK d. 204. 
dXXos dvrC ~ d. ^ 653. 
dXXo Ti . . . oi 423. 
dXX(i>s as adj. 1203. 
dX4>iTa I of). 
d)jiX(i 422. 
av iterative 54; repeated 1056; c. 

inf. li;r); Tis dv, irus dv 729; 

OTTWS dv -}},'). 
dwd-yKT) as deity 376. 



dp|iovCa 968. 
dpirdl^u c. gen. pcrs. 982. 
do-Kov 8«(pu Tivd 442. 
«]Ur(iaTOKd(nrTai 333. 
d<rTpovop.(a 20I. 
arra ((30. 
av0i$ 670. 
a«T€ 595. 

avrds - o oktttAttjs 219; avry ( ois) 
= and all 1302. 



343 



344 



GREEK INDEX 



avTOv = creavTov 960. 
aif>vKTOS 1047. 

pdpaOpov 1449. 
pXe'-TTOs pXt'iru 1 1 76. 
pXi.TO)i.dfi|ji,as looi. 
poXPoi 188. 
P60-KU) 331. 
Ppev6vop.ai 362. 

•ydp, adv., in quest. 19I; •ydp . . . 

dpa 1359. 
•ydpTOi 365, 1499. 
7a<rTT|p = haggis 409. 
■yt function and position 126, 1382; 

in subord." clause 108; in 70O1/, 70/) 

440; -ye TOi 327; -^i Toi Brj 372; 

8« -ye 169; p.€v -ye 1 172; eiirep . . . 

7« 251. 
-yvw|iai 317; YV(0|tT]s diroircipdo-Oai, 

477- 

8a( 491. 

8ai.p,ovi(os 76. 

SdKVb) 6v|i6v 1369. 

St "ye 169. 

%\ 8t| 1 1 78. 

8' ovv = anyhow 343 ; c. imv. 39. 

8€ivd 'Troieiv)(8€i,vd troicio-Oai 388. 

8t| c. imv. 90. 

8'f|irov 369. 

8fiTa in quest. 399, 729; strange use 

of 1058. 
8id Ti, variations on 755; 81* TipiCpas 

1053- 
8iaip€o-is philosophic 742. 
81KT], 8CKaiov 1292. 
8ivTi 380. 
8ivos 1473. 

-8i({>da> compds. of 192. 
8iuKd6u> 1482. 



8oKu> personal = I think right 1415; 
8oKiio-(t> 562. 

ea 932. 

cavTOv predic. posit. 515; — ffeavrod 
960. 

eYKViTTw) (dvaKviTTw 191. 

iyo> emphat. at verse-end 4 ; ^y** 
ovToo-i 14!. 

iQiXia) (di\o> 801. 

el c. fut. indie. 443; c. indic.)(€dvc. 
subjv. 1 152; = supposing 749; cl 
. . . Y€ 108; A 8€ (iT| 1433; A (t^ 
irt'p -yt 1 183; €l 0-<{>68pa 1492; in 
condit. of statement, not of fact 
1274. 

€)!6e 41. 

€l'XX« (tXXw) 761. 

€l'|a<ri 341 ; el'^eis lOOI. 

sl-irep c. ellipse of verb 227; cCircp . . . 
Y« 251. 

€ls of purpose 269; temporal 562; c. 
gen. 508; TO 8tov 859; rds upas 
562; TTiv K€<|>aXTiv 40; Tdpxaiov 

593- 
tlra in quest. 259; in plain narrat. 

1376; after partic. 386, 860. 
«K, 6 €K- 1065; c. gen. (jf. okioj) 508. 
«K€tvos = the famous l8o. 

tKKOITTW 24. 

cXkw K6p8aKa 540. 

€v c. gen. 508; 8(ki] 1332; wp<j 

1 1 17. 
Ivri 1 1 34/. 

6V-1])l,)Jl«V0S 72. 

€VTav9oi = ivrnvOa 814. 

€VT£(VW 968. 

€VT£\i0ev temporal 1374. 
«! oTOv temporal 528. 
c^apdTTu 1373. 
c^oXXvfjiai 1 136. 



GREEK INDEX 



345 



liraKoii«i»)(viraK. 263. 

eirci causal 20S. 

circira in quest. 226; in simple nar- 

rat. 1376; after partic. 386. 
eirC c. ace. of purpose 256; to P«'Xtiov 

589 ; c. dat., cause or occasion 1 205 ; 

c. dat. = after 480; in composit. 

ii47« 575'- 
eiridXXu) 1299. 

€in.pdXXcu X*^P*> e^uiv. phrases 933. 
iirio-xts 1047. 
tiriTi6T|pii, ritual use 426. 
tiros ~ verse 541. 
cp'yov (o-ov €.) 1345. 
€s KopaKas 123; XoYov tXOtiv 470. 
tTcov 35. 
€v6t» c. gen. 162. 
(u4>T]|i€iv 263. 
ixuc.adv. 522; "i^^mv — keep on 131. 

fj intens. and interrog. 483 ; r\ (itjv 

865; Ti irow 483. 
-■ij (= -eo) adjs. in 268. 
tiSt) (irigin <>f 778; 1^811 iroW 346. 
•i]Ki<rT' dXXd 204. 
V -n-ov 535. 
t)v(k' av 1 1 24. 
ilo-6t]v aor. = pros. 174. 

8appu>v I . imv. 141. 
6avp.d|^u. to honour II47. 
etXu V)i. 

0ovpiop.dvTtis 332. 
6u(i6v SdKvw 1369. 

-(as substantives in 23. 

-idw vcrlis in 183. 

tSoi various ascs of 82. 

-ik6i limits r>f usage 186; in rhetoric 

1172,483/. 
iXXt* (?; itXXw 761. 



lov)(tovi 1 1 70. 
lirirtls 1 20. 

-IS substantives in 450. 
to-0' OTi =: adv. 39. 

Ka( in simple narrat. 1376; crescendo 
413; before verb 840, 1499; in 
cjuest. Ka\ irow 2IO. 

Kol SVj 778, 906. 

Kttl €l 1492. 

Kal p.dXa 1326. 

Kal p.T|v 1036. 

Ka-ircira in narrat. 1376; after partic. 

386; in (jutst. 226. 
Kt^Ta after partic. 386; in quest. 

259- 
Ka(TOi -y* 876. 
KaKOS KaKus 554. 
KdKucris -yov€ta>v 1 324. 
KaXoC T€ Kd-yaOoC loi. 
Kap,irT| ill music 969. 
Kara = lia 158; distributive 1263; 

in composition 857; t( 239; 8dK- 

TvXov 651 /, 967 ; cvdirXiov 651, 

967. 
K^tn-puv 450. 
KC^aXi]v (els TT^v) 40. 
KixX(t« 983- 
xXdo) 58. 
-kX^t)s contraction of 70. 

KoXoKVVTT|S 327. 

Kdp.T]v «'xo> 14. 
KdpaKas (is k.) 123, 789. 
K6p8a| 540. 
Kp«p.d9pa 218. 
KpT|p.voTroi6s 1367. 
Kpivop.ai, to tiispute, 66. 

KU^T|TT|S 965. 

XaK^w 410. 
Xf|(ia 457. 



346 



GREEK INDEX 



\iirap6s of Attica 300. 
\670v (€s X.. eXOtiv) 470. 
Xovcd inflection 838. 

fid Ai' ttXXd 204. 
(idX' aviOis 670. 
fxaXXd ((IT] d. ) 204, 
Me-yaKXris 46. 
|xeXXa> imperf. of 130 1. 
(jL€'(ivT|(ro oir(os 887. 
(i€v -yt 1 172, 1382. 
(i€v ovv 71. 

(AtVTOl 1269. 

-p.c(r6a 576, 

(le'crov t\f)i Tiva 1047. 

(j.€T£a)po4)€vaK€s 332. 

(IT) without verb: ' (loC y( 84; dXXd 

204. 

(XTJ . . . (ITjTt 415. 

(jir|XoX6v9Ti 763. 
(iTjirw -ye no verb 1 96. 
(jiiXa^ 1007. 

(xvTjo-iKaKElv synt. of 999. 
(iftiv 315. 

va( in entreaty 784. 
vTj Tov Ai' dXXd 652. 

VTjTTlOS 105. 

vT^irvTios 868. 

^vv 580. 

|uv(i)pi.Kcvo(iai 15. 
^u<rTis 70. 

-oiaTO 1 199. 

ot^vpos 655. 

otfi' elided 773. 

ol(ia)^€O-0£ 217. 

olos causal 1 158; exclamat. 699; = 

(1)5 1 207. 
6X(yov 722. 



b(i,(i>s yi C'Tjv, yi (icvtoi, 8c, dXX 0(i. 

drdp 0(1., 8' 0(1. 631. 
ovov (dir') 1273. 

OVTCtfS 86. 

OTTojs c. fut. indie. 257; temporal 60; 

dv 739; after fi^/xvrjfjLai 887. 
opds parenthetic 355. 
opOws 228. 

OS concessive 579; quasi-causal 1226. 
00-ov (-a) c. intin. 434; yi (i* «l8€vai 

1252. 
oo-Tis concessive 579; causal 11 58; i^ 

OTou stnc/^ 528. 
0T€ causal 7; explicat. 1474. 
oTiT) t£ 755. 
ovK dXXd 204; dv no verb 5; -YOp 

dXXd 232; 8T|'irov in quest. 369, 

1260; €0-9' o-n-ws (ov) 802; (id At' 

ov 1066; (iT| c. aor. subjv. 296. 
ovKovv c. fut. indie. = imv. 1253. 
ovvcKa = as for 420. 
own irow 1 260. 
ouTOi 814. 
ovTOs in address 723; in contempt 

'473; = there, here 723. 
owToo-C object not present 1427; when 

with no article 60; c. \yi> 141. 

OVTCl) 294; OWTW . . . 0>S 520. 

irai (w) 18. 

iraiSiov 132. 

irdXai c. imperf. 1036; iroTt 1 31 2. 

7raXa(ido(iai 1 76. 

irdvTws 1352. 

irapd = beside, except 698; in com- 

posit. 553, 640. 
ird<rT] T€XVT| 885. 
irdo-x<<> = iroL^w 234; tC irdOw 798; 

tI iraOtov 340. 
ircpi c. ace. = erj^a 994; anastrophe 

TT^pi 957; in composit. c. nouns 447. 



GREEK INDEX 



347 



ircpiopu c. partic. omitted 124. 

irXtiv ■q 1 04 1. 

irXciwv forms of 1295. 

ir\€ov irXtov 1288. 

irXT)v f\ (cl) 361. 

irviY€vs 96. 

IIvi'YOs 562. 

iroios scornful quest. 247. 

-iroiu) 8«ivd 3SS. 

■Tro\€(jii<rTT|pia 28. 

TToXlS — dKpOTToXlS 69. 

iroXXov 915. 

•7ro\vTiflT|TOS 269. 

irop8T| 394. 

ir6Tfpa (-ov) no alternative expressed 

203. 
irplv c. inf. 1 402. 

■n-po ToO 5 /. (654, 913. 1291, etc.). 
Trpos c. gen. (tCiv Oeuiv) 2CX); 

c. gen, of agent 11 22; c. ace. 

(t6v a^pa) 198; TavTa 990; in 

loose compounds 1256; as adverb 

1256. 
irpocrcifii 588. 
irpoa-Btv 779. 
irpoTt'vBai 1 198. 
TTwi av tragic wish 729; SoKti; 

88 1. 

p initial 344. 
prijidTia 943. 

■triiM vcrhs in 295. 
2<XT]vaii) Ionic 614. 
o-T(ip,4>a( I 367. 
<r\» 6 ouv 39. 
«rvv 5 So. 
irxiv8dXa)i.of 130. 

TOV 12(>-J. 

Topa, not rapa, 1 1 54. 



TavT dpa 319; CKCiva 985; airavro 

T. 1037. 
ravrC of things absent 1427. 
re " solitarium " ^;i^. 
-T«a verbals in 727, 
TeTp€|jLa(vw 294. 

T€TTi| ornament 984; myth of 1360. 
i-qXot) ?"uripidean 138. 
t( 8ai 491; 8' aXXo y f\ 1287; 8fiT' 

dv 154; (laOuv 402; ov 131. 174; 

irdOw 798; iraOiiv 340; otit] ti 

755; TO Ti 74S; TOV gen. exchange 

22. 
t£s av tragic wish (?) 729. 
tIs c. definite reference 1491. 
t6t€ 1 21 5. 
TOVTO preparatory 215; resumptive 

355; avTO 1499; tKtivo 985; €0-Tl 

. . . to\it£ 26. 
TpiP<i>v 868. 

TVVVOVTOS 392. 

vaXos 768. 

virt'p lit place of 839. 

(|>ao-iavds 109. 

^kXXcvs 71. 

<|>«p« in (|ucst. 218; c. subjv. 73I; 

l'8o> 21. 
({>6dvu (. inf. 1384. 
(|>0((pu ( (impounds of 789. 
4)p«'v«s 153. 
4)povTi<rTf|$ 101,456. 
4>pou&09 71S. 

4>uXXo^x^u 1007. 

Xaip« in letters 609. 
)(apfC(rai in pr.ivcrs 274. 
X<ip' ^iri^dXXw '; \\. 
XP*|jui I . \^'r\. 2. 
Xpowtti (t«{.x) 66. 



348 

i^vXT) theories of 94. 



GREEK INDEX 



2> omitted when 18; rdv 1267; w. 

S> 412. 
-to8T|s adjs. in 363. 
-<ov substantives in 450. 
(ovOptoirc 644. 



cipoL (ev o).) 1117 ; upas (tls rds) 

_ 562. 

a»s temporal 551; funct. of 209; = 

0101* 1207. 
«o-ir«p 1 276. 
oicrvipei 1358. 
ci<rT« synt. II51; = f<p' (^re 1235. 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Abstract for concrete 447 ; plurals of 

832. 
Academy icx35. 
Accusative, inner 319. 
Adjective = Kngl. adverb 723. 
Adverb, colloc|uial use 76; = adj. 

1120,1203; c. article 1511; c txw 

522. 
Adverbial phrases, without article 923. 

See Parenthetic I'lirases. 
Agon, list <jf d7u;>'fs in Arist. 949. 
Alliteration 6. See Souml-play. 
Amphictyonic League 624. 
Amynias 686. 
Ana<liplosis 1066. 
Anastrophe of prepos. 957. 
AorLst, sense of 17,1; gnomic, occur- 
rences of 350; c. ifSi] {TTori) 346; 

in tI oil (juest. 131. 
Article c. gen. partitive 59; c. ex- 

clamat. inf. 268; c. adverbs 15IJ; 

duplicated I427. 
Article omitted : c. ovroal 60; xp(>i"^ 

66; ir^Xis, Minil. 69; pusscss. prun. 

in lyric 474; adv. phrases 923. 
Attracti4>n uf case of dot (ir. iarl) 

Houphonia 984. 

Care in us 1261 

Cau.Hal clauses, ^ir«( 20S; gen. after 



exclamat. 153; 0X0% 699, 11 58; Ss 
1226; Sorts 1 158; Sre 7; ws 209. 

Chaerephon 104. 

Chikl-naming 65. 

Cleisthenes 355 

Cleonymus 353, 680. 

Cloak-stealing I'Q. 

Cocks, fighting 889. 

Conditional clauses 1274; in parataxis 
1076. 

Crasis of -01 1205. 

Crius 1356. 

Cronus, Cronia 398, 

Dative, local, in lyric 272. 
Diaeresis: i>{ fx^rpa 13; itemizing 50; 

neglected 892, 987. 
Diagoras 830. 
Diasia 408. 
Diminutives, tone of 80 ; iraiSlov 

«32. 
Diugenes of Apullunia 228, 380, 627. 
Dipolia 984. 

Ditliyranil), cninpnuiiil wnrds of ]j^^. 
Dramas, bisectecl 791. 
i)ress, fuor/s 70; r^TTiyet 984; 

TpLfiwv 868. 

Elision of -at 7; of -ot 773; betwi<n 

two speakers 214. 
Ellipse : of clause 1392; /xdf'o 507; 

ir\ri;i.% 972; paitic. after irepiopui 



M9 



350 



ENGLISH INDEX 



124; verb after etirtp, Scttis, Scnrep 
227; verb after yu^ 84; verb after 
oiiK dj* 5; tI dfJTa 154. 

Ethopoeia in Strepsiades' speech 35. 

Eupolidean metre 518. 

Eupolis 553. 

Euripides parodied 30, 138 (?), 176 



(?), 718 /, 891 t, 1 1 54, 
1260 (?), 1397/, 141 5 /. 



116; 



Fighting cocks 889. 

Formation of words. See Word- 
formation. 

Fuller's work 870. 

Future, durative and aoristic disting. 
1 125. 

Future indie, c. el 443; c. Sirws 257; 
in quest. = imv. 633; in quest, c. 
oijKovv 1253; = imv. 811. 

Future pass, and mid. disting. 1379. 

Game-cocks 889. 

Gender 659. 

Genitive : apposit. to possess, pron. 

1202; causal after exclamat. 153; 

of exchange or price 22; partitive 

59; TrarptKTj 65; c. apird^w 982; c. 

■jTphs 200; c. eh, iv 508; 6\lyov 

722; TToXXoC 915. 
Gnomic aorist 350; perfect 350. 

Hermippus 557. 
Hippocrates looi. 
Homoioteleuton 71 1. 
Hyperbolus 551. 

Iambic trimeter, equal bisection of 16; 

how delivered 1371. 
Illusion of play broken 326. 
Imperative, equiv. of 257. 
Imprecations 1156. 



Incorporation of anteced. into relat. 
clause 599, 

Infinitive: after Scrov 434, 1252; de- 
pendent on subst. 260; exclamatory 
268; = imv. 850 (433?). 

Kedeides 985. 

Lampon 332. 
Leogoras 1 09. 

Markets, how named 1065. 

Megacles 46, 815. 

Melesias 686. 

Metre: equal bisection of 16, 51; Eu- 
polidean 518; tribrach, division of 
817; resolutions 575, 845, 916, 
1047; character 1034, 711, 794; 
/car' iv6ir\iov 65 1 i,, 967; Kara 8dK- 
TvXov 651 A, 967. See Diaeresis, 
Prosody. 

Mute and liquid 320. 

Naming children 65; markets 1065. 
Nominative = vocat. 265 ; exclamat. 

1 168. 
Number, change of 988. 

Optative in -oi'aTO 1 199. 

Order of Words. See Word-order. 

Panathenaea 386. 

Parabasis, examples of in Arist. 510. 

Parataxis of condition 1076. 

Parenthetic phrases 39, 355, 881. 

Parody : of dithyramb 335 ; Euripi- 
des, see Eurip.; Licymnius 1264 /; 
Sophocles 583; Terpander 595; 
tragic style 41, no, 1468 / ; rhetors 
483, 728/. See also 153, 176, 
474- 



ENGLISH INDEX 



351 



Participle: asks the quest. 1506; has 
value of substantive 124I; followed 
by eira, etc. 386; omitted after 
irtpiopCj 124; dviiffas 181; exwi/ 131; 
dappQv 141. 

Peleus 1064. 

Perfect tense, gnomic 350. 

Phallus in religion and comedy, In- 
trod. § 95 n. 

Philoxenus 686. 

Phrynicus comicus 556. 

Phrynis 971. 

Pleonasm 1388, 

Plural and sing., change of 988. 

Pnigos (7ri'£7os) 562. 

Position, length by 320. 

Preposition, anastroph"^ 0^957- 

Present tense in ri ov quest. 131. 

Prodicus 361. 

Prolepsis 479, 1 1 15. 

Pronoun, when emphat. 4; when un- 
emphat. 39, 257; av 5' dWd 1364. 
See iavTov. 

Prosody, correption 392; initial p 
344; ol^vp6s 655; syllaha anceps 
1306; syllable long l)y piisiiion 320; 
synizesis 932. 

Protagoras 112,659. 

Purpose, ivi c. ace. 256; els 269. 

Pyrrhic dance 988. 

<jueslion, indirect 214; c. firfira 226; 
C. e?To 259; c. Kal 210; c. Ki-rreiTa 
226; c.wotot 247; c. (p^pe 218; in 
participle 1506. 

Readings reported 35, 146, 296, 332, 
377. 384. 404, 530, 575. 577' 681, 
797, 800, 880, 995, 1030, 1 1 19. 1 137. 

Relative clauses, function of 209, 
699, 1 158; causal 1 158. 



Relative pron. c. vague anteced. 1226. 
Resolution of feet. See Metre. 
Rime 711. 

.Scenery: see initial text-note; change 
of 183, 183 /. 

Science and Theory of Being (to cij') 
86; Soul ('^I'X''?) 94! S-vOpwiroi like 
6.vdpaK€s 94 if. i ', Respiration 627; 
Nous 228; Clouds 371; Thunder 
376; Lightning 376, 404; Earth 
and Air 264; Matter indestructible 
1292; Vortex origin of world 380; 
Sound 158: Sun draws water 1279. 

Singular: interchange of with plural 
988; in collective sense 11 19, 11 27. 

Socrates, no sophist 98; no astrono- 
mer 170; called <ppovTL(rTr)s loi; 
thought a scientist 1 88; as mid- 
wife 137; his gait and glance 362; 
his real character 415. 

Sound-play: alliteration 6; honioio- 
teleuton 71 1; KaKbs . . . KaKws 
554; KeXadrifxara . . . KeXdSovra 
283; ev(f>palvr]<rd€ . . . fv (ppovetv 
561 i. 

Syllable, long by position 320. 

.Symposiac singing 1355, 1357. 

Syni/.esis 932. See Prosody. 

Telephus 922. 

Tense. See Present, Aorist, etc. 

Theorus 400. 

Tmesis 792. 

Trimeter. See Iambic Trimeter. 

Trophonius, oracle of 50S. 

Verbals in -T^a 727. 

Verbs in -dfw 509; -6.du 1323; -idw 
183; -atlu) 295; omitted, see El- 
lipse. 



352 



ENGLISH INDEX 



Vocative exclamat. 219; before con- 
junct. 652; t3, omitted when 18. 

Word-formation, pres. reduplic. 294; 
adj. in -ik6s 186, 1172; in -ui5ijs 
364; subst. in -a^ 1367; -rj (-^a) 
268; -las 23; -IS 450; -iov 450; 
verbs, see Verbs. 

Word-order: attribut. matter in predic. 
posit. 1055; tivIk Slv fixed 11 24; 
oaths before conjunct. 1228 t ; 



prepos. betvpeen adj. and subst. 
580; reflex, pron. in predic. posit, 
515; Toi^Tou possess, in predic. posit. 
592; unemphatic personal pron. 
near head 257; vocat. before con- 
junct. 652. 
Word-play (Verborum lusus) 1057, 
1273- 

Xenocles 1261. 



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